Система Orphus

Religious Vocabulary
texts by students

* graduation year

(Part 2 is here)

Условные обозначения:
  • CAPITALS: active vocabulary words and collocations students have used
  • Underline: elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Underline and Delete: superfluous erroneous elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Italics: where appropriate, elements which explain the corrected mistakes
  • Dotted underline: elements not graded for various reasons (e.g. dubious or erroneous statements, vague in meaning).
  • [numbers in brackets]: grades students have accumulated by the time of this post (include grades for word tests)
  • [(number in parenthesis inside the brackets)]: grades the student has received for this particular post
  • [underlined numbers in brackets]: mid-term grades (include grades for word tests, class attendance, posts, as well as deductions in fines)
  • [numbers in brackets in bold type]: total number of grades students have accumulated throughout the semester (continuous assessment)

3rd year of study: Autumn 2019

My religious life in Nottingham was different from that one I used to have in Russia and there were several reasons behind it. Firstly, I was in a different country which means the culture and traditions were different. There, Orthodoxy is not the main religion, by contrast with Russia. Thus, an Orthodox church in England is always a small island where a small number of devoted believers gather. Secondly, there I lived frugally. Thankfully, I had a man who would always give me a lift to the church. The fact that I was depending on him brought a difference to my usual religious life. I could not decide when I wanted to come to the service, instead, I would always arrive at the time I didn’t use to in the motherland. Usually, I arrived before the worship even began.
I was coming early and observed how father Gregory (a local priest) arranges everything before the service. Once they were redecorating the church and everything was covered with protection films, so that the paint would not spoil the furniture. Despite the fact the redecoration process was not over yet, we uncovered everything and father Gregory carried out a celebration. It helped me to understand the meaning of service. It is something to be done every Sunday, no matter what, even if the environment is unfavourable.
Being in a different culture was also very interesting and brought some difference to my habitual religious life. The fact that the United Kingdom is not a place where Orthodoxy is the dominant religion, which it happens to be in Russia, determined the background of the people gathering in the church. There were both nationalities: the Slavonic and the British.
I may be mistaken, but from I could make out, not all the Slavs there were very religious. Why would they come to church then? I think the answer is that they are migrants. They are taken out of their habitual surroundings and placed in a different country. I guess they miss the past and the Russian church here can be a reminder of it. So they come to church not for the sake of religion. It allows them to feel at home only for a brief moment.
Interestingly, with the British people it is quite the opposite. From what I can make out, there the people who choose to attend Orthodox worship must base their decision on something. To my mind, in Russia, by contrast, many people go to church simply by inertia. However, in Nottingham, to find your way to a single Orthodox church in the city, one has to have some serious reasons behind it.
Also, it was an interesting experience to visit a service, which took place in Westminster Abbey. Primarily I went there because it was a perfect and only possible for me way to see, what that famous temple (a part of it, to be precise) looked like inside. The ticket cost 20 pounds and I couldn’t afford it. I got up at 6.30 am and took the subway. It turned out that the Orthodox service and the Anglican one are different.
The first one is more like a dramatic performance. It is a play with many rites, which actualize the events from the Gospel.
The Anglican, on the other hand, reminded me of a lecture, which students attend to revise the material. Everybody was holding the papers with the text of the worship, in which Anglican dogmas were being postulated, and the attendants were reading them along with the priest, who “gave a lecture”.
In contrast with the Orthodox, the Anglican service is quite monotonous. In that one I’m used to, it usually happens a lot during the worship. Of course, the difference can be attributed to the fact that in my country I visited a regular church, whereas in England I attended the Abbey that is a famous tourist spot apart from being a place for services.

А.В. [(64) 102]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree with the statement of Righteous John just partly.
I think it’s better to read more of the Gospel and the writings of the Holy Fathers if you tend to spend a lot of time reading newspapers and magazines. It’s not as if they can do some sort of a special spiritual harm to you. My point is that the inclination for doing such an activity denotes that you already have spiritual problems. Instead of doing something that will benefit other people later, you waste your time on unnecessary compulsive reading.
Also, the fact you read newspaper articles may signal that you are afraid to be alone. You use the reading to simply put something in your mind, to take your mind off loneliness and consequential anxiety. It is a spiritual problem and the Holy writings can definitely help you here.
The point I’m not sharing is that it would be sinful for one to read secular writings when he doesn't read spiritual. To my mind, it is a matter of attitude and it will work differently with different people.

А.В. [(4) 38]

1. In the Orthodox tradition there are no monastic ORDERS, such as, for example, THE CARTHUSIAN or THE CISTERCIAN with Catholics, although every Orthodox monk belongs to a MONASTIC HOUSE.
2. An elder is in some cases A LAY MONK who possesses a gift of SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT: no ORDINATION is needed for the work of ELDERSHIP; such people are simply guided by THE DIRECT INSPIRATION OF THE SPIRIT.
3. The Emperor who was at the heart of THE CHRISTIAN POLITY OF BYZANTIUM, was counted as VICEGERENT OF GOD and has a special role in the liturgy: he wasn’t allowed to CELEBRATE THE EUCHARIST, but he did RECEIVE COMMUNION “AS PRIESTS DO”, he did PREACH SERMONS, and sometimes he CENSED THE ALTAR.
4. IT IS NOT JUST to say there was CAESARO-PAPISM in Byzantium: THE PRIESTHOOD and THE IMPERIAL POWER were two different systems.
5. Usually a part of an elder’s life is a LIFE OF STRICT ENCLOSURE in a CELL, accompanied by SOLITUDE and WITHDRAWAL from the society.

А.В. [(10,5) 34]

1. MYSTICAL THEOLOGY, the fundamental ideas of which were worked out by ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA and CLEMENT, and later developed by THE CAPPADOCIANS, is sure to help one to understand THE HESYCHAST CONTROVERSY.
2. Although the paper agreement to recognize THE PAPAL CLAIMS was reached at the reunion council at LYONS, it wasn’t the real acceptance: the majority of CLERGY AND LAITY of the other churches refused to agree. Michael’s SUCCESSOR repudiated that council, and Michael himself was convicted of “APOSTASY” and was deprived of CHRISTIAN BURIAL.
4. At the time of RELIGIOUS REVIVAL, Byzantium lived in A PATRISTIC ATMOSPHERE, whereas the Western Europe turned to SCHOLASTICISM.
5. APOPHATIC THEOLOGY tries to define God through negations.

А.В. [(7,5) 23,5]

1. THOMAS AQUINAS in the SUMMA numerously quoted the works which were attributed to SAINT DIONYSIUS THE AREOPAGITE and which were commented on by SAINT MAXIMUS THE CONFESSOR.
2. Trying to describe GOD’S TRANSCENDENCE, John of Damascus wrote that ‘God is INFINITE and INCOMPEHENSIBLE’, and we are able only to remember about His INFINITY AND INCOMPREHENSIBILITY.
3. By contrast with ORIGEN, who was deeply influenced by PLATONISM in his works and counted the body as a negative component of a human in the process of REDEMPTION and DEIFICATION, in an ASCETIC writing known as Macarian HOMILIES, the balance between intellect and body was REDRESSED.
4. The hesychast writers stated that during the process of INNER RECOLLECTION and prayer, one can reach an IMMEDIATE EXPERIENCE of the UNAPPROACHABLE God, which created a contradiction: how can God be KNOWABLE and UNKNOWABLE at the same time?

А.В. [(10) 16]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree with Archbishop Averky’s statement.
As I see it, the spiritual life is a constant process of improving yourself on the way to God. To start, you need to realize your initial position. You can achieve it only through concentration and honest analysis of your faults and mistakes. It is always hard to admit your wrongs, instead, many people choose simply to not think of it. They can easily do it, as there are many distracters. By means of them, you can still feel occupied and don’t need to face yourself, your real feelings.
To my mind, the question of contemplating your inner state is the question of standing up to your fears, which most of the people have plenty of. If you are strong enough, you will be able to stop escaping to the world of amusement and ‘busyness’.

А.В. [(5) 6]

MONASTICISM in Christianity, which provides the origins of the words "monk" and "monastery", comprises several diverse forms of religious living.
Since the spread of CHRISTIANITY from the Levant to Europe and North Africa during the early Roman Empire, Christendom has been divided in the pre-existing Greek East and Latin West.
Still, there has been a lot written lately about the benefits of the SOLITARY LIFE, or at least one with sufficient solitary time.
Personal assistance fosters inclusion by supporting persons with disabilities to participate fully in COMMUNITY LIFE.
PALESTINE was conquered by the Islamic Caliphate, beginning in 634 CE.
The most common source of information for the life of JOHN OF DAMASCUS is a work attributed to one John of Jerusalem, identified therein as the Patriarch of Jerusalem.
Mount ATHOS has been inhabited since ancient times and is known for its nearly 1,800-year continuous Christian presence and its long historical monastic traditions.
The name CARTHUSIAN is derived from the Chartreuse Mountains in the French Alps: Saint Bruno built his first hermitage in a valley of these mountains.
The keynote of CISTERCIAN life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict.
DISCERNMENT can describe the process of determining God's desire in a situation or for one's life or identifying the true nature of a thing, such as discerning whether a thing is good, evil, or may even transcend the limiting notion of duality.
In early Western monasticism, there was no distinction between LAY and CHOIR religious.
The Greek term BYZANTIUM (or Byzantion) continued to be used as a name of Constantinople during the Byzantine Empire, even though it only referred to the empire's capital.
Before CENSING THE ALTAR, the incense is blessed by the appropriate prayer.
In its extreme form, CAESAROPAPISM is a political theory in which the head of state, notably the emperor ("Caesar", by extension a "superior" king), is also the supreme head of the church (pope or analogous religious leader).
Catholic priests are ordained by bishops through the sacrament of HOLY ORDERS.
Because of his restoration activities, JUSTINIAN has sometimes been known as the "Last Roman" in mid 20th century historiography.
Islam completely rejects the doctrine of the INCARNATION of God in any form, as the concept is defined as shirk.
The EDICT OF MILAN was a letter signed by the Roman emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire.
In the 19th century, PAGANISM was adopted as a self-descriptor by members of various artistic groups inspired by the ancient world.
Starting with the THIRD ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, noteworthy schisms led to non-participation by some members of what had previously been considered a single Christian Church.
EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA also known as Eusebius Pamphili, was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist.
Three PATRIARCHATES were established by the apostles as apostolic sees in the 1st century: Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria.
The doctrine of the TRINITY was first formulated among the fathers of the Church as early Christians attempted to understand the relationship between Jesus and God in their scriptural documents and prior traditions.
The human person fell into the slavery of sin and required REDEMPTION in order to liberate him from this slavery.
SALVATION, or "being saved," therefore, refers to this process of being saved from death and corruption and the fate of hell.
The COUNCIL OF NICAEA (325), passed twenty disciplinary canons for the better government of the Church.
SAINT ATHANASIUS was a Christian theologian, a Church Father, the chief defender of Trinitarianism against Arianism, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century.
In about 319, when Athanasius was a DEACON, a PRESBYTER named ARIUS came into a direct conflict with Alexander of Alexandria.
MONOPHYSITISM was condemned by the Council of Chalcedon in 451, which among other things adopted the Chalcedonian Definition (often known as the "Chalcedonian Creed") stating that Christ is the eternal Son of God.
All mainstream branches of Christianity now consider ARIANISM to be heterodox and heretical.
The Catholic Church, as do other Christian Churches, holds that GOD TRANSCENDS all creation.
During its long history, JERUSALEM has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, captured and recaptured 44 times, and attacked 52 times.
THEOLOGY then aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, and to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
CAPPADOCIA lies in central Anatolia, in the heartland of what is now Turkey.
The Northern CRUSADES that brought the pagan tribes of north-eastern Europe under German, Danish or Swedish control were considered crusades from 1147.
The feast days of JOHN CHRYSOSTOM in the Eastern Orthodox Church are 13 November and 27 January. In the Roman Catholic Church he is recognized as a Doctor of the Church.
CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA was enthroned when the city was at the height of its influence and power within the Roman Empire.
In the model of PENTARCHY, the Christian church is governed by the heads (patriarchs) of the five major episcopal sees of the Roman Empire: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.
While the office of the Pope is called the PAPACY, the jurisdiction of the episcopal see is called the HOLY SEE.
The APOSTOLIC SEE of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition.
A succession of ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes between the Greek East and Latin West pre-dated the formal rupture that occurred in 1054.
Specifically, MONOTHELITISM is the view that Jesus Christ has two natures but only one will.
ICONOCLASM has generally been motivated theologically by an Old Covenant interpretation of the Ten Commandments, which forbade the making and worshipping of "graven images" .
ICONS may also be cast in metal, carved in stone, embroidered on cloth, painted on wood, done in mosaic or fresco work, printed on paper or metal, etc.
Following his release, SAINT THEODORE of STUDIUM made his way back to Constantinople, travelling through north-western Anatolia and meeting with numerous monks and abbots on the way.
VESPERS is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.
Theodore's revival of the Stoudios monastery had a major effect on the later history of BYZANTINE MONASTICISM.
For example, the Gospel of John depicts Pilate saying "behold your king" to the people of Jerusalem at “THE SIXTH HOUR”.
A GUARDIAN ANGEL is an angel that protects a particular person.
THE THEOTOKOS was cared for by her betrothed husband, Joseph, who took the child and his mother into his home as his own.
The writing of AKATHISTS continues today as part of the general composition of an akolouthia, especially in the Slavic tradition, although not all are widely known nor translated beyond the original language.
A CANON is a structured hymn used in a number of Orthodox services.
In some modern practice the Biblical Odes are not actually sung except during MATINS on the weekdays of Great Lent.
In Slavic practice, there is a similar service that is called a MOLEBEN—this service is either served as a stand-alone service or in conjunction with the Divine Liturgy.
During the Dormition Fast, a PARAKLESIS is appointed to be served each evening, except on Saturday evenings and the eves of the feasts of Transfiguration (August 5) and Dormition.
OLD BELIEVERS continue liturgical practices which the Russian Orthodox Church maintained before the implementation of these reforms.
The SIGN OF THE CROSS, BOWS and PROSTRATIONS are done at their appointed places during the services.
THE PRAYER RULE should first specify the places and times of prayer and then continue with the specific prayers to be said in an outline of the sequence of these prayers.
The LITANY FOR THE DEPARTED or Litany for Those Fallen Asleep is composed of four petitions to the Lord, that He might grant rest in the Heavenly Kingdom to the souls of the departed and forgive all their sins.
In the ninth century, Pope Leo III of Rome agreed with the FILIOQUE phrase theologically but was opposed to adopting it in Rome, in part because of his loyalty to the received tradition.
MARK OF EPHESUS held Rome to be in schism and heresy for its acceptance of the Filioque clause added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed and for the claims of the papacy to universal jurisdiction over the Church.
Biblically, MOUNT SINAI is the mountain where the Lord met with Moses and the Israelites after they departed from Egypt.
A PRAYER ROPE is usually used with the Jesus Prayer: "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner."
Another form of prayer rope was formerly in use in Russia, and is still preserved among the Old Believers, it is called LESTOVKA ("ladder").
THE GREAT SCHISM was a gradual estrangement to which no specific date can be assigned, although it has been conventionally dated to the year 1054.
Generally, the Slavic traditions use smaller PROSPHORA with a simpler stamp, while the Byzantine ones use larger ones with a more complex stamp.
HOLY WATER is sometimes sprinkled on items or people when they are blessed, as part of the prayers of blessing.
FASTING means more than simply abstaining from foods, it also may include refraining from marital relations and limiting entertainment, for instance.
Initially the date of PASCHA was fixed by consulting Jewish informants to learn when the Jewish month of Nisan would fall.
The PASCHALION of the Orthodox Church is a set of rules for determining the date of Pascha.
The EUCHARIST is the center of life in the Orthodox Church because the Church is primarily a eucharistic community.
During the GREAT ENTRANCE the Gifts are brought to the altar table where by joining the Lamb with the wine the celebrant calls for the bread and wine to be the Body and Blood of Christ for Communion.
The Orthodox Church has continued the ancient practice of using LEAVENED BREAD (Artos) for the Lamb (Host) in the Eucharist.
AZYMES refers to unleavened bread in liturgical use by Western Christians.
There are a number of major typikon traditions, but there are also many local variations, often codified into an official TYPIKON.
Byzantine churches tend to perform music in an ANTIPHONAL fashion more often than the Slavic.
A PROKEIMENON (or prokimen; plural: prokeimena) is a liturgical verse or scriptural passage sung or read before the apostolic reading.
As the early CHANTERS rarely used texts set to musical notation, they learned all by heart.
THE CHERUBIC HYMN was added to the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom by order of the Emperor Justinian near the end of the sixth century.
Our father among the saints CYRIL OF JERUSALEM (315-386) was a distinguished theologian and archbishop of Jerusalem in the early Church.
ARIUS was apparently of Lybian and Berber descent, born about 250 (some sources say 256) in North Africa.
The HOLY DOORS (also called the Beautiful Gate or the Royal Doors) are the central doors of the iconostasis, directly in front of the altar in an Orthodox church.
THE LAST SUPPER ICON depicts the last meal of Christ with his disciples in the 'Upper Room' before his arrest.
The SACRAMENTS are personal — they are the means whereby God’s grace is appropriated to each individual Christian.
EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA was the bishop of Caesarea in Palestine during the early fourth century.
The glorious PROPHET and Forerunner John the Baptist is also referred to as John the Forerunner because he was the forerunner of Christ.
The First Uncovering of the Head of St. John the Baptist took place in the fourth century at the time when Saint CONSTANTINE THE GREAT and his mother, SAINT HELEN, began restoring the holy places of Jerusalem.
PATRIARCH SERGIUS THE I OF CONSTANTINOPLE was the driving force behind this doctrine, with the full blessing of the Emperor Heraclius.
There are various ranks of MONKS and nuns, varying according to the tradition of the region.
THE CREED as it now stands was formed in two stages, and the one in use today in the Orthodox Church reflects the revisions and additions made at the Second Ecumenical Council.
Who for us men and for our SALVATION came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the HOLY SPIRIT and the VIRGIN MARY, and was made man.
In the Slavonic and Antiochian traditions, a METROPOLITAN outranks an ARCHBISHOP.
Our father among the saints GREGORY THE THEOLOGIAN, also known as GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS and Gregory the Younger, was a great father and teacher of the Church.
After their studies at Athens, Gregory became Basil's fellow ASCETIC, living the monastic life together with him for a time in the hermitages of Pontus.
Emperor Alexius I Comnenus helped THE FIRST CRUSADE but was very cautious, signing an uneasy treaty and alliance with the Crusaders.

А.Н. [(42) 97]

1) Leading EREMITIC LIFE requires great spiritual strength and a lot of experience – that’s why those who just became monks usually aren’t allowed to be HERMITS.
2) The society of Byzantium was indeed very different from all of the modern ones – I can’t imagine a modern president or prime minister PREACHING SERMONS or CENSING THE ALTAR, but it was normal for a Byzantian emperor to do so.
3) At Easter our family usually BREAKS THE FAST right after returning home from the Night Liturgy.

1) The ESTRANGEMENT between Orthodoxy and Catholicism began to form long before 1054.
2) One cannot be made, or ordained, or appointed an elder, for THE ELDERSHIP is not a title or a post, but the awareness of the will of God that can only be achieved through THE DIRECT INSPIRATION OF THE SPIRIT.
3) In some monasteries, especially in ones built in the caves, the CELLS in which monks live and pray are so tiny that there is barely enough room to stand.

1) Some people learn MORNING PRAYERS and EVENING PRAYERS by heart so that they can say them if they don’t have the prayer book with them or if the conditions make using the book difficult.
2) The Liturgy of St. Basil the Great is served only ten times a year; the rest of the year, THE DIVINE LITURGY OF ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM is served.

1) It is sometimes said that autocratic and power-seeking policy of THE PAPACY is partly the cause of the Reformation.
2) During THE DARK AGES in Europe, the clergy was getting more and more distant from THE LAITY in terms of education and social status, which definitely lowered the level of people’s confidence in the Catholic Church.

Д.Б. [(7,5) 58]

1) There can be no confusion between the various SPIRITUALITIES, because Orthodox spirituality is God-centered, whereas all others are man-centered.
2) CHRISTENDOM as pertaining to the Christian religion started somewhere within the 1st century.
3) A monk is a person who WITHDRAWS FROM SOCIETY to concentrate on religious service.
4) ESCHATOLOGY is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
5) PROPHETIC MINISTRY is any ministry that relies on the gift of prophecy and new revelation from God to guide the church to maturity.
6) In the Christian tradition the EREMITIC LIFE is an early form of monastic living that preceded the monastic life in the cenobium.
7) All RELIGIOUS HOUSES were suppressed during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, with the exception of four former nunneries (Itzehoe, Preetz, Uetersen and St. John's, Schleswig).
8) Thousands came in PILGRIMAGE to see the belt of the blessed Virgin.
9) SAINT JOHN OF DAMASCUS, also known as John Damascene, was a Byzantine monk and priest.
10) MOUNT ATHOS is home to 20 monasteries under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
11) THE CARTHUSIAN ORDER, also called the Order of Saint Bruno, is a Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics.
12) SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT is calling on the Holy Spirit to lead or give direction on a matter.
13) ORDINATION is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorized to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.
14) ELDERSHIP is the governance of a local congregation by elders.
15) The nuns and monks keep STRICT ENCLOSURE, and lead the contemplative life.
16) At the heart of THE CHRISTIAN POLITY OF BYZANTIUM was the Emperor, who was no ordinary ruler, but God's representative on earth.
17) Through THE EUCHARISTIC CELEBRATION Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at THE LAST SUPPER.
18) SERMONS address a scriptural, theological, religious, or moral topic, usually expounding on a type of belief, law, or behavior within both past and present contexts.
19) CAESARO-PAPISM is a political theory in which the head of state, notably the emperor, is also the supreme head of the church.
20) THE PRIESTHOOD includes the power Jesus gave his apostles to perform miracles such as the casting out of devils and the healing of sick.
21) In Christianity, an ECUMENICAL COUNCIL is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice.
22) The central problem of popular Evangelical Christianity is its failure to comprehend THE FULL IMPLICATIONS OF THE INCARNATION.
23) A BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION is given to people who the church see as a threat or a cause of disruption to the current system.
24) THE DOCTRINES all have wide foundations in the Bible and deep roots in the history of God’s people.
25) PAPAL SUPREMACY is the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that the Pope enjoys, by divine institution, supreme, full, immediate, and universal power in the care of souls.
26) FILIOQUE is a Latin term which has been the subject of great controversy between Eastern and Western Christianity.
27) The history of THE PAPACY, the office held by the pope as head of the Catholic Church spans from the time of Peter to the present day.
28) Many who are regarded as LAY THEOLOGIANS have advanced degrees in other academic disciplines.
30) In religious organizations, THE LAITY consists of all members who are not part of the clergy.
31) THE CHRISTIAN MYSTERY is the areas of supernatural phenomena associated with God> a divinity or a religious ideology.
32) In Christianity, WORSHIP is the act of attributing reverent honor and homage to God.
33) THE CRUCIFIXION of Jesus is central to Christianity, and the cross is the main religious symbol for many Christian churches.
34) REDEMPTION is an essential concept in Christianity.
35) DEIFICATION is the metaphor that the Greek patristic tradition came to privilege in its articulation of the Christian concept of salvation: to be saved is to be deified, that is, to share in the divine attribute of immortality.
36) The Roman Code of Canon Law says the Pope possesses supreme, full, IMMEDIATE POWER OF JURISDICTION.
37) THE TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY is any Christian theology that accepts the doctrine that God is "triune", or three persons in one.
38) As a general rule priests in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church take a vow to remain PRIEST CELIBATE.
39) In the Eastern tradition LEAVENED BREAD represents the resurrection of Jesus.
40) AZYMES is unfermented bread in Biblical times, or it is simply UNLEAVENED BREAD.
41) The word DIPTYCH is used in the Church today to describe a type of icon or two kinds of lists.
42) THE CRUSADES were a series of religious wars in western Asia and Europe initiated, supported and sometimes directed by the Roman Catholic Church between the 11th and the 17th century.
43) THE TRIUMPH OF ICONS is the end of Byzantine Iconoclasm and restoration of icons to the church in 843.
44) AN ENCYCLICAL LETTER was originally a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Roman Church.
45) HERESY is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
46) EXCOMMUNICATION is an institutional act of religious censure used to regulate the communion of a member of a congregation with other members of the religious institution.
47) THE HOLY FIRE is described by Orthodox Christians as a miracle that occurs every year at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem on Great Saturday, the day preceding Orthodox Easter.
48) A SACRILEGE is an action that disrespects the fundamental beliefs or traditions of the Church.
49) SPIRITUAL COMMITMENT reflects a personal depth of faith and is manifested in both attitudes and behaviors.
50) APOSTASY is renunciation of a religion by a person.
51) A CHRISTIAN BURIAL is the burial of a deceased person with specifically Christian ecclesiastical rites; typically, in consecrated ground.
52) SCHOLASTICISM originated within the Christian monastic schools that were the basis of the earliest European universities.
53) THE HESYCHAST CONTROVERSY was a theological dispute in the Byzantine Empire during the 14th century between supporters and opponents of Gregory Palamas.
54) MYSTICAL THEOLOGY is the branch of theology that explains mystical practices and states, as induced by contemplative practices such as contemplative prayer.
55) APOPHATIC THEOLOGY is a form of theological thinking which attempts to approach God by negation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfect goodness that is God.
56) SAINT DIONYSIUS THE AREOPAGITE was a judge at the Areopagus Court in Athens, who lived in the first century.
57) SAINT MAXIMUS THE CONFESSOR was a Christian monk, theologian, and scholar.
58) THOMAS AQUINAS was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
59) All we know about God is that God’s INFINITE and INCOMPREHENSIBLE.
60) In religion TRANSCENDENCE refers to the aspect of God s nature which is wholly independent of the physical universe.
61) SAINT DIADOCHOS OF PHOTICE was a fifth-century ascetic whose works are included in the Philokalia.
62) SAINT JOHN CLIMACUS is revered as a saint by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches.
63) In theology, DIVINE LIGHT is an aspect of divine presence, specifically an unknown and mysterious ability of God.
64) GREGORY PALAMAS was a prominent theologian and ecclesiastical figure of the late Byzantine period.
66) VESPERS is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.
67) MATINS is a canonical hour of Christian liturgy.
68) In Eastern Orthodox Church a HOMILY is usually given at the end of the Liturgy.
69) A DOXOLOGY is a short hymn of praises to God in various forms of Christian worship, often added to the end of canticles, psalms, and hymns.
70) A PRAYER BOOK is a book containing prayers.
71) Christian DEVOTIONAL BOOKS are religious writing that is neither doctrinal nor theological, but designed for individuals to read for their personal edification and spiritual formation.
72) THE TRISAGION is a standard hymn of the Divine Liturgy in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
73) THE PSALTER ACCORDING TO THE SEVENTY is translated from the Septuagint by the Holy Transfiguration Monastery.
74) In Eastern Orthodox church history, especially within the Russian Orthodox Church, THE OLD BELIEVERS are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they were before the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
75) Every liturgical service of the Orthodox Church, as well as virtually all sacraments and special services, start with THE GREAT LITANY, sometimes after the reading of psalms.
76) THE BEATITUDES are eight blessings recounted by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew.
77) A PROKEIMENON is a psalm or canticle refrain sung responsorially at certain specified points of the Divine Liturgy or the Divine Office, usually to introduce a scripture reading.
78) When Orthodox writers use the term "Prayer of the Heart," they usually have in mind one particular prayer, THE JESUS PRAYER.
80) ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA was an early Christian scholar, ascetic, and theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.

С.Х. [(38) 63]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I completely agree with the quote of Abbot Nikon Vorobiev.
Some Christians really behave themselves the way he mentions. But it’s not the real Orthodoxy, it’s a spiritual delusion. A real Orthodox Christian is humble and respectful. He would never judge anybody but himself.
«A high opinion of yourself» as Abbot Nikon Vorobiev puts it, is in fact a very spiritually-dangerous practice. It’s often frequently found among the neophytes.

А.А. [(4) 80]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I fully agree with the statement from the missionary letters of Saint Nicholas Velimirovich. The main idea of this quote is that a person should strive to get rid of sins and go to the light. By the image of light is meant God. In the Holy Scripture, the image of light is often used to define the incomprehensible divine essence. It symbolizes spiritual truth and holiness. In healing the blind-born, the Lord said that he was the light of the world (Jn.9:5).
The second half of the quote tells about the redemption of sins. Remember the parable of the lost sheep. It seems to me that the meaning of this parable partially coincides with the meaning of the second part of the quotation. I understand it this way: God follows the sinner who leaves him and does not leave him until he understands that he must go back.
So, this quote was addressed to Christians around the world. It was a call to follow the commandments of God.

Ал.С. [(5) 63]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree with this statement. It seems to me that the main idea of this statement is to remind people that the Holy Gospel is the main book of mankind, which contains life for people. It contains the Divine truths that lead us to salvation. And it is the source of life filled with the power and wisdom of the Lord. Saint Ignatius (Bryanchaninov) said that you should read the gospel with extreme reverence and attention, do not consider anything unimportant, faint-hearted consideration in it. Every iota of it emits a ray of life. The neglect of life is death.
Therefore, every Christian should first turn to the gospel, and only then benefits from secular literature.

Ал.С. [(5) 37]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree with this statement. In my opinion, the main idea of this statement is the humility of the human soul. This statement warns man against arrogance and pride. It should be remembered that the Monk Macarius taught when being praised, mentally to reproach himself, to admit himself "the worst of all", so as not to be damaged spiritually.

Ал.С. [(4,5) 32]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree with this quote. In my opinion, the main idea of this quote is humility. This idea is expressed by the words "one needs to restrain oneself." It seems to me that the words "when something happens against your will, say: “Glory to God...." denote the wisdom of God's Providence which is incomprehensible to man. All these admonitions should help the Christian to overcome pride.

Ал.С. [(5) 27,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I quite agree with Righteous John's words. If you live a Christian life, take the Holy Communion, make your life ascetic and stick to commandments of the God, you should also read the Gospel and the writings of the Holy Fathers. Magazines, newspapers, maybe some interesting articles are quite interesting to be read, but they shouldn't be the only thing that you are reading during your life. They are not useful for our heart and soul because in some way they are trash.
I don't think that it is absolutely sinful for Christians to read worldly writings. Some articles, stories, books, newspapers may have quite good information about our world, people around us, some events and advice in every-day life. I think we should at least keep up with the world news. But as I said previously, it won't help our heart and soul as divinely-inspired writings can.

О.К. [(3,5) 97]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I think this quotation is a good advice to Christian people. The main idea is to make people moving to God, to virtue and to turn away from sins, soul's death. The Father of light is God. He is calling us every time, every minute. And we shouldn't close ourselves from Him. Only His light is able to save us from soul's death. Sometimes we close our hearts, our faces from God. But He sees everything. And He is waiting for us. We cannot close ourselves from the One who is everywhere.
Well, there are a lot of ways to God. We should open our hearts to Him, to people, to love. God is love. Giving to people love and care, we turn our face to God, to His light. Coming to church is not the only way to become closer to God. Humanity, virtues, good deeds, worship and diligence may help us to become more sensitive to each other.

О.К. [(4) 78,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I absolutely agree with words of Saint Paisios of Mount Athos. Being meek when such occasions happen is demonic. When vandals are abusing holy sacred things it is absolutely not Christian like to stand and look at this in silence. If you keep silence, I think, you are much closer to those people who laugh at holy things and abuse them.
Christianity tells us that we shouldn't do violence to any human being. We must be meek with people and do not hurt them. But when holy things are abused, we shouldn't stay away. It is our duty to fight for them and let other people know that they are not right doing such terrible things.
Once I heard a story about a priest who beat a person. Priest? Beat a man? How dare he? But the truth is that he fought for Church, for God and religion. The man who was a victim of the priest shouted terrible things right to the priest's face about God and Church, about priesthood and holy things. The priest maybe didn't want to hurt him. Angel through his power let this man know that he was wrong.
So, we also should understand that it is not bad for us to fight for things that are holy to us. We shouldn't be cruel but we mustn't be meek in such situations.

О.К. [(2,5) 74,5]

1. I don't understand THE HESYCHAST CONTROVERSY.
2. Two men were standing and talking about the history of MYSTICAL THEOLOGY.
3. CLEMENT died in 215 year.
4. We don't know exactly when ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA died. Was it in 253 or in 254?
5. Gregory of Nyssa is one of THE CAPPADOCIANS.
6. We know that some monks lived in THE EGYPTIAN DESERT.
7. Have you ever heard of APOPHATIC THEOLOGY?
9. THOMAS AQUINAS many times quoted something in the SUMMA.
11. No one doubts in GOD'S TRANSCENDENCE.
12. Some people devote themself to INNER RECOLLECTION.
13. This knowledge is UNAPPROACHABLE for peoples.
15. ORIGEN borrowed too heavily from PLATONISM.
16. My sister hasn't heard about the process of REDEMPTION and DEIFICATION.
17. The balance is REDRESSED in another ASCETIC writing.
18. I don't know if the Macarian HOMILIES are written.
19. Macarius uses the HEBRAIC idea of the heart.
21. THE INVOCATION OF THE NAME became crystallized into a short sentence.
22. THE VISION OF DIVINE AND UNCREATED LIGHT is the culmination of mystical experience.
23. What happened on MOUNT THABOR?
24. THE NOMINALIST PHILISOPHY is a thing that we study at our classes.
25. There are two subjects of EXEGESIS at our university.
26. The Priest during our conversation told us about AN IMMEDIATE EXPERIENCE OF GOD.
27. It is not nice to fall into A GROSS MATERIALISM.
28. SAINT GREGORY PALAMAS lived from 1296 until 1359.
29. If you are a Christian you should understand THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE ESSENCE AND THE ENERGIES OF GOD.
30. Today at the class we were discussing THE BIBLICAL DOCTRINE OF MAN.
32. The priest performed the order of the dedication of the church.
34. If you understand that GOD ENTERS INTO A DIRECT AND IMMEDIATE RELATIONSHIP WITH MANKIND, you understand practically everything in the world.
35. You should be SENSIBLE and people around you won't be unhappy.
36. Do you know that when a man is deified, his BODILY FACULTIES are transformed?
37. UNGUARDED MYSTICISM leads to the pantheism.
38. God has IMMANENCE. Did you know that?
39. God remains "THE WHOLLY OTHER".
40. Gregory Palamas was THE LAY THEOLOGIAN.
41. Mistycism of Cabasilas is always CHRISTOCENTRIC, SACRAMENTAL, ECCLESIAL.
42. THE SACRAMENTAL LIFE is desirable for each Christian.
43. It was difficult for Greeks to discuss theology DISPASSIONATELY.
44. THE FLORENTINE UNION was based on a twofold principle.
45. Emperor's sister didn't want to see the Latin MITER.
46. One glorious church in Christendom became A MOSQUE.

О.К. [(27) 72]

1. MONASTICISM or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces the world.
2. Some monks WITHDRAW FROM SOCIETY and go to deserts to devote their life to God.
3. AUSTERITY of monks, their prayer for people and strong faith in God helps us and our world to have AN ESTABLISHED CHRISTENDOM.
4. THE EREMITIC LIFE is a lot of monks.
5. To pray, to live in monasteries and to leave worldly life are COMMON RULES for every monk.
6. THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD is really beautiful place.
7. We have been studying THE RISE OF ISLAM for 1 year at the university.
8. CHARLEMAGNE is Holy Roman Emperor.
9. Photius was the greatest SCHOLAR in the ninth century.
10. Charlemagne was quick to retaliate with A CHARGE OF HERESY AGAINST the Byzantine Church.
11. Is there anywhere the whole list of SEMI-ICONOCLASTs?
12. Empire in the west served greatly to strengthen THE AUTOCRATIC STRUCTURE OF THE WESTERN CHURCH.
13. THE PAPACY is forbidden in Orthodoxy.
14. Who was AN AUTOCRAT in the history of the Church?
15. The only one effective education survived through THE DARK AGES.
16. The most of THE LAITY couldn't have even read.
17. There were some reasons which led to the SHARP DIVISION BETWEEN CLERGY AND LAITY.
19. Greeks and Latins had each approached THE CHRISTIAN MYSTERY in their own way.
20. The Greeks were more SPECULATIVE, but the Latins more practical.
21. People usually WORSHIP in the light of the Holy Liturgy.
22. THE CRUCIFIXION was a great moment in the history of the Earth and mankind.
23. Greeks and Latins thought differently. The former thought more about REDEMPTION, and the latter about DEIFICATION.
24. Each of the two distinctive approaches had their place in THE FULLNESS OF CATHOLIC TRADITION.
25. So, now we know that there are two DIFFERENT DOCTRINAL APPROACHES.
27. The Pope had A PRIMACY OF HONOR, but he didn't have THE UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY. He had his own prerogative - INFALLIBILITY.
28. Nicetas was an Archbishop of Nicomedia.
29. Some long time ago Rome and the east decided to avoid an open conflict over THE PAPAL CLAIMS.
30. Students asked their teacher about MORAL FRATRICIDE.
32. The Orthodoxy is based on TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY.
33. What were the certain matters of CHURCH WORSHIP AND DISCIPLINE?
34. At the lecture we were talking about PRIESTLY CELIBACY.
35. While fasting the Greeks used LEAVENED BREAD in the Eucharist, and the Latins UNLEAVENED BREAD. Or it was also called "AZYMES".
36. The incident of THE DIPTYCHS was in 1009.
37. THE CRUSADES were full of robbery and violence, which were falsely justified by God and religion.
38. Students were asked about THE TRIUMPH OF ICONS.
39. Who after his ACCESSION became involved in a dispute with Pope Nicholas 1?
40. Photius was considered A USURPER.
41. Who sent LEGATES to Constantinople in 861?
43. Students were taught about AN ENCYCLICAL LETTER.
44. What HERESY are we talking about?
45. Who followed up his letter by SUMMONING A COUNCIL to Constantinople?
47. What were the reasons TO ENFORCE THE PAPAL CLAIMS?
48. I have heard a lot about THE PORCH OF SOLOMON.
49. There were a few huge texts about THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE.
50. I think those thiefs committed a WANTON SACRILEGE in a church.
51. There was no information on SPIRITUAL COMMITMENT in the book.
52. In the 13th century there were a lot of great things happening. For example, RELIGIOUS REVIVAL.
53. When I was in Europe I have seen a lot of CHRISTIAN BURIALs.
54. What government continued living in A PATRISTIC ATMOSPHERE?
55. SCHOLASTICISM was a medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical method of philosophical analysis superimposed upon a Latin Christian theistic paradigm.

О.К. [(29) 45]

They sang TRISAGION in Greek and it was stunning.
The shepherds and angels PROCLAIMED THE GOOD TIDINGS at Christmas.
He BOWED and headed out of the church.
THE HERALD brought us the good tidings.
She wants to be happy with her husband UNTO AGES AND AGES.
She committed a sin and FELL DOWN BEFORE CHRIST asking for forgiveness.
This autumn I was in Austria - it was a WONDROUS adventure!
I hate when people REVILE their adversaries.
I REJOICE when I hear my favourite Gospel of St. Mark.
Do you remember when you were EXCEEDING GLAD?

А.А. [(5) 58,5]

1. Saint Theodore, the Abbot of the monastery of the Studium at Constantinople, revised HE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY there.
2. Some women get offended by the fact that they are forbidden to visit ATHOS – but the only female person who can be there is the Mother of God.
3. There are different “ORDERS” in the Western Church – the CARTHUSIAN, the CISTERCIAN and other ones, but the Eastern Church has no “Orders”. A monk there belongs to a certain MONASTIC HOUSE.
4. In Russian MONASTICISM such term as a LAY MONK does not exist. Nevertheless, a lay monk is considered to be guided by the DIRECT INSPIRATION OF THE SPIRIT.
5. For laity the LIFE OF STRICT ENCLOSURE is not accepted.
6. Nowadays the Pope of Rome considers himself to be the VICEGERENT OF GOD.

М.Ч. [(4) 92]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I think it is impossible to disagree with these words. All of us sometimes feel the flight of time, looking at least not at ourselves but at our grandfathers and grandmothers. They often tell stories about their childhood and youth, adding such phrases like “time has passed so quickly” or “I haven’t noticed my youth run away”. As a child I usually didn’t pay attention to what they said because I was simply not interested in listening to the things I didn’t understand. But having grown up I began to think that there is no reason for my relatives to lie or invent such stories, so what they say about the flight of time is actually true.
It is a very good method for us to begin appreciating our time – to listen to those who have already felt how high the speed of life is. But why does the author address his words specifically to Christians as other people are also born and pass away?
Christians know for sure that they come to this world to reach the Heavenly Kingdom after their death. You can gain it through the good quality labor and praying, but there is always the temptation to get lazy and stop working hard, so that you can simply “miss the deadline” and depart without having done anything essential or even without having confessed your sins. That means a lot for Christians and they try to appreciate and use their every minute to become worthy of the Kingdom of God in the Lord’s eyes.

М.Ч. [(3,5) 54,25]

1) God SACRIFICED his life for us, we must be thankful, but our sins PREVENT us from being VIRTUOUS.
2) WRATH and NEED are usually accompany poverty.
3) The Lord always helps THE SICK, THE CAPTIVE and the SUFFERING.

1) TRIBULATIONS are useful for our soul.
2) In dangerous situations people often pray to the BLESSED LADY, the MOTHER OF GOD and EVER-VIRGIN MARY.
3) We hope to OBTAIN MERCY of GOD WHO LOVEST MANKIND on Judgment Day.

1) The LIFE-CREATING SPIRIT is one of the persons of the TRINITY.
2) "ALLELUIA" sang the CHANTERS and the sun's rays brоke through the window.

Н.Л. [(7,5) 96]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I quite agree with the statement. When a man does something wrong he or she usually feels remorse and tries to get away from this feeling by drinking alcohol, smoking etc. It gives a false sense of relief and carries away for a while. Actually it is for the same reason that we spend our time on useless things instead of serving to God.

Н.Л. [(3,5) 77,5]

1) I heard the CHANTERS singing and since that moment knew I'll be fine.
2) The CLERGY were shocked that neither the priests nor the SCRIBES came to the meeting.
3) We must rest on the SABBATH day, that is what the law says.
4) LEGATES of the Pope came to the SANCTUARY on Monday.
5) Everyone has a GUARDIAN ANGEL, and it saves us from evil.

1) After reading THE ORDER OF HOURS FOR HOLY PASCHA we felt peace in our souls.
2) The ENTRANCE AND DEPARTURE BOWS show your respect to a holy house.
3) Looked into THE GUIDELINES FOR FASTING I realised that food is not the most important thing about it.
4) HOLY COMMUNION is one of the most precious SACRAMENTS, it contains the main idea of our faith.

1) You need to say EVENING PRAYERS and MORNING PRAYERS so that angel saves you from demons at day and night.
2) When someone is sick we read THE CANON FOR THE SICK to beg God for help.
3) We would PERISH without God's love, because we are POOR IN SPIRIT.
4) THE CANONARCH looked tired and exhausted, we were scared for him, he almost fell while WORSHIPPING.
5) " WISDOM! UPRIGHT!" said the DEACON in a laud and strong voice.

1) Initially people treated him with REVERENCE, but it didn't last as he was a USURPER.
2) "He must be stopped from proclaiming this HERESY, he can ENFORCE THE PAPAL CLAIMS, but we deny it."
3) "We won't bear this SACRILEGE!"
4) Our SALVATION is in the right way of living, we must go to the HOLY HOUSE every week and be MERCIFUL to others.

Н.Л. [(11) 74]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I can not agree more. God knows everything. So how can we call ourselves Christans and say that something that happened to us was unfair? All happens for a reason. God loves us as we are His children, so how could He do any damage to us? It's completely impossible and pointless. That is why we must thank God for sickness and troubles as they were given to make us stronger.

Н.Л. [(5) 63]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I presume that Archbishop Averky is a little bit imprecise in his statement. Here I can see two thoughts which, to my mind, are different. The first one is that the devil sifts us like wheat. And the second one is that he forces us to «spin in the whirlwind of entertainments and diversions» diverting us from contemplation. Archbishop Averky melts them together and says that the enemy of the human race «sift us {...} forcing». I would even say that he is imprecise in the very germ of his thought. I’ll try to figure it out. Now what does it mean «to sift»? Here is a definition from the CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY, «to make a close examination of all the parts of something in order to find something or to separate what is useful from what is not». You may say that it is a metaphorical statement, but what is important is that it has the general meaning, denotation which is «to separate useful things from unuseful». And that is why the thought of the Archbishop is wrong. Devil can tempt us but he can’t by his own will set us apart from, divide us into useful or unuseful. It should have been written that we are tempted by devil by permissiveness of God but sifted only by God. The second thought is quite clear and I am not to comment on it.

А.С. [(1,5) 129]

1. The Byzantines were quite religious people - almost every their action INVOKED THE TRINITY and was MARKED WITH THE SIGN OF THE CROSS.
2. Metropolitan Kallistos calls our AGE UNTHEOLOGICAL.
3. If you want to prove something in an INTEMPERATE way, there is almost no chance that you are going to be understood.
4. A man who has just become a Christian can behave ACRIMONIOUSLY towards his acquaintances because he can think he knows a lot about the Orthodox teaching.
5. Saint John THE ALMSGIVER devoted all the wealth of his SEE to helping the poor people.
6. The AUSTERITIES replaced martyrdom of blood for monks when the latter ceased to exist. The monks showed that the Kingdom of Heaven is not of our world by their WITHDRAWAL FROM SOCIETY.

М.Ч. [(4) 50,75]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

“We must be prepared to accept the will of God [].” I definitely agree with this Elder Thaddeus’ statement. He says that the will of God is better than a human will and the second one must not stand against the first one. Of course, the thought is very logical, and further there is the explanation for it. Human nature is sinful and therefore imperfect, while God himself is Love, He is pure and sinless, so He cannot be mistaken and affect us by some of His decisions; but we, who sin just every day and are often run by greed and despite, are able to affect our lives badly.
Anyway, it does not mean that God prohibits people to be free in their actions and decisions. It only means that He loves us much, as a merciful father, and tries to defend us from tribulation and perdition. So, when a person tries to do something against the will of God, he only hurts himself and distances himself from his salvation.

М.Ч. [(5) 46,75]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Undoubtedly, the purpose of the devil is to tempt people in various ways. Even the word "devil" in Greek means "seducer" and "slanderer".
Christians should remember that the devil actively opposes the establishment of good in the world. To do this, he interferes with the manifestation of good thoughts and deeds and opposes Jesus Christ and his followers. Confirmation of my words can be found in Zechariah (Zech.3,1). It should also be remembered that Jesus Christ appeared to people to destroy the evil done by the devil, and through the atoning sacrifice to save people. With this sacrifice in mind, the Christian must train his spirit in goodness and resist the temptations of the devil.

Ал.С. [(5) 22,5]

1) Currently, THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE is conducted by priests of the Jerusalem Orthodox Church.
2) THOMAS AQUINAS said that SACRILEGE is an irreverent treatment of a sacred thing.
3) In religion, TRANSCENDENCE is the aspect of a deity's nature and power that is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
4) A BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION is given to people who the church see as a threat or a cause of disruption to the current system.
5) ANATHEMA initially meant sacrifice to the gods on this vow, and later meant separation (someone from the community), exile, curse.
6) CANONARCH is a clergyman who chants before singing an EXCLAMATION and lines from the prayer, which are sung by the CHOIR after the chant.
7) The rich in spirit does not cease to be POOR IN SPIRIT, because they continue to need the grace of God, which is inexhaustible.
8) The homeland of the KONTAKIA is considered to be Syria and Antioch.
9) In the time of the apostles, PRIESTHOOD were often called episcopate.
10) The revolution and the civil war produced the Russian DIASPORA.
11) GRACIOUS Lord, accept our thanks for these and all other blessings.
12) Disturbing the DUST of the dead is an act of INIQUITY.

Ал.С. [(7) 17,5]

1) After the dissolution of the Soviet Union there was RELIGIOUS REVIVAL in Russia.
2) The Emperor Michael VIII, probably, needed support from THE PAPACY and because of that he summoned a reconcile Council at LYONS in 1274, which resulted in the Orthodox delegates recognizing the PAPAL CLAIMS and agreeing to add filioque to the Creed.
3) Evagrius of Pontius, a monk in THE EGYPTIAN DESERT, believed that man`s body only interferes with the process of REDEMPTION and DEIFICATION.
4) The main aspects of the eastern MYSTICAL THEOLOGY were worked out by CLEMENT and ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA, whose ideas were developed by the CAPPADOCIANS.

К.Е. [(3) 162]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I completely agree with the elder Thaddeus' saying.
I assume, it's a very useful idea to keep in mind. Many people are obsessed with planning and controlling everything that happens in their lives. They make up schedules, have something to do every second and believe that devoting their lifetime to what they want to do is the only right and wholesome thing. However, our world works in a different way and it never gets tired of reminding us that we, actually, don't know ourselves, don't know what's good for us and what we need. Only God knows.
To tell the truth, as for me, it's an extremely hard idea to accept. I'm one of those who desires to rule my life and am unwilling to accept that there's nothing that's truly mine. So, I easily get irritated and frustrated by sudden and unexpected events, even if they're pleasant. Nevertheless, I fight against my arrogance fiercely and try to humble myself to the perfection of the intelligent design. I was able to achieve it to some degree last summer, I believe. I felt such indescribable inner peace that now, when I dived into stressful days of hustle and bustle again, I long to get back to this state more than ever.

К.Е. [(4,5) 126,5]

INNER RECOLLECTION plays the key role in spiritual life.
Do you believe in the possibility of the man’s DEIFICATION?
God’s TRANSCENDENCE means that God is beyond our understanding.
God is INFINITE. God has no time and doesn’t belong to this world.
God is INCOMPREHENSIBLE - HE is beyond all things.
One of the questions of the 14th century was whether God is KNOWABLE or not.
Arius,a Christian presbyter in Alexandria in Egypt, was CHARGED WITH HERESY.
THE DIPTYCHS are the lists that contain the names of Patriarchs.
SCHOLASTICISM originated within the Christian monastic schools.
Gregory Palamas studied Greek philosophy and defended HESYCHASM.
The reunion council in LYONS was rejected by the Byzantine Church.
THE CLERGY AND THE LAITY in the Byzantine Church didn’t recognize the PAPAL CLAIMS.
The union of LYONS was rejected by Michel’s SUCCESSOR.
The union of LYONS was considered to be an «APOSTASY».
I respect the saints who led an ASCETIC lives.
What would the LATTER-DAY Christians look like?
Do you know the difference between the OLD-RITUALISTS and OLD-BELIEVERS?
Do you think that the fast is the ONLY VEHICLE OF SALVATION? Is it SPIRITUALLY PROFITABLE?
My friend often attends Sunday services and knows all the BEATITUDES by heart.
Many Orthodox Christians THIRST AFTER RIGHTEOUSNESS in this worldly life.
Sometimes I see real miracles in my life and I thank God «GLORY TO THEE, O LORD!»
My grandmother says THE RULE OF PRAYER every morning.

А.А. [(12,5) 53,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

To begin with, I fully agree with the quote of Archbishop Averky (Taushev). It’s not easy to be a Christian in the modern world. The enemy of the human race is constantly trying to distract us, be it the prayer in the church or surfing on the Internet.
The aim of the Christian in this temptation is to pray to God and to trust Him. We should keep our minds free from distractions and be firm in our intentions. It’s especially crucial during the fast. We collect ourselves — our thoughts and our wishes and follow Christ and His will.

А.А. [(5) 41]

1. A new Patriarch of Constantinople, Photius, is considered to have been appointed fifteen years after THE TRIUMPH OF ICONS. His ACCESSION happened in 858. Due to some of his actions, he was treated as A USURPER by the supporters of Saint Ignatius. Pope Nicolas sent his LEGATES to Constantinople to know more about the quarrel between St. Ignatius' disciples and Photius. Having been treated with great DEFERENCE, the legates decided that Photius was the legitimate Patriarch. Despite that decision, he was proclaimed TO BE DEPOSED FROM ALL PRIESTLY DIGNITY.
2. Orthodox Church does not agree with THE Papal CLAIM TO UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION.
3. Photius wrote AN ENCYCLICAL LETTER to the Patriarchs of the east, because he was concerned about the question of the filioque. Later he SUMMONED A COUNCIL to Constantinople to DECLARE Pope Nicolas EXCOMMUNICATE, naming him a heretic.
4. Every Patriarch has THE DIPTYCHS which are the lists containing the names of the other Patriarchs.
5. If a person consciously spreads a heresy, he is AMATHEMATIZED.
6. Not everything which begins with the ÈCLAT, ends triumphally.
7. THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE happens every year on the day of Orthodox Easter.
8. The son of Isaac Angelus, Alexius, had been the DISPOSSESSED Emperor of Byzantium for some period of time.
9. God punishes those who act WANTONly and commit SACRILEGE and do not repent.

М.Ч. [(6) 41,75]

1. THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE takes place annually in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
2. The Crusades, though their campaign had started with the great ECLAT in the 11th century, shocked the Greeks in 1204, when they invaded Constantinople, with WANTON and systematic SACRILEGE.
3. THE PORCH OF SOLOMON was a cloister which could have been found on the eastern side of THE TEMPLE`s Outer Court.

К.Е. [(2,5) 122]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I quite agree with the saying of St Mark.
Ascetic life means getting rid of everything that prevents you from seeing clearly, of everything excessive and unnecessary. After you'll manage to free yourself of worldly needs and worries, to humble your body and take control over your mind through fasting, prayer and work, the true knowledge will open up to you.
As for the theoretical knowledge, I would say, it doesn't worth much if one can't apply it to real life. For example, if someone knows the rules of piety but doesn't follow them, the information he or she bears in their mind is pretty useless. It's even dangerous because it may lead a person to believe that he's towering above those who don't possess such knowledge, he may gradually become arrogant due to such thought.
I've experienced such feeling of being above some people because of my knowledge. However, I was quite soon taken down a peg as I was shown that being in a leading position doesn't necessarily follow possession of information. Without being somehow actualized in my life through actions and choice, it has no worth.

К.Е. [(3,5) 119,5]

1. A revenge tragedy as a genre is full of human`s INIQUITIES and INFIRMITIES, it represents a world where there is no place for MERCY and COMPASSION, and RIGHTEOUSNESS IS somehow WRONGED.
2. The incident with the DIPTYCHS is considered to be an important event in the separation of the Eastern and Western Churches.
3. In the 11th century THE PAPACY revived THE CLAIMS TO THE UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION and continued to insist upon the Pope`s INFALLIBILITY.
4. In 1054 Pope Leo IX sent three LEGATES to Constantinople to make an attempt at RECONCILIATION of the dispute on the Latin and Greek USAGES, but it resulted in the chief cardinal placing THE BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION on the ALTAR of the Holy Wisdom and being ANATHEMATIZED by the Patriarch of Constantinople.

К.Е. [(8) 116]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The saying of St. Tikhon sounds marvelous, but I don't completely agree with it.
As I think, considering life as a flow of river may lead one to believe that he can't make any change, that his or her life is worth nothing and there is no point in it as long as it all passes and erases everything. So, there is no point in doing anything as well. It's quite a dangerous thought to a modern mostly secular mind, as it may cause mental instability.
Also I don't think that we're given our lives just in order to wait for an afterlife. If we are here, then there is something we should do and make a change. One can lead an active worldly life and somehow help to make the world a better place remembering about the Heavenly Kingdom as well.
Our world is certainly not the most pleasant place to be in, but it's our home anyway at least for the allotted time. We shouldn't treat it as if it's something of no importance. I don't believe that we, actually, can do it.
As for me, thinking of life as of a ruthless flow makes me feel depressed. On the one hand, it's quite liberating to know that my acts and choices will sink into oblivion, but on the other, I can't resist questioning the point of my living. Why should I study at the university? Why should I earn my living? Why should I get up in the morning, eat and drink if everything I do goes to waste in the end? It may sound as a self-delusion but I'd rather think that everything is somehow interrelated and every choice and act makes a difference.

К.Е. [(5) 108]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Protopresbyter Theodore Zissis states that if a believer doesn't have great knowledge about the church it doesn't mean that he is not a real Christan. There is nothing bad in not knowing something but we must understand what is the main issue of our faith. Some people don't have an opportunity to know all the details about church history, for instance, but they can be more righteous than many noble people, this is the matter of conscience, parental education and personal will. God knows everything and He sees a man's desire to be with Him, all human ups and downs, and He is merciful, so a lack of knowledge is not a problem if a man understands the essence of the religion.

Н.Л. [(3,5) 58]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The main point of this quotation by Saint Paisios of Mount Athos is that the more goods we have the more ungrateful, unhappy we become.
All people are different, so there are always exceptions, but I think in general it's true. Malice is a sin which leads to greed and when a man does not avoid that sin he or she feels that it's always not enough of things for happiness. Also Saint Paisios of Mount Athos says that such men can not help others and there is a logic here because how can you help others if your feel strong need yourself. We do not need many things to be happy, to be satisfied with life, but as a rule we buy more than we really need, and volunteer goods not enough, and it can not bring any joy.

Н.Л. [(3) 54,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I guess by this statement Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev) of Bogucharsk speaks of how we can be true Christians - to be kind to others and strict to ourselves. He says that we can not teach anyone because we're not perfect, we mustn't be angry because we always feel guilt after that and can harm somebody in such mood, somebody that we love. So I agree with the statement but not quite sure if it's really possible, because we are all humans and we're weak.

Н.Л. [(3,5) 51,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I quite agree with this point, as when our soul is weak it can easily be attacked by evil spirits. Devil can harm our souls if the spirit is not strong enough a man feels irritation all the time, by every little thing. Irritation is a sin, so the stronger a man becomes, the easier he or she can endure temptations. We can achieve this endurance by prayer and fasting, and by going to church, of course.

Н.Л. [(4) 48]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I'm greatly impressed with this statement. It's so simple but so deep at the same time. We are born, live and die all of us, but we must remember about the end of our life. We live to fight sins and hope for the mercy of God. We must become worthy of Heavenly Kingdom, we mustn't ever forget about it. I suppose this is the main idea of the statement and I completely agree with that.

Н.Л. [(4) 44]

I always wandered how does THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE work. I always wanted to see it with my own eyes. I mean I know it is said to be a miracle. It is also said to gather all the CONGREGATIONS together. All THE RIGHTEOUS at that moment are in an extraordinary excitement and not only the righteous. Everybody PRAISES THE LORD. For it is considered to be a sign of continuation of life, of SALVATION in its own way. And I certainly would like to be there at that moment. I think that all worldly vanity, all WANTON is put aside and everybody is gay and happy.

А.С. [(3,5) 105,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

When I first read the quotation, a question came up to my mind. And is an obvious one: what does the saint mean by «the true knowledge» and «theoretical knowledge». I didn’t find the answer so I perceive the problem in a very simple manner. If you love God and aim to be with Him you should go to a monastery or a hermitage and lead a pure and strict ascetic life because loving and aiming without any worthy deeds are nothing.
If my understanding of the phrase is correct then I guess that these words are mere pieces of advice for monks and there is a huge overlook concerning families. And therefore I do not agree with the statement as I believe that people who love true knowledge but want to start a family or just are not suitable for ascetic life indeed can find their comfort in books (especially in The Gospel) and it won’t be a «mere theoretical knowledge that puffs a man up» it would rather be a contemplative reading that leads to God. To each their own.

А.С. [(4) 102]

1. Since the Lord is LONGSUFFERING and PLENTEOUS IN MERCY, it does not mean you can sin whenever temptations come.
2. A Christian should be COMPASSIONATE, but not indifferent to the WRONGED people.
3. If you are a Christian, it does not mean you are forbidden to feel WROTH – the Lord did not say so in His COMMANDMENTS.
5. ORPHANS are not actually orphans – they all have one compassionate and MERCIFUL Father – the Lord.

М.Ч. [(5) 35,75]

1. A GRACIOUS ruler forgives debts of his people.
2. It is often difficult to PERFORM DEEDS OF MERCY, because the devil tries to obstruct us, but that doesn’t mean we should stop trying to live conscientiously.
3. The DOMINION of God is everlasting.
4. HOSTS of angels were surrounding the manger in which Jesus Christ was born.
5. People often commit INIQUITY just due to their INFIRMITY and sinful nature.

М.Ч. [(2,5) 30,75]

A BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION became a very unpleasant event for the relationships between Constantinople and Rome but still it was not the final straw. Even the FILIOQUE wasn’t yet there were many conflicts upon that ground. With THE RISE OF THE ISLAM the Roman church got the opportunity to set an expedition to the coveted land, where they of course fought for faith and for Christ, but afterwards they proceeded to set up their LATIN PATRIARCHS. So from now on not only MATTERS OF DOCTRINE were included in the conflict. From that moment (but not all at once) SHARP DIVISION showed itself with the full strength. MATTERS of WORSHIP and DISCIPLINE such as PRIESTLY CELIBACY, LEAVENED or UNLEAVENED BREAD (AZYMES) were now not as harmful to the unity as the WANTON SACRILEGE of the CRUSADERS.

А.С. [(6,5) 98]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

When reading that quote it suddenly dawned on me, that these words somehow call forth deep within my heart. I read them one more time and then again and felt that they are in harmony with my thoughts. Even more, they revealed my thoughts to me from another side, they metaphorically elaborated my thoughts filling them with good images. I’m not willing to add anything to the quotation or to discuss it because I’m simply stunned by it every time I go away with it (means think about it). The absolute Truth in these words is transparent.
Often the only thought that everything has an end calmed down all the storms, all the vain things. It didn’t scare me but inspired. And in such moments the became visible for some moments. It is a way good clearing up your senses.

А.С. [(3,5) 91,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I fully agree with the quote of St. Tikhon of Zadonsk. He reminds us about the vanity of the worldly life. First of all, we should always keep the faith in our hearts and partake in the Holy Mysteries. The life outside of the Holy Church is full of temptations and sins. St. Tikhon of Zadonsk compares it to the water of a river. I think this is a very good comparison. In the midst of this worldly and vain life we should seek for the holy Grace of God that will lead us throughout our lives.
Nowadays it’s vital to go to the Church services and listen to the choir and the sermon. The Holy Church is our support and comfort in everyday life.

А.А. [(4) 36]

1) If a heretic does not RECONCILE with the Church, he is to be ANATHEMATIZED.
2) Iconoclasm began with the WRATH of the true zealots for the purity of the faith.
3) We always should MINISTER TO THE SAINTS and SERVE GOD.
4) MALICE and impatience are MANIFESTATIONS OF THE DEVIL in ourselves.

1) God is so GRACIOUS that He PERFORMS DEEDS OF MERCY even for those who had WRONGED others but repented.
2) WANTON SACRILEGE was typical of Crusaders.
3) The schism was regarded as a SPIRITUAL COMMITMENT by the both sides.

В.О. [(5) 157]

THE PAPACY always seemed strange to me. I could never understand how a man or a woman can be INFALLIBLE.
The word ANATHEMATIZING is a rather long word but the pronunciation of this word is not as difficult as in the word DIACONATE.
Before I met the english phrase «NOW AND EVER AND UNTO THE AGES OF AGES» I had a problem with the understanding of the Russian, «ныне и присно и во веки веков». It never sank in. The same thing was with «Благорастворение воздухов», to tell the truth I even thought it was about the physical health of a person. And only English «FAVOURABLE WEATHER» showed the actual meaning.

А.С. [(3) 88]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Well in such cases it is indeed a violent irritation that should be subdued because it comes from vanity. But there are other kinds of people. They can be very fragile, I mean like flowers which cannot bear poisonous gases or hail, neither can these people endure rough and harsh words.
And that is the signal to those who think (or will think after reading the quotation) that they can put other people to the test or even more, to trial them. We are not prophets and we do not understand who should bear our words and who should not. Only God and his Saints have such knowledge and we people should keep an eye on ourselves.

А.С. [(5) 85]

1) Lots of Orthodox DIASPORAS came into being due to the BITTER TORMENT OF ATHEISTIC RULE in Russia.
2) There is a song in the cartoon "Prince of Egypt" in which the captive Jews pray to God asking Him to DELIVER them.
3) People in HOLY TEMPLES and HOLY HOUSES pray to the Lord asking Him to confirm them in ONENESS OF MIND, BROTHERLY LOVE and PIETY.
4) After Photius ACCESSION there was a strange conflict between him and the Pope Nicholas I, which quite probably involved THE PAPAL CLAIMS.
5) The Pope sent his LEGATES to Constantinople, whom Photius treated with great DEFERENCE and asked them to take part in settling the issue between himself and Ignatius, the previous Patriarch.

К.Е. [(6) 103]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The saying of Tito Colliander, as I think, contains a universal formula which can be applied not only to the monastic life but also to the lay life.
This sequence of actions is the same for every human being in every aspect of life. Children learn to walk by falling and getting up again and again, students make countless mistakes before understanding new material and every human being fails and suffers to gain new experience and knowledge that can be applied to life.
Of course, it is the same for the spiritual part of our life. Temptations surround us and we yield to them when we stop paying attention and being careful. We wreck and suffer to rise from the ashes as fenix equipped with new knowledge and experience, so that we don`t succumb to what has led us to our fall again.

К.Е. [(5) 97]

1) I love listening to CHANTERS singing THE TRISAGION.
2) Photius became quite nervous with the spreading of the filioque, so he wrote the ENCYCLICAL LETTER in which he denounced the filioque and CHARGED WITH HERESY everyone who followed it.
3) Later Photius SUMMONED THE COUNCIL to Constantinople which DECLARED Nicholas I EXCOMMUNICATE, but soon he was DEPOSED OF ALL PRIESTLY DIGNITY and communion with Rome was restored.

К.Е. [(3,5) 92]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I quite agree with the Righteous John`s saying.
There are lots of situations in our life when our pride gets hurt and we can`t get ourselves under control. We become overwhelmed with spontaneous disastrous emotion that deprives a human being of sober mind. A man is capable of everything in such state of mind. But any of his or her action wouldn`t be the Devil`s fault who had tempted him or her. He would be the only one to blame because of his frailty and unwillingness to turn to God. No matter how deep the reasons for his resentfulness lie within his mind, the only one responsible for the consequences of their manifestation through him is he himself.
Such moments of overflowing anger are somewhat challenging for our souls. They`re opportunities to develop self-discipline, patience and even spiritual discernment. In other words, they`re designed to develop capacity to maintain inner peace and silence through which we can feel the presence of God better.
However, to withstand the waves of strong irritation and not to show it somehow is quite hard. I believe, every human being has been through such experience not once, me included. Sometimes I managed to pull myself together through prayer and to evaluate the situation soberly, sometimes I didn`t and the consequences were traumatizing not only for me but for people around as well. So, it`s a complicated question because theoretically it`s quite clear what you should do and what you shouldn`t but still it`s pretty hard to keep doing everything right in real life.

К.Е. [(4,5) 88,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree. We are all people and sometimes we can be too critical of others. It's completely wrong, because you can never know the motives of people's actions. We bear responsibility only for our own acts. That is why we must be strict to ourselves and kind to other men.

Н.Л. [(4,5) 40]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

It's a remarkable quotation. I completely agree. If I get it correctly it means that we can use our own experience to help others but only if they ask you for help, not because you want to show that you are better in any way that somebody else.
You can't help people if they don't want, when you advise the way you bear responsibility for the result in this case, and it's very risky and unpredictable.

Н.Л. [(3,5) 35,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

An author talks about sins. Cause we commit sins all the time, every second of our lifetime, and we must fight against them. So sometimes we fall (most of the time), because we are too week, we are empty without the love of God. Еven saints committed sins, but they repented of them.
Life of a Christian is an everyday fight in an invisible warfare and we can fall, but our aim is to improve ourselves, by fasting and prayer and by taking part in sacraments to have more spiritual strength.

Н.Л. [(3) 32]

1) When I heard singing of this charter? I felt REVERENCE since that I've known we're not alone and we never was.
2) Holy GRACE ggggg from icons it can CURE your soul.
3) This HOLY HOUSE was founded in it's a shelter for THE SICK, THE SUFFERING, THE CAPTIVE.

4) I feel pity for people who believe in HERESY because I consider them to be very unhappy people.

Н.Л. [(0,5) 29]

1) An ENCYCLICAL LETTER was written by Photius CHARGING the west WITH HERESY.
2) Photius wanted to SUMMON A COUNCIL in order to DECLARE Pope Nicholas EXCOMMUNICATE.
3) During the Divine Liturgy people pray for THE PEACE FROM ON HIGH, for THE GOOD ESTATE of the churches, for THE SICK, the SUFFERING and the CAPTIVE.

В.О. [(4) 127]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

As I see it, Tito Colliander talks about people’s imperfection. And it’s the same everywhere not only in the world but also in the monastery. The place does not change the human nature. Everywhere we are supposed to strive to control ourselves.
And what’s important here is repentance. One should acknowledge one’s mistakes and redeem them. It’s easy for us to make mistakes as we do not know what’s better for us and for others. It’s impossible to predict all the faults. So, we just strive and struggle to be worthy of God’s love.

В.О. [(5) 123]

1) People’s FRAILTY prevents them from FULFILLing THE RULES.
3) The Lord CURBED THE DEMON, for ADVERSARIES should not praise the Truth.
4) After the ACCESSION Photius began to be regarded as a USURPER by the supporters of Ignatius and later Photius WAS DEPOSED.

В.О. [(5) 118]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The thought of Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev) of Bogucharsk is very deep in meaning and extremely difficult to fulfill. We are destined to strive and we are likely to fail many times.
We should do no harm to others neither physical nor moral. That’s hard because we’re willing to start an idle talk where any careless word may offend. We need to control ourselves every second not to cause any harm. That is our submission to the law of God.
However, there is one more problem here. We are too imperfect to obey God’s will sometimes. We may be too upset or angry with something so much that we just lose control and forget about humility. In such moments we should enforce ourselves to understand that everything what happens is for our benefit.
God’s will is to be our will. And difficulties are to make us stronger and to lead us closer to God.

В.О. [(4,5) 113]

The priest had been DEPOSED FROM ALL PRIESTLY DIGNITY. He could have rebelled but his meekness didn’t allow him to quarel. Actually his only mistake was to have lost the PSALTER, but that was enough for the ABBOT as he said, «I would understand, father John, if you had lost a BOOK OF THE HOURS or a BOOK OF CANONS, or some others but Psalter - never!» During the whole lecture of father abbot father John never gave a word, he was looking down at the floor and his crimson ears could tell anybody more observant than the abbot was that he was deeply embarrassed.

А.С. [(2) 80]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

This quote is full of calmness. And I fully agree with it. I would love to live a life like this. And this is the ideal way of communication between people that should be longed for. But such life implies great spiritual labour and of course it doubles or triples if we live in such a fussy world. One should have some tools, an efficient instrument that would help in the beginning.
For it is well-known hard to restrain oneself. It is hard not to teach but to listen to others and to advise from one’s heart out of the calmness not out of self-superiority or self-admiration. And which is more, it is exceedingly hard to accept everything that goes wrong or against your will with words «Glory to God! Glory to God!» (I’m not saying it is impossible).
So what are the first steps to achieve calmness? What are those instruments that can help? The answer is the Jesus Prayer. The mindful praying without any unnecessary thought provides one with calmness and stillness. It is an «active contemplation and contemplative action» that allows one to act out of stillness and inner silence.(See Metropolitan Kalistos «the Jesus Prayer» for details). It tunes one on peace so that one could say «Glory to God for everything».

А.С. [(5) 78]

Khomiakov considers altering the Creed to be the MORAL FRATRICIDE on the part of the west.
Orthodoxy objects against the filioque. It considers it to be THEOLOGICALLY UNTRUE.
TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY has also led to the false understanding of the work of the Holy Spirit.
Who uses the LEAVENED BREAD in the Eucharist?
PRIESTLY CELIBACY has led to many problems in the Church.

А.А. [(2) 32]

1) We UNANIMOUSLY praise the Lord during the Divine Liturgy and then we ARE GIVEN COMMUNION.
2) Monks call their FELLOW BELIEVERS "brother".
3) Austere life is very SPIRITUALLY PROFITABLE.
4) There is no remedy for HUMAN FRAILTIES but we shouldn`t yield to them anyway.

К.Е. [(2,5) 84]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I quite agree with Archbishop Seraphim`s saying.
Restraining oneself is very spiritually profitable. Austere people are much more open to prayer and God. They have cleared space surrounding them and cleared their minds, so that unnecessary things and thoughts don`t get into their way. So, such people may feel the presence of the Lord much stronger.
Being angry and teaching someone out of irritation or hatred are no good for all sides. This strong emotion doesn`t change life for the better, it only upsets and pushes away those around you while to make a change people need to get together and combine their forces.
Being angry with something going "wrong" is inefficient as well. It`s vitally important to understand that nothing can be completely under our control except for our own actions and reactions. Also we shouldn`t nourish any expectations because the world rarely make them come true if it ever does. We should understand that whatever happens is for our own good. We are supposed to go through every experience imposed upon us.
Moreover, anger is a sign of weakness, of inability to control oneself which is quite unattractive to others. In contrast to them disciplined people are much more desirable by the society and their lifes are of a better quality due to this. So, as I believe, we can speak not only of profit for the soul but also for our everyday life and communication.

К.Е. [(5) 81,5]

1. Nowadays, if one wants to read Psalter, he uses PSALTER ACCORDING TO THE SEVENTY.
2. If you want to be able to read a Slavonic PRAYER BOOK, you need at least to get acquainted with THE “PRIMER”.
3. At the Liturgics classes we often read THE BOOKS OF THE HOURS.
4. A prayer is SPIRITUALLY PROFITABLE only if you say it from the very heart.
5. Our world is sinful, so if you want to reach the Heavenly Kingdom, you should regularly pray for THE SALVATION OF YOUR SOUL.
6. Sometimes one faces TRIBULATION, but God always knows what you need it for.
7. I suppose the students of our university may have ONENESS of MIND because they were baptized in one faith.

М.Ч. [(3) 28,25]

1) Through prayer people become less ACRIMONIOUS and INTEMPERATE.
3) We were told about THE GREAT SCHISM a lot during our Church history classes.
4) Saying the MORNING PRAYERS makes my mind still and focused.

К.Е. [(2,5) 76,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree with St. Paisos that we as Christians shouldn`t stay aside while the sacred objects or sites are abused. I consider passivity as demonic on the whole, not only in regards to reviling of the holy things, because it breeds mediocrity, unstable mental state and even contributes to the loss of faith.
I believe that people should preserve and protect holy places and things, not only because we venerate saints, Mother of God and God Himself through them but also because they`re symbols of stability and tradition which are vitally important for the human mind and psyche. We need them because we build our societies upon the base of tradition and without it we would live in a complete chaos. Nowadays we should pay even more attention to such incidents, because, as I see it, the dominant mode of thinking nowadays is quite nihilistic and willing to destroy the tradition.
However, it`s hard for people to understand why they shouldn`t act sacrilegiously in our untheological age. I suppose, they don`t even understand what "sacrilegious" truly means. They can`t realize that, for example, by using the images of Orthodox Churches in the pattern for bus seats, they abuse the Holy Cross. I don`t believe that the designers used these images on purpose with intention to offend the Christians. I suppose they didn`t even think that it can offend anyone and be deemed evil-doing. In response to that a site Orthodoxy.ru published a big article on this issue. To be honest, it seemed to me a bit aggressive and unconvincing to the non-Orthodox and non-believer minds. However, the author did at least something by drawing attention to this problem. Nevertheless, I don`t believe that the Christians should protect their sacred things and places as the Crusaders, wielding poignant and aggressive words instead of swords. We should be careful with our main weapon and ask God to inspire us, so that our words and actions are effective and full of love towards the lost and sinners, while we protect things dear to us.

К.Е. [(5) 74]

1) PRIESTLY CELIBACY is not typical for the Greek Church.
2) Latins could not BE GIVEN COMMUNION in the Greek Church before they repent and accept Greeks’ doctrines.
3) There were several reasons for schism, such as the incident of the DIPTYCHS, CRUSADES and some others.
4) A man with an UNCLEAN SPIRIT is the one who is possessed by a demon.
5) Jesus Christ always REBUKED unclean spirits when they said that He was “THE HOLY ONE OF GOD”.

В.О. [(3,5) 108,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I see the main idea of the words of Metropolitan Gregory (Postnikov) of St. Petersburg in humility. One should not consider himself better than others in any sphere of life.
Instead of benefit praising would bring only harm to the spiritual condition of one’s soul. That’s the sign of arrogance and may lead to vanity.
So, this piece of advice is definitely worth of taking it. It’s helpful for our moral safety while thinking highly about ourselves is harmful for us.

В.О. [(5) 64]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I don`t completely agree with Metropolitan Gregory`s saying.
I see how the desire to tell people what is good about you can do harm in a way that it may feed your ego and make you more and more arrogant, thus, turning you away from God. However, I assume that people can share something they possess which is worthy of praise to show their positive sides without any second thought, so that the others know what to expect from them. For instance, someone may say that he or she is quite patient and give a real-life example when his or her patience manifested itself. That human being may do that without even expecting any approval. It may be done just to show to someone the limits of that person`s patience.
Moreover, I believe that praise itself is a powerful instrument for motivating people. Many of us do things we don`t really want to do and it`s vitally important to receive at least some award for doing it either from yourself or from other people. Moreover, someone else`s appreciation is worth much more than our own because man is a social being which can hardly lead a solitary life and maintain mental stability at the same time. You need to be extremely spiritually strong to withdraw from society. So, our need of someone`s approval is quite natural because in that way we know that we`re accepted by our own kind and we belong somewhere.
No doubt, our desires are quite dangerous for our souls and we should pay close attention to them. Arrogance which may be fed by extensive praise can take us down the wrong road away from God. However, we can`t really avoid sharing our good deeds or traits with others because we belong to society and we maintain our mental health that way. So, I think, we should pursue a middle ground.

К.Е. [(5) 69]

1) The exact wording of translations of some words in, for example, SALUTATIONS is decided through a lot of DELIBERATIONS.
2) FILIOQUE showed us change of emphasis in TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY and was considered as THEOLOGICALLY UNTRUE.
3) The absence of consulting the east was considered to be a kind of MORAL FRATRICIDE in which the west was guilty.
4) There are some differences in CHURCH WORSHIP AND DISCIPLINE between the east and the west.
5) In the east LEAVENED BREAD was used in the Eucharist and in the west clergy used UNLEAVENED BREAD or “AZYMES”.

В.О. [(5) 59]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The words of Saint Paisios of Mount Athos seems to be true as most of the people neither thank God nor offer their charity to others. However, I’m not sure that the reason is in the amount of goods that people have. The reason is in the people themselves.
A humble person realizes Who he owes everything. Such people also feel a need to help others. That’s natural for them.
And if a person doesn’t understand these principles of life, it means he’s not in harmony with himself, with his nature. It doesn’t matter how rich he is in his property if he is poor spiritually.
The inner wealth is more important than the outer is. And I don’t think that there is any connection or dependence between goods people own and their behavior.

В.О. [(4) 54]

1) Before you read THE OLD ORTHODOX PRAYER BOOK, it is necessary to read a PREFACE.
2) LESTOVKA symbolizes the ladder of spiritual ascent from earth to Heaven.
3) Nowadays the term "DIPTYCH" is usually applied to visual works (paintings, frescoes) united by a common idea or plot.

Ал.С. [(1,5) 10,5]

1) Some people don't know all the RULES OF PRAYER, but they are definitely good people.
2) I've never met OLD BELIEVERS, but people told me that they act kind of strange.
3) It's very important to CHERISH all the LITURGICAL and DEVOTIONAL books.
4) My friend met OLD RITUALISTS who were singing songs and following ancient rituals.
5) When people do not know what to do they ask AN OLD MAN.
6) Only our sins can PREVENT us from being VIRTUOUS.
7) Every Christian fights in "AN UNSEEN WARFARE", the so-called "SPIRITUAL COMBAT".

Н.Л. [(3,5) 28,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I quite agree with St Paisios` saying.
Many people are desperate to fill the God-shaped hole in their hearts with something. Quite often they choose objects or new experiences. They spend their money on more and more things, hopelessly seeking for serenity and stillness, for love and something that no money can buy, something true. I`ve witnessed quite a few of such people and also did it myself some time ago.
When a human being has a great variety of things at hand he suffers due to the frequent necessity to choose between seemingly similar products or activities almost every moment of his life. It takes quite a lot of mental energy, so people get exhausted, resentful and unwilling to know where their bread and butter come from. That gradually makes them ungrateful. Many of them focus on just going with the flow, earning money and never thinking of anything beyond everyday routines to save up life power. So, they stop paying attention to people around and to themselves as well, to their mental and spiritual state. As a result, some people get dramatically withdrawn from the world and from God.

К.Е. [(5) 22]

1) In the Orthodox Church PRIESTLY CELIBACY is a norm for the bishops. Catholics have a different rule for this aspect of the CHURCH DISCIPLINE.
2) The OLD RITUALISTS believe that the Orthodox Church`s LITURGICAL and SERVICE BOOKS contain certain errors due to MISTRANSLATION.
3) The Orthodox consider the Purgatory THEOLOGICALLY UNTRUE.
4) TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY is any Christian theology that consider God triune.
5) FIDELITY to your spouse is essential for a harmonious married life.

К.Е. [(4,5) 17]

1) LITURGICAL BOOKS of OLD RITUALISTS are different from ours.
2) The teaching of Christ was different from that of SCRIBES as He had AUTHORITY while they didn't.
4) The Pope of Rome wanted THE UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY in the Church thinking that he had INFALLIBILITY.
(5) However, the Greeks assigned to him only a PRIMACY OF HONOR, so his IMMEDIATE POWER OF JURISDICTION didn't extend to the east.

В.О. [(6) 50]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The quotation from the Prologue of Ohrid is a very precise idea of humility. It definitely should be the way of behavior of each Christian.
Christ Himself shows us an example of it by washing the feet of His disciples. It is quite difficult for a person with his fallen nature to humble himself and to turn away from selfishness and pride and do it whole-heartedly.
Humility is one of the most important features of any virtuous person. We should respect others and love them even more than we love ourselves. So, humility is also about love and deep concern for others what is necessary ourselves.

В.О. [(5) 44]

I don’t think a prayer is always a SPIRITUAL COMBAT or UNSEEN WARFARE. I think that OLD RITUALISTS’ PRAYER BOOK is a bit irrelevant in this question. I believe prayer is a CONTEMPLATION at least. If it is a vehicle of salvation it shouldn’t be that hard (as an OLD BELIEVER monk says) I suppose. I think it is indeed that difficult for those who want it to be so or for those who are BESET by demons. To say that prayer is a great labour for everybody is to frame the idea of prayer and to frame hard. It is a kind of UNIFORMITY which they are trying to avoid shaping the text. So I believe and I hope that prayer is our true PRECIOUS HERITAGE and it can be simple and at the same time DIVERSE, and that is able to give us joy.

А.С. [(5,5) 73]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Well, I absolutely agree with that saying. I think that it is the best way to attain humility. The other question is how difficult is to admit that someone is better than you. We all think that we have something special within us, we all think that we know, do, feel better (maybe not on the whole but still in some way). And it is particularly hard to understand (all the more to take after) these words nowadays. Our world is now being obsessed with all the ideas of constant self-development. Their background idea is nothing more than personal supremacy of an individuum in all its variations. And it is a common norm in the anthropocentric latter-day society (especially in the social culture of megapolises).
I don’t know what to add. It seems to me that we today don’t think about humility, it seems to me that that concept is long gone (even the very word humility is being used more rarely). And I wonder what is the key to humility now?

А.С. [(4) 31,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I think I agree with St. Sisoes the Great about the idea that if you want to attain humility you should learn to acknowledge other people are better than you. Of course, it is very hard for us because we all are prone to pride and egoism, we often do not want to admit that we are worse but we want to succeed in something, stand out of the rest and be praised. Not all people aim for this but most of them. Some people pay a lot of attention to others’ sins. In this way they begin to think that they are better than these people. Concentrating on the sins of others they stop noticing their own ones. So if we pay attention only to our own sins, we will get rid of the sin of pride that makes it difficult to be humble. Therefore we should be honest with ourselves, we should be aware of our sinfulness and ask for repentance from God.

М.Ч. [(5) 25,25]

1. The barbarian invasions and the breakdown of the Empire empowered THE AUTOCRATIC STRUCTURE OF THE WESTERN CHURCH.
2. It was the Pope who became an AUTOCRAT in the western Europe.
3. THE PAPACY played a huge role in the European history.
4. Many textbooks list THE DARK AGES as extending from 500-1500 AD.
5. The LAITY couldn't understand many theological issues.
6. In Orthodoxy we can't find any example of the SHARP DIVISION BETWEEN CLERGY AND LAITY.
7. DELIBERATE AND MALICIOUS MISTRANSLATION has led to many problems between eastern and western Christendom.
8. THE CHRISTIAN MYSTERY was considered more SPECULATIVE by the Greeks.
9. The sinner sought for REDEMPTION.
10. The Greeks focus more on DEIFICATION of a human.

А.А. [(4,5) 30]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The words of Protopresbyter Theodore Zissis definitely make sense. Faith is not as rational as knowledge is, it is irrational and we may only feel it.
Feeling guides us to the Church. It is one of a few things which may lead us while we are making our path to Christ. It shows us the right way and we can not doubt that as Christ Himself said that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. Also, the Holy Spirit is present there. That convinces us that we need to trust the Church.
So, we with our feeble mind should just submit to it. This shows our deep faith.

В.О. [(4,5) 39]

2. CHARLEMAGNE stroke back to the Emperor with a CHARGE OF HERESY AGAINST the Byzantine Church.
3. In the DARK AGES most of the LAITY were illiterate.
4. The devil always tries to PREVENT people FROM PRAYER but if a person PERSEVERES, he or she prays anyway.
5. Doing GOOD WORKs may help you ATTAIN REST.

В.О. [(5) 34,5]

"Many GOOD WORKS are known to be done by ELDERS and still far more are hidden, because their ASPIRATIONS are firstly aimed at EVER-PRESENT GOD and their greatest deeds are unseen for a human eye. They are BESET by demons and fight against them every day, every hour, every second, for the enemy ever wants to HINDER THEIR JOURNEY. They are eager to ATTAIN the HEAVENLY COURT and JOIN THE UNCEASING DOXOLOGIES." - So thought I until I met an old monk with beautiful deep brown eyes. I asked him how to behave in an UNSEEN WARFARE and if there were any tricks that could help me to win the SPIRITUAL COMBAT. He smiled and looked into my eyes. Then he said "Other people, Patience, Love" and as I was hanged round with things he wanted to give me hand.

А.С. [(6) 27,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree that faith is not an issue of great knowledge and learning...at least for me (It is somehow compounded) if. But I know many people who came to faith through indeed great knowledge and learning. In the beginning they were absolute atheists and only by deepening their research (not necessarily linked with religion) they went step-by-step to their enlightenment. But at the same time we know that great knowledge can lead one from God. And there are many examples as well. So it is a debatable question.
I can't say I agree with the following statement which says that faith is humble submission to the truth of the Church. It is true that for some people the 'humble submission' is indeed the only way to believe. But I am sure that people who went through untrodden thorny paths of learning to their faith are more deep and fervent in their believing. Just because they know what they are doing and absolutely sure that it is the only way (because they've already experienced other ways). I am not saying that they have a lack of submission, as true believers they have it, I'am just trying to show their major line of faith. The 'humble-submission' believers come short of that experience. And little wonder that many of them go astray. For it is a peculiar feature to the human nature to be curious about something new and novel, and, what is more, forbidden. But I have to admit that there are many people who didn't get any education or deep knowledge and they understand the faith only through the submission and humbleness and still their faith is as pure and strong as their educated brothers and sisters have. Here I can remember people with whom I personally talked somewhere in our provinces and who could tell just with their faces how much for them the faith was. What I am trying to say is that the faith cannot be fenced or determined. Faith is as many-faceted as people are. And I think that the quote only reflects the view of its author and has little to do with life that is far more colourful and diverse.

А.С. [(2,5) 21,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The words of Saint Paisios of Mount Athos seem to me a little aggressive and this is the reason why I can agree with the quotation only partly.
The way in which it is said suggests a serious struggle with those who maybe are just not careful in their sayings.
So, the problem is in the questions what we consider as "abusing and reviling holy and sacred things" and how fervent we might be in order to prevent people from such behavior. Otherwise, our actions would be considered as demonic if we cross the line. And still maybe we are more guilty doing nothing than while acting wrongly.

В.О. [(5) 29,5]

1) THE LESTOVKA is a kind of PRAYER-ROPE in pre-schismatic Russia.
2) When somebody is sick we pray with THE CANON FOR THE SICK, and when somebody dies we pray with THE CANON FOR ONE WHO IS DEPARTED.
5) 'THE SON OF THE CHURCH' is one of the OLD RITE Orthodox books.

В.О. [(5,5) 24,5]

1) The priest says that people should SAY THE MORNING PRAYERS every morning to make your spirit stronger.
2) I think, every Christian must ask himself "Do I really love Jesus Christ with a PERFECT LOVE?"

Н.Л. [(0,5) 13,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I think that being scared of anything but God is not right because fear is the factor of our lack of faith. But what's for being numb when we must protect what is precious for us, such as sacred things. We must protect our faith, that is true, but how can we do it by violence? How can we stop anti-religious propaganda by being rude? Frankly, I don't know, but quarreling and fighting isn't the answer.
Violence breeds violence. Jesus Christ was not a fighter but he was stronger than anyone who wanted to do evil to him. Unconditional love, that is the answer. Of course, it may be unrealistic nowadays, as there is so much cruelty on TV, on internet and even in people's hearts, but I hope that no-one can really take our faith from us. People become angry when they feel pain, so true love can melt any, even the coldest heart.

Н.Л. [(3,5) 13]

The ORDER OF FORGIVENESS is my favourite order in the church. It is a good opportunity to feel the spirit of the church.
When I was a little boy and served in the ALTAR, I always overslept all THE HOURS and MORNING PRAYERS but I never did it at Easter. And I always loved Easter HOMILIES ON COMMUNION for they were always inspiring and joyful. I seldom did PRAYERS BEFORE COMMUNION and never understood those people who did it all the time and even didn't receive the Sacraments without having read them up.

А.С. [(4) 19]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I would say that I can't accept such strong words ("demonic") but in that situation I guess it is suitable for such a difficult question. First of all from our history we know that even some of our enemies professing another belief would not profane our relics and churches. They even punished those of them who did it because they respected the religion of others. And here comes the first problem. What punishment deserves one who profaned a relic? Is it equal to a life? And if it is so, then who takes the responsibility for a death? Does a relic cost a human life? I mean it is one thing is when you protect a relic with your own life and another thing is when you kill somebody for sacred things.
Another problem that should be examined as well is what are these holy and sacred things. Do they belong to only one religion (Christianity)? There are other religions too and they have some sacred and holy things (for them) too. And their faith is no smaller than our faith. And we, Christians, don't respect their sacred things are not we those impostors who disrespect ours? And how can we ask for respect then? These questions should be undoubtedly answered by every Christian. Because if there is no truth (the real inner truth that is only given by prayer) in responses, one can become the real evil.

А.С. [(4) 15]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

"You see people abusing and reviling holy and sacred things and others not saying anything. Being meek on such an occasion is demonic". Is this statement true for me or is there anything that I doubt?
Certainly I agree with the quote. It is impossible to be a religious person and at the same time inactive, because, as Apostle James said, the faith is dead without works. This is the aim of a Christian - to prove to God that he is a Christian, so even if people around do not understand you are protecting your faith - God will understand and appreciate your attempt to stop the sacrilege. Of course, some people say that you cannot do anything along with a few blasphemers and your attempts will fail.
Well, I'd like to draw a parallel. Let's say, there is a person, whose mother or father is being vilified by some people. A person hearing them will reflectively try to defend his family, will be confused and indignant. If not, there will appear many questions to him. Does he really love his parents? Are they important to him or not? Why is their honour indifferent to the person?
Certainly, they would still love him, because he (or she) is their son (or daughter), but with the feeling of being betrayed or let down.
The same is about Christians. If one of them really loves God, he will reflectively try to stop the vilification. Otherwise many questions to him will appear.

М.Ч. [(4) 4]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I absolutely agree with Saint Paisios. Being meek on such an occasion is demonic. To my mind in such situations we should always protect our faith and Holy things. If someone is keeping silence and says nothing it’s equal to those who are laughing at Holy things and revile sacred things.
Many times in my previous school (before the Orthodox school) I was in such difficult situations. Hardly anyone was religious and others who were have been always mute. Everyone were laughing at me when I was making the sign of the cross before meals or telling about some Orthodox things. I think that time was one of the hardest periods for me. I was 10, 11 years old and was bullied very often.
But know I’m proud of myself, I realize that every day was kind of fight with myself and with the dark power. I was confronting and I was alone against all but I was with God and he made me strong.

А.Н. [(3,5) 22]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Letters of Saint Nikolai are well known in Christian circles. A lot of people find in these letters instructive and useful instruction. He answered people of all ranges and classes. There were professors, gardeners, a Protestant pastor, believers and sceptics, the rich and poor. He answered with all his love and with striking and memorable words.
In this 75th letter “to a man who is lamenting because he is not religious” Saint Nikolai says that God isn’t hiding from a man, but a sinful man is hiding until he totally loses God.
You can’t see your mind and you’re not trying to do that. So, why do we ask ourselves: ”Where’s God? Why can’t we see him?” We can't see Him with our bodily eyes, we’re not allowed to, we’re too sinful, but we can see Him and feel with our souls.
We should run from darkness that has wrapped us around and turn our faces to light, because God is waiting for us with fiery love.

А.Н. [(2,5) 5,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree with this quotation. In my opinion it’ll be really sinful for a Christian not to read the Gospel and Holy Fathers while we read worldly writings. Probably it can even upset God because the Gospel is the symbol of Christ.
The Holy Gospel is the main book of humanity, which contains life for people. It contains divine facts (truth) that lead us to Salvation. The Gospel is the voice of God. Also when we read Holy Fathers we can take from them a lot of wisdom and answers.
When I read the Holy Gospel (I read it rarely, but I’m trying to read it more often) I feel a kind of light that covers me and helps to solve some questions that I have.
Once I had a problem I could not solve. I took the Gospel, said Jesus Prayer, opened the Book and read a line that contained the answer.

А.Н. [(3) 3]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Today, this quote is particularly relevant, given that the recently adopted the law on the protection of the feelings of churchmen. By the way, what can offend the feelings of a Christian? Doesn't somebody believe? Less likely.
Someone's arguments on the subject of faith can not shake your faith. Another thing is specific acts of people, such as physical desecration of holy and sacred things. Can a churchman's inaction be called demonic in such a situation? In my opinion, it is rather cowardice. You can rely on laws that are designed to protect the rights of people. You can just walk by. The main thing is to act in accordance with your own beliefs. Everyone decides what to do and how to treat it.

Ал.С. [(3,5) 3,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The quote seems to me to be very flamboyant and I can't understand this pathos, yet I know that it should inspire somehow. We can see it in such phrases, " the son of light" (which is meant for a man), and "the fiery love". I could not but admire their beauty, their imagery and still they seem impenetrable to me. The pathos is always repelling me. Why couldn't it be written in a more simple manner? There is supposed to lie religious and sacred sense and I think it should be much deeper and much more personal and more simple than an artistically subtle phrase.
I would compare it with two churches: The first one is a big, luxurious, pompous cathedral and the other is a small, simple, modest church. They are both without a question houses of God but which is more desirable in the matter of prayer? I am certain that many people would choose a quite simple building where nothing would distract them from praying. Just the same is with words. Which are more appropriate and adequate to show the depth of God and his purpose? I think here everybody has to choose according to their hearts. So there is no correct answer to that question.

А.С. [(3) 11]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The main idea of the quote is to advise us to move to the good and turn away from sins.
From the first part we understand that God is light. These words are very common among theologians and were firstly written by John the Theologian. He heard them from the Lord. Gregory the Theologian also used this concept in his writings very often, regarding God as the Sun.
The second part says that God is merciful and He is waiting for our penance and repentance. He is ready to accept a repentant soul because of His great love for people.
So, the words of Saint Nikolai Velimirovich are addressed to each of us in the Christian world. This quotation is an exhortation to follow the commandments of God to inherit eternal life.

В.О. [(5) 19]

(1) In 1054 LEGATES OF THE POPE placed A BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION on THE ALTAR in the Church of Saint Sophia. (2) It was a consequence of gradual ESTRANGEMENT inside Christendom. (3) There had been some theological quarrels over MATTERS OF DOCTRINE such as THE PAPAL CLAIMS and the FILIOQUE.

В.О. [(4,5) 14]

1) When I studied at the theology department, we read a text about the Franciscan ORDER.
2) I believe that people can become true iconographers only by the DIRECT INSPIRATION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. I also assume that the LIFE OF STRICT ENCLOSURE can contribute to the icon painter`s relation with God and SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT, so that his or her works become deeper and grip common people`s attention, and make them reflect on and then strive to attain the ORTHODOX SPIRITUALITY themselves.
3) There were many ECCLESIASTICAL MATTERS that made the Emperors to SUMMON THE COUNCILS.
4) There were always certain arguments between the PRIESTHOOD and the secular power.
5) We had our school blessed through SPRINKLING WITH HOLY WATER last year.

К.Е. [(4,5) 12,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Nikolai Velimirovich`s saying seems to me quite subtle and neat. I assume that the point of it is to remind us that we are God`s children. Our Heavenly Father always waits for our return into His embrace, as the father waited for the return of his prodigal son in the well-known parable from the Holy Scripture.
The Lord is always ready to forgive us, but we must do something for our part, which is to repent sincerely and to turn away from sins. Even though humans are weak creatures who can easily give in to temptation, our God is an ultimate Love and Forgiveness and He always bestows upon His children the absolution of their sins. Personally, I strayed from the flock not once, after I had come to the Orthodox belief. There were long and dark periods of crisis of my faith, and I also had moments when I thought that I came too far away to be forgiven and I was in complete despair. Nevertheless, the thought that I`m God`s prodigal daughter, which emerged in my mind in such moments, always gave hope to my heart and made me take actions.
In my opinion, Nikolai Velimirovich`s saying can be a very good reminder to all those who went astray.

К.Е. [(5) 8]

1) Sometimes people ask a PRIEST for a BLESSINGS of their houses to feel that they are protected from evil.
2) An ICON CORNER is the most important place in the house, because when a person wants to thank God or ask Him for something, he or she can do it on SAINTS' DAYS or any other day by VENERATING ICONS.
3) I'm going to go to church on PALM SUNDAY and bring home BLESSED BRANCHES OF PALM to SPRINKLE my family with HOLY WATER.

1) When I was a child we went to church, I saw the FOOD prepared FOR BLESSINGS on the table, and I thought that we would eat it after the SERVICE.
2) I have never seen a man who says "PEACE BE TO THIS HOUSE", it's kind of strange and old-fashioned.
3) I always forget that in English usage you can not read your PRAYERS but you can SAY them.

Н.Л. [(3) 9,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I think this statement has a remarkable beauty. Firstly, it reminds us that we must strive towards heavens. Secondly, it shows our kinship to God as we are His children. And thirdly, words "calls you with a fiery love" means that God loves us and wants us to be saved. God is love, so I think to reach God we should love each other, which means to see Him in us. Perhaps the author says "son of light" speaking about our souls, comparing them with flashlights in the darkness of our sins.

Н.Л. [(3,5) 6,5]

1. One of the peculiarities of MONASTICISM is monks’ AUSTERITIES, which reveal ORTHODOX SPIRITUALITY.
2. ATHOS is the center of Orthodox monasticism even nowadays.
3. ‘PEACE BE TO THIS HOUSE’ is one of the usual ways of BLESSING someone’s house for the Orthodox people.
4. The work of ELDERSHIP requires SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT from the elder.
5. Living in a CELL is one of the ways of leading the LIFE OF STRICT ENCLOSURE.

В.О. [(5) 9,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The words of Righteous John, Wonderworker of Kronstadt, seem to me justified and logical, as the spiritual is more important than the secular. However, I’m not sure that people will act in the way he advises. The reason is in the difficulty of such reading. Most of the people are not ready to work hard for their spiritual improvement.
Moreover, there is a problem of conscientious reading. We should not read the Holy Fathers or the Gospel only to be “good”, just for the record, it would be a reading condemning us. I believe that if you don’t feel that you are in the right condition or mood, you should not overstep yourself and start reading, you need to be prepared and ready to do it.
So, the idea of Righteous John, Wonderworker of Kronstadt, seems to be an unattainable ideal and, maybe, the problem of worldly reading is not so acute. Sometimes it’s even more helpful for us to read worldly to learn something, as it is more understandable.

В.О. [(4,5) 4,5]

1. When I was a first-year student, I did a report on Daniel the Stylite, who had LED THE SOLITARY LIFE for 33 years on the top of a PILLAR.
2. I believe that the life UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF AN ELDER is much more peaceful than the life of an average modern man.
3. I would like to start LEADING THE LIFE OF STRICT ENCLOSURE one day.
4. I enjoy time spent in SOLITUDE, because I can pray during this time so that the prayer creates silence in my heart.
5. I wish to go on a pilgrimage to MOUNT SINAI.

К.Е. [(3) 3]

ATHOS is where the real EREMITIC life is being led. There are many RELIGIOUS HOUSES on it. There exist different types of MONASTICISM. Some CAN lead an AUSTERE and SOLITARY life, as well as the COMMUNITY LIFE or SEMI-EREMITIC LIFE. The peninsula is located in the AEGEAN in Greece.

А.С. [(5,5) 8]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

My view on the 154th quote of the week. It surely has its point. I do believe that true Christians should read divinely inspired literature. For if he/she is a true Christian, then that reading may help him/her to understand their ways to God more clearly.
But I am strongly against the word "sinful". How can a man say "that is sinful and this is not"? How can a man, even such as Righteous John, judge the deeds of people? Is he the voice of a living reincarnation of God? Isn't it true that only God is supposed to judge our human deeds?
I know that somebody would say that it is a primary duty of a priest to condemn sins. Then I would ask, "Should it be done is such manner?" and "Is the person believed to be divinely-inspired, and if not, may he judge?" That hasty word could have it source only in the path that led him to God and thus could be appropriate only for him. God works in mysterious ways. In such case he has no rights to say such a strong word.
I am certain that the words are very strong and have their power on people. They can bury or revive human's spirit. For example, when we read the Gospel or a beautiful work of literature we can experience joy and if we hear some negative (not necessarily obscene language) strong words that have within them a strong negative connotation, usually we fade.
Therefore I would propose a more reasonable word - the word "careless".

А.С. [(2,5) 2,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Frankly speaking, I find this idea quite curious and thought-provoking. On the one hand, it is simple truth, for a man who dares call himself a Christian must know about his religion and its teaching a lot, but on the other hand, a man can know a lot of information about the teaching of Christ but still do not follow him. Likewise some people have never read any spiritual literature, but throughout their lifetime behave like true Christians.
The spirit is the essence of the person, I believe, so reading the Gospel and the writings of the Holy Fathers makes your spirit stronger. As a result, a man can easier resist the temptation in his or her life, and be more righteous. Isn't it the most important thing in being a Christian and a good man? So, I don't know the right answer, but I strongly believe that it's very important for your soul.

Н.Л. [(3) 3]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I fully agree with the quote of Righteous John, Wonderworker of Kronstadt. If an Orthodox Christian reads worldly writings and at the same time doesn't read the Gospel, then he/she has no right to identify himself/herself with Christians. As for me, Orthodoxy is based on the writings of the Holy Fathers and the Gospel. And thus it's very important for every Christian to have a good and deep understanding of our faith and Christian doctrines.
There are two extremes. The first one is when Christians are too much immersed in the worldly life and forget to read the Holy Scripture. The second extreme is when Christians read the Holy Bible only and nothing besides it. They are too much concentrated on their spiritual life and do not pay much attention to the external life and the world around them. These people are called "neophytes". I cannot approve any of these two extremes. And I think Righteous John reminds us about this.

А.А. [(5) 8]

1. Some pious Orthodox Christians MARK ENTERING AND LEAVING THE CHURCH with prayers and cross themselves three times.
2. When she saw the priest from the church, she CUPPED HER RIGHT HAND OVER LEFT TO RECEIVE THE BLESSING.
3. Some modern buisnesmen ASK the priests to BLESS their new yachts, houses, offices and SPRINKLE them with holy water.
4. The Ivanovs MOVED HOUSE and ASKED THE PRIEST TO BLESS the new house.
5. My grandmother BROUGHT to church the eggs FOR BLESSING with which our family later BROKE THE FAST.

А.А. [(3) 3]

С.Х. [9]

Д.Б. [28]

О.К. [16]

А.В. [1]

2nd year of study: Spring 2019

1. MNEMOSYNON is a liturgical solemn service for the repose of the departed in the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite.
2. An ICON is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, in the cultures of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Roman Catholic, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
3. А COFFIN is a funerary box used for viewing or keeping a corpse, either for burial or cremation.
4. FASTING is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
5. LENT is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later on Holy Saturday, the day before Easter Sunday.
6. The ANNUNCIATION is the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox celebration of the announcement by the Archangel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking His Incarnation.
7. The Christian holiday of PENTECOST, which is celebrated on the seventh Sunday after Easter, commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ while they were in Jerusalem celebrating the Feast of Weeks.
8. The TRANSFIGURATION of Jesus is an event reported in the New Testament when Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant in glory upon a mountain.
9. The DORMITION of the Mother of God is a Great Feast of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches which commemorates the "falling asleep" or death of Mary the Theotokos, and her bodily resurrection before being taken up into heaven.
10. The ICON CORNER, or red corner, is a small worship space prepared in the homes of Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Christians.
11. BLESSING is the infusion of something with holiness, spiritual redemption, or divine will.
12. The Ambon or AMBO is a projection coming out from the sole, as in an Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic church.
13. The ANTIDORON is ordinary leavened bread which is blessed but not consecrated and distributed in Eastern Orthodox Churches and Eastern Catholic Churches that use the Byzantine Rite.
14. The NARTHEX is an architectural element typical of ear1y Christian and Byzantine basilicas and churches consisting of the entrance or lobby area, located at the west end of the nave, opposite the church‘s main altar.
15. PASCHA is a festival and holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day after his burial following his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD.
16. VESPERS is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.
17. A PROSPHORA is a small loaf of leavened bread used in Orthodox Christian and Greek Catholic (Byzantine) liturgies.
18. In religious organizations the LAITY consists of all members who are not part of the Clergy.
19. AUTOCEPHALY is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not respond to any higher-ranking bishop.
20. The ANTIMINS is one of the most important furnishings of the altar in many Eastern Christian liturgical traditions.
21. The EPIGONATION is a vestment used in some Eastern Christian churches.
22. The MITRE is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity.
23. PANAGIA in Medieval and Modern Greek is one of the titles of Mary, mother of Jesus, used especially in Eastern Catholicism and Orthodox Christianity.
24. In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition, the OMOPHORION is the distinguishing vestment of a bishop and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority.
25. The LITURGICAL YEAR consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days are.
26. The ASCENSION of Jesus is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God in heaven.
27. The TRANSFIGURATION of Jesus is an event reported in the New Testament when Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant in glory upon a mountain.
28. PALM SUNDAY is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter which commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem.
30. VESPERS is a sunset evening prayer service.
31. MONASTICISM is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
32. A DEACON is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
33. A BISHOP is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
34. APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops.
35. A PARISH is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese.
36. The CHASUBLE is the outermost liturgical vestment worn by clergy.
37. The term GIRDLE, meaning "belt", commonly refers to the liturgical attire that normally closes a cassock.
38. PANIKHIDA is a liturgical solemn service for the repose of the departed.
39. FASTING is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
40. ADVENT is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for both the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas and the return of Jesus at the Second Coming.
41. CHRISTMAS is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ.
42. The Christian holy day of PENTECOST, which is celebrated fifty days after Easter Sunday, commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ.
43. The GOSPEL BOOK, the CROSS, a SEVEN-BRANCHED CANDLESTICK, the TABERNACLE and the ANTIMINS are particular items which are kept on the holy table.
44. CHALICE, DISKOS, FIVE ALTAR LOAVES, the STAR, the SPEAR, the SPOON, two small VEILS, the large VEIL or AЁR, OIL LAMP and COMMEMORATION BOOK are particular items that are kept on the table of oblation (offering) altar holy table.
45. There are not so many things in the altar: the HOLY TABLE, the TABLE OF OBLATION, ICON, the SOLEA, the AMBO.
My family are traditional people. We are ORTHODOX CHRISTIANS. Not for a long time ago we moved into a new house, and asked the priest to SPRINKLE it with HOLY WATER. Also we asked him to SPRINKLE our new car, boat and our two cats. After SPRINKLING we asked for a PRIEST'S BLESSING.
Also we always pray before a meal. We ask God to bless us with a BOUNTIFUL HAND. After a meal we always pray too. We thank God for the food and ask him not to DEPRIVE US of HEAVENLY KINGDOM.
Usually on Sundays we go to church and pray ON ENTERING it. Then after a service we VENERATE the ICONS. Also when we leave the church we pray ON LEAVING.

О.К. [(29) 56]

1. As a little child I was taught to stand reverently at LITANY. Also my parents told me not to leave the NAVE while the LITURGY lasted. I knew that I should wait for COMMUNION because it is the heart of the Liturgy. I liked being a COMMUNICANT and prepared for that carefully, but it was difficult for me to stay at THANKSGIVING because by that moment I felt quite tired.
2. We already know that Jesus Christ was born by Mariam, called the Mother of God, and such feast as CHRISTMAS appeared. Mariam was a very expected child too. Her parents, Joachim and Anna, were quite old but still without children and people thought the couple wasn't blessed by God. So the birth of Mariam became a significant event. The feast in honor of it is named NATIVITY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD and is celebrated in September.
3. Some people go to church with their children. Even though they can behave badly, shout loudly and even climb the AMBO, it is highly important to accustom them to CHURCH LIFE, which begins after BAPTISM and CHRISMATION. By the way, only if people participate in SACRAMENTS, such as CONFESSION, COMMUNION and ANOINTING WITH OIL, we can say that they are CHURCH MEMBERS.

М.Ч. [(8) 50,5]

1) CHASUBLE is the upper vestments of the priest at the service.
2) Pope Francis became the SUCCESSOR of Pope Benedict the XVIth.
3) The oldest and most important Christian FEAST is PASCHA or PASSOVER.
4) Christians have a custom to keep the PUSSY WILLOW THROUGHOUT the year, decorate with it their ICONS in the house.
5) Products related to VEGAN DIET are vegetables, fruits, nuts and honey.
6) Black CURRANT leaves are widely used in medicine.
7) PRAYER OF ABSOLUTION is said by the priest over the person after Confession.
8) In ICONOGRAPHY, the center of the composition of the ENTRY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD INTO THE TEMPLE is the figure of Mary, who is depicted much smaller than other figures.
9) The MEMORIAL TABLE is part of the FUNERAL.
10) PROSTRATION is a prayer of the body that promotes humility, patience.
11) A MIXTURE OF BOILED WHEAT, CURRANTS AND HONEY is a religious dish that is prepared to COMMEMORATE the DECEASED.
12) It is believed that a good voice is A GIFT FROM GOD.
14) PANIKHIDA or MNEMOSYNON is Church service for the DEPARTED.
15) The COFFIN is a special sarcophagus, made most often of wood and upholstered in fabric, in which it is customary to bury the DEAD.
16) According to the Holy Scripture, JOACHIM AND ANNA HAD BEEN CHILDLESS until an angel appeared to them and said that God heeded their prayers.
17) SPRINKLING the apartment, we protect ourselves from temptations.
18) Sins are divided into MINOR and grave ones.
19) When making a BOW it is necessary to take the APPROPRIATE POSTURE.
20) The social MINISTRY of the Church is an initiated, organized, coordinated activity aimed at helping those in need.
21) Catholics in Western Europe, as well as Orthodox Christians of Georgia decorate their homes with BOX TREE branches on PALM SUNDAY.
22) THE MEETING OF THE LORD is celebrated on February 2 according to the the Gregorian calendar.
23) The event of New Testament history, the ASCENSION of Jesus Christ in the flesh to heaven.
24) At PENTECOST in Italy it is customary to scatter rose petals from the ceiling of churches, in connection with which this holiday in Sicily and other places in Italy was called "Pasqua rosatum"(Italian).
25) Traditionally, apples and grapes are sanctified at TRANSFIGURATION.
26) In Spain and many Spanish-speaking countries children receive gifts at THEOPHANY.
27) SAKKOS is the Bishop's upper liturgical vestments.
28) Great OMOPHORION is a long wide ribbon with images of crosses, skirting the neck, with one end going down on the chest, the other — on the back.
29) SOLEA is the elevation of the floor in front of the altar barrier or iconostasis in a Christian Church.
30) The name of the «wedding» is due to the fact that over the heads of the couple wedding CROWNS are held.
31) Traditionally, the BABY’S BAPTISMAL ROBE is a straight white shirt, necessarily below the knees, certainly new and, of course, made of natural fabric. Its whiteness is a symbol of spiritual purity of the NEWLY BAPTISED.
32) A person usually wears the BAPTISMAL CROSS under the clothes.
33) Before the CHRISMATION, the priest says a prayer for the sending down of the Holy Spirit on a person, and then anoints him crosswise forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth, ears, chest, hands and feet.
34) CONFESSION is a voluntary avowal of one's sins committed before God, sometimes in the presence of a priest as a representative of the Church. It is assumed that the confession includes REPENTANCE.
35) The CUFFS are wide strips of dense fabric with the image of a cross in the middle, which cover the hands in the wrist and are connected to the inner side of the hand with a cord.
36) The ALB is used by all three degrees of the priesthood because they are required to have the same purity of life.
37) The peasant prayed for a BOUNTIFUL harvest.
38) Religious observances such as FASTING can be hard to follow.
39) Her mother announced that she still looked peaky, and felt her FOREHEAD for a fever.
40) Traditionally, CANDLES ARE LIT in memory of the dead.

Ал.С. [(23) 44]

1. God blesses not only people but their good deeds too. We should also ask Him to bless the place we live in. For that HOUSE BLESSING exists.
2. If you don't know a TROPARION or a KONTAKION in honour of a saint or the Mother of God, you can find it in the corresponding akathist. Troparions are sung at the end of the VESPERS and kontakions at MATINS.
3. EXALTATION OF THE CROSS is one of the twelve great feasts. The act of the exaltation happened in 326 year, when the mother of Emperor Constantine, Helena, found the cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified soon after His ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM or PALM SUNDAY. Now the Entry into Jerusalem is also a name for the great feast dedicated to that event.
4. There is a great feast which is celebrated at the time of the fast dedicated to the DORMITION or FALLING ASLEEP OF THE MOTHER OF GOD. The name of the feast is the TRANSFIGURATION. There is a tradition to go to church and BLESS fruit on that day. After the service the priest sprinkles with holy water the food brought by the parishioners while the prayers are sung.

М.Ч. [(5,5) 42,5]

1. Usually it is serious responsibility for priests in big cities to SHEPHERD THEIR FLOCKS, since there are large parishes.
2. Some people find FUNERAL SERVICES drear, but they should believe that God takes THE DEPARTED into His Kingdom.
3. One cannot gain THE LIFE EVERLASTING if he hates his neighbors and wishes them bad fortune.
4. While being at MEMORIAL SERVICES I often begin to think if I do everything correctly to get into the Kingdom of God after the death.
5. In some churches poor people can get the food left at THE MEMORIAL TABLE.
7. If one visits a service dedicated to A MINOR FEAST, God appreciates it.
8. Despite the Great feast the church was empty like WILDERNESS yesterday, probably because people had to go to work.
9. ADVENT is very calm and inspiring time and a good opportunity to think about the meaning of the approaching feast.
10. A few centuries ago a PANAGIA had a deepening in which relics were kept. We can find the description of a panagia in the works of saint Simon, the ARCHBISHOP of Thessaloniki. Also in the writings of Jacob Herr it is said that in the XVIIth century in Greece a BISHOP was given a precious CROSS, which contained RELICS of saints.
11. People come to the CHALICE and the PRIEST GIVES COMMUNION with a SPOON. If a little child is given communion, while preparing him for this it is better not to lie and to say the truth: there is the FLESH and the BLOOD of Christ, not some sweets, honey, etc.

М.Ч. [(9) 37]

41) In the model of THE PENTARCHY, the Christian church is governed by the heads (patriarchs) of the five major episcopal sees of the Roman Empire: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.
42) THE ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATION denotes the ministerial structure of a church and the authority relationships between churches.
43) THE ECCLESIASTICAL ORDER is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion.
44) In relation to other bishops, A DIOCESAN BISHOP may be a suffragan, a metropolitan (if an archbishop) or a primate.
45) A GENERAL COUNCIL is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine.
46) PAPAL AUTHORITY includes the respect and authority that is due to the pope from other bishops and their episcopal sees.
47) The term “HERESY” is usually used to refer to violations of important religious teachings, but is used also of views strongly opposed to any generally accepted ideas.
48) In Roman Catholic Church canon law, an act of SCHISM, like an act of apostasy or heresy, automatically brings the penalty of excommunication on the individual who commits it.
49) The bond uniting Christians as individuals and groups with each other and with Jesus is described as COMMUNION.
50) AN APOSTOLIC FOUNDATION is an episcopal see whose foundation is attributed to one or more of the apostles of Jesus or to one of their close associates.
51) Mourners and worshipers should stand throughout THE FUNERAL SERVICE, during which the priest will lead the Divine Liturgy, say prayers, lead the Dismissal, and recite “Memory Eternal.”
52) The various prayers for THE DEPARTED have as their purpose praying for the repose of the departed, comforting the living, and reminding the living of their own mortality.
53) PANIKHIDA is a liturgical solemn service for the repose of the departed.
54) In Biblical terms, kissing an Icon has to be done with that intent as does the actions of BOWING and prostration.
55) The Old Testament closes with the prophecy of the day of the Lord and the coming of THE SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS.
56) The usual FAST in the Old Testament began at sundown and extended to sundown the second day.
57) THE DORMITION is celebrated on 28 August as the Feast of the Dormition of the Mother of God.
58) GREAT LENT officially begins on Clean Monday, seven weeks before Pascha and runs for 40 contiguous days.
59) The season of EASTER begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the 40th day, the Feast of the Ascension.
60) RESURRECTION concerns the resurrection of Jesus, but also includes the resurrection of Judgment Day known as the resurrection of the dead.
61) In the case of saints, the Church commemorates their date of death, with Saint John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary as the few whose birth dates are commemorated, e.g. THE NATIVITY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD is on 21 September.
62) THE EXALTATION OF THE CROSS is one of the Twelve Great Feasts of the church year.
63) The feast of THE ENTRY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD IN THE TEMPLE is associated with an event recounted not in the New Testament, but in the apocryphal Protoevangelium of James.
64) ADVENT is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for both the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas.
65) Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches celebrate THE THEOPHANY of Jesus Christ on the 6th of January according to a liturgical calendar as one of the "Great Feasts".
66) The Feast of THE ANNUNCIATION is one of the twelve "Great Feasts" of the liturgical year, and is among the eight of them that are counted as "feasts of the Lord".
67) The Christian holy day of PENTECOST commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ while they were in Jerusalem celebrating the Feast of Weeks.
68) THE TRANSFIGURATION is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels.
69) In the accounts of the four canonical Gospels, THE TRIUMPHAL ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM takes place in the days before the Last Supper, marking the beginning of his Passion.
70) During Pascha, in place of "hello" or its equivalent, one is to greet another person with "CHRIST IS RISEN!" or "The Lord is Risen!".
71) In Christianity IDOLATRY connotes the worship of something or someone other than God as if it were God.
72) There are DOCTRINES such as the Trinity, the virgin birth and atonement in Christianity.
73) Christians don't MAKE OBEISANCE to the nature of wood but we make obeisance to Him who was crucified on the Cross.
74) The devil said to The Lord Jesus, ‘All these I will give you, if you will fall down and WORSHIP me'.
75) People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called ICONOCLASTS.
76) PALM SUNDAY commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, an event mentioned in each of the four canonical Gospels.
77) A BLESSING is the infusion of something with holiness, spiritual redemption, or divine will.
78) THE ICON CORNER is a small worship space prepared in the homes of Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Christians.
79) The term "LITURGY" literally in Greek means "work for the people", but a better translation is "public service" or "public work".
80) Branches of PUSSY WILLOW are used both in Europe and America for spring decoration on Palm Sunday, as a replacement for palm branches, which do not grow that far north.

С.Х. [(19,5) 46,25]

1) THE EPITRACHILION is the liturgical vestment worn by priests and bishops of the Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches as the symbol of their priesthood, corresponding to the Western stole.
2) THE GOSPEL originally meant the Christian message itself, but in the 2nd century it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out.
3) THE "KINGDOM OF GOD" and its equivalent form "Kingdom of Heaven" in the Gospel of Matthew is one of the key elements of the teachings of Jesus in the New Testament.
4) The Christian concept of THE "HOLY SPIRIT" as one personality of God in the Trinity.
5) THE DIVINE PRESENCE is a concept in religion, spirituality, and theology that deals with the ability of a god or gods to be "present" with human beings.
6) PAGANISM is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for people in the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism.
7) THE EDICT OF MILAN was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
8) THE FIRST COUNCIL OF NICAEA was the first effort to attain consensus in the Church through an assembly representing all of Christendom.
9) THE NEW TESTAMENT is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
10) DIVINE GLORY is revealed to Humble Ones.
11) Many Christians consider THE SACRAMENTS to be a visible symbol of the reality of God, as well as a means by which God enacts his grace.
12) In the Eastern Orthodox Church the Rite of BETROTHAL is traditionally performed in the narthex (entranceway) of the church, to indicate the couple's first entrance into the married estate.
13) THE MARRIAGE CROWNS reveal that the man and woman, in their union with Christ, participate in His Kingship.
14) THE COMMON CUP of sweet wine is blessed and shared by the couple as a sign of their common life together, a sharing of joys and sorrows, successes and failures, hopes and fears.
15) THE WEDDING CANDLES represent the couple's faith and willingness to follow the Light of Truth, Jesus Christ, and that they will have their way through life lighted by the teachings of the Church.
16) In Christian theology, REDEMPTION is a metaphor for what is achieved through the Atonement; therefore, there is a metaphorical sense in which the death of Jesus pays the price of a ransom, releasing Christians from bondage to sin and death.
17) According to the Gospel of John, Jesus said "SALVATION is from the Jews."
18) THE DIVINITY in the Bible is considered to be the Godhead itself, or God in general.
19) The teaching of DEIFICATION OR THEOSIS in Eastern Orthodoxy refers to the attainment of likeness of God, union with God or reconciliation with God.
20) THE INCARNATION of Christ is a central Christian doctrine that God became flesh, assumed a human nature, and became a man in the form of Jesus, the Son of God and the Second Person of the Trinity.
21) MONOPHYSITISM is the Christological position that after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was divine.
22) ARIANISM asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God.
23) The Orthodox Church, as do other Christian Churches, holds that God TRANSCENDS all creation.
24) Christ is "ONE IN ESSENCE" with the Father.
25) Demonstrations have been held protesting the behavior of those in charge of THE SEE OF JERUSALEM in front of various church and civil establishments.
26) Christian THEOLOGIANS use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument.
27) The Mystery of ANOINTING WITH OIL is given for healing (both physical and spiritual) and for the forgiveness of sin.
28) RECONCILIATION is the end of the estrangement, caused by original sin, between God and humanity.
29) During the mystery of anointing with oil, priests say Psalm 50, followed by the chanting of a special canon, then follow SEVEN SERIES OF EPISTLES AND GOSPELS, long prayers, Ektenias and anointings.
30) During the holy mystery of anointing with oil, a table is prepared, upon which is set a vessel containing WHEAT.
31) ORDINATION is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.
32) The deacon wears THE ORARION over his left shoulder with the front portion draped over his left forearm.
33) THE GOOD SHEPHERD is an image used in the pericope of John in which Jesus Christ is depicted as the Good Shepherd who lays down his life for his sheep.
34) In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and in the Eastern Catholic Churches, the equivalent vestment of A CHASUBLE is the phelonion.
35) As a Christian liturgical vestment, THE GIRDLE is a long, rope-like cord tied around the waist over the alb or cassock.
36) THE EPIGONATION'S origin is traced to the practice of Byzantine Emperors awarding ceremonial swords to their military commanders in recognition of their valour in defending the empire.
37) THE SAKKOS is a vestment worn by Orthodox and Greek Catholic bishops instead of the priest's phelonion.
38) THE OMOPHORION is the distinguishing vestment of a bishop and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority.
39) MONASTICISM means a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
40) Most Greek churches dedicated to the Virgin Mary are called PANAGIA.

С.Х. [(19) 26,75]

I remember how we celebrated PALM SUNDAY. This feast COMMEMORATES Jesus coming to Jerusalem before the PASSION. We brought a bunch of PUSSY WILLOW to the church. The priest SPRINKLED THE Holy WATER on it. From then this PUSSY WILLOW was kept in the ICON CORNER near the SUPPLY OF Holy WATER.

А.А. [(3,5) 50]

I always ask myself, what is the difference between "TO WORSHIP" and "TO VENERATE (REVERENCE)". We know that God DEIFIED MATTER making it SPIRIT-BEARING but why then we don't worship the icons? And do we worship or venerate THE PRECIOUS AND LIFE-GIVING CROSS? I think there should be an explanation. And I wonder if there are some philological not only DOCTRINAL ones (about those two words). But indeed when you are in church and few candles are LIT icons are able to show ALL THE MYSTERIES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.

А.С. [(5) 68,5]

(1) One of the kinds of monasticism is the EREMITIC LIFE that means LEADING THE SOLITARY LIFE.
(2) Another form is the COMMUNITY LIFE under a COMMON RULE.
(3) And the third way is the SEMI-EREMITIC LIFE when between two and six brethren live together under the GUIDANCE OF AN ELDER.
(4) The elder is often a LAY MONK of SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT and wisdom.
(5) The PRIESTHOOD and the IMPERIAL POWER had their own sphere of influence.

В.О. [(5) 107]

1.As the Church continued to expand, new churches in important cities gained their own BISHOP.
2. The Canon law of the Roman Catholic Church holds that the PRIESTHOOD is a sacred and perpetual vocational state, not just a profession (which is a reason for, and symbolized by, the state of celibacy).
3. During the Mystery (Sacrament) of Ordination, a priest or deacon is taken in procession three times around the Holy Table (altar), after each circuit he bows down before the bishop and kisses his EPIGONATION and his right hand.
4. The SAKKOS was originally worn by the Emperor as an imperial vestment, symbolizing the tunic of disgrace worn by Christ during his trial and mockery.
5. In 394 AD, the holy girdle moved from India to Uraha and then to Homs in Syria, where it was placed in Saint Mary Church of the Holy Belt, also known as The Church of the Lady of the GIRDLE.
6. The Eastern MITRE is made in the shape of a bulbous crown, completely enclosed, and the material is of brocade, damask or cloth of gold.
7. Early Christian MONASTICISM drew its inspiration from the examples of the Prophet Elijah and John the Baptist, who both lived alone in the desert, and above all from the story of Jesus’ time in solitary struggle with Satan in the desert, before his public ministry.
8. The FUNERAL SERVICE is composed of Psalms, ektenias (litanies), hymns and prayers.
9. A brief “PANIKHIDA,” sometimes called a “Litiya,” is celebrated at the burial site, followed the prayers for the “sealing” of the grave.
10. COFFINS are made of many materials, including steel, various types of wood, and other materials such as fiberglass or recycled kraft paper.
11. EPISTLES in prose and verse were a major genre of literature among the Greeks and particularly the Romans.
12. The One described as the SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS can be no other than Jesus Christ Himself to Whom the ends of the earth will sing "Glory to the Righteous One".
13. Besides the Twelve Great Feasts, the Orthodox Church knows five other FEASTS that rank as great feasts, yet without being numbered among the twelve.
14. FASTING is not just about food; it is also about practicing discipline and self-control.
15. The purpose of LENT is the preparation of the believer for Easter through prayer, doing penance, mortifying the flesh, repentance of sins, almsgiving, and denial of ego.
16. The event is normally called the DORMITION, though there are many Orthodox parishes in English-speaking countries with the name Assumption.
17. The monastery reminds of the "WILDERNESS" in which St. John the Baptist lived as an orphaned child and throughout the years which prepared him for public ministry.
18. Church of NATIVITY OF THE MOST HOLY THEOTOKOS is a Serbian Orthodox church in the village of Novaci, Serbia.
19. The EXALTATION OF THE CROSS is one of the twelve great feasts in the yearly Church cycle.
20. It is clear that during the ADVENT we must abstain from meat and dairy products.
21. Principal dishes on the CHRISTMAS table in old Russia included a variety of pork (roasted pig), stuffed pig's head, roasted meat chunks, jelly, and aspic.
22. Traditional analysis of the Biblical passages led Christian scholars to understand THEOPHANY as an unambiguous manifestation of God to man, where "unambiguous" indicates that the seers or seer are of no doubt that it is God revealing himself to them.
23. The ANNUNCIATION has been one of the most frequent subjects of Christian art.
24. PASCHA normally falls either one or five weeks later than the feast as observed by Christians who follow the Gregorian calendar.
25. The ASCENSION is a sign and token of the Second Coming.
26. On PENTECOST the High Priest was to take two loaves of freshly baked wheat bread and offer them before the Lord.
27. During the reign of the emperor Paul the First, the regimental TRANSFIGURATION cathedral received the honorary title "of all the Guards".
28. PALM SUNDAY, or the "Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem" as it may be called in Orthodox Churches, is one of the Twelve Great Feasts of the liturgical year.
29. In eastern Christian churches, such as Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic, PUSSY WILLOW BRANCHES are blessed.
30. Ideally, the ICON CORNER is located so that it is visible when one first enters the house from the main entrance.
31. By BLESSING WATER, Catholic priests praise God and ask him for his grace.
32. The Greek Catholic and Orthodox Churches see the Divine LITURGY as transcending time and the world.

А.Н. [(15) 41]

1) Half of the lights in the church were turned off, and there was no one there except a priest and two PENITENTS.
2) Gospels written by Mark, Luke and Matthew – the EVANGELISTS that weren’t a part of the Twelve Disciples – are also called Synoptic Gospels.
3) Unfortunately, PAGANISM is still widespread in many Asian countries.

1) Every Christian must seek to ATTAIN SALVATION.
2) There were sharp disputes regarding MANHOOD and GODHEAD of Christ during the first centuries of the existence of the Church.

1) We have two weeks before our BETROTHAL, so the rings have to be completed in that time.
2) Couples usually keep their WEDDING CANDLE and light it to pray when one of them is ill.
3) Our university is one of few places in Moscow where you can become a THEOLOGIAN.
1) Monks of Mount Athos are known for their AUSTERE way of life.
2) Thousands of people gathered here to listen to the Patriarch’s SERMONS.

1) In my opinion, Cyril is a worthy SUCCESSOR of Alexius II.
2) The Third General Council was held in EPHESUS in 431.

1) I know almost everyone in the PARISH that I belong to.
2) Hypocrites put their ‘righteousness’ in the window to be praised, and interpreted the MOSAIC LAW literally, ignoring its deeper meaning.
3) Almost all bishops in the western part of this country FELL INTO that HERESY.

1) A bishop’s MITRE is often decorated with silver, gold, and jewels.
2) The history of MONASTICISM in our country begins more than a thousand years ago – shortly after the Baptism of Rus’.
3) Constantinople (or, as it is called now, Istanbul) has been under INFIDEL control for more than 500 years.

1) The MAHOMETAN EXPANSION led to the conquest of Spain at the beginning of the 8th century.
2) Some people believe that one day Orthodox and Catholic Churches will be BROUGHT BACK INTO COMMUNION with each other.

1) Will you go to the FUNERAL SERVICE tomorrow? I think you should, because the relatives of THE DECEASED need support now.
2) If THE ICONODULES had lost to THE ICONOCLASTS back in the day, I’m afraid to imagine how our Church would look now.

1) It is CUSTOMARY for us to sing prayers before lessons.
2) I figured out that all the FASTS throughout the year draw up to more than a half of it.
3) A PROCESSION usually goes around the church, but sometimes its route can be much longer.

1) I read a book about the traveler who went to the Ararat massif trying to find the NOAH’S Ark.
2) In the past, New Year was celebrated not during the ADVENT, but after Christmas.

1) We must VANQUISH all temptations of this world.
2) An angel suddenly appearing before you in all his radiant power is a rather FEARSOME sight; that’s why they say ‘Do not be afraid’ when they show themselves to people’s eyes.
3) Some Jews still believe that the MESSIAH is yet to come.

1) Some people ASK PRIESTS FOR A BLESSING every time they see them, just as a form of ‘greeting’; the others think that it shouldn’t be done that way.
2) When a Christian moves into a new house, he usually BLESSES it by sprinkling holy water in the rooms (or asks a priest to do that for him).
3) Orthodox Church does a lot of CHARITABLE WORK – it runs hospitals and children’s homes, donates money to various charity funds, helps homeless and poor people, etc.

Д.Б. [(17,5) 50]

1. Heresies such as, for example, ARIANISM tried to IMPAIR THE TEACHING OF THE NEW TESTAMENT saying it was impossible for a man to ATTAIN full SALVATION whereas the only thing that hinders THE SALVATION OF MAN is SINFULNESS.
2. In attempts to protect THE TRANSCENDENCE OF GOD Arius emphasised the difference between God and CREATION and assumed the Son to be a superior CREATURE making MAN’S “DEIFICATION” impossible but the Council answered, “Christ is “ONE IN ESSENCE” with the Father”.
4. THE INCARNATE CHRIST being FULLY GOD and FULLY MAN formed a bridge between God and man making it possible for human beings to ACHIEVE UNION WITH GOD and delivering them from THE BONDAGE OF SIN AND DEATH.
5. The purpose of THE INCARNATION was named by SAINT ATHANASIUS: “so that man might be made God” which means man could be “DEIFIED” taking a share in THE DIVINE GLORY.

1. CANON 7 of the Council of Nicaea touched upon the subject of THE VISIBLE ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH: it gave THE SEE OF JERUSALEM the next place in honor after three great centers (Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch).
2. Four THEOLOGIANS made different contributions to improve the Creed: one of them emphasized THE UNITY OF GOD, the reason for naming Him CONSUBSTANTIAL, while three other CAPPADOCIAN Fathers marked out GOD’S THREENESS.
4. Some of the CRUSADERS were furious fighters.

1. There was a controversy at the Third General Council held in EPHESUS: although the title “MOTHER OF GOD” (THEOTOKOS) at that time was already accepted in POPULAR DEVOTION, Nestorius, being THE PROTAGONIST of the tradition of ANTIOCH, rejected to call such THE VIRGIN MARY, he stated that she was the one that gave birth only to Christ’s HUMANITY, not DIVINITY. The dispute was won by SAINT CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA, the SUCCESSOR of Theophilus, and now the word Theotokos is as important in THE DOCTRINE OF THE INCARNATION as the word homoousios in THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY.
3. The heretic teaching MONOPHYSITISM endangered THE FULLNESS OF CHRIST’S MANHOOD but the heresy was refuted by ACCLAMATION of THE TOME OF SAINT LEO THE GREAT, POPE OF ROME where it is clearly stated that the Son is TRULY GOD AND TRULY MAN.

1. THE PENTARCHY was a model of Church organization where five sees, all of which CLAIMED APOSTOLIC FOUNDATION, were subjected to the ORDER OF PRECEDENCE and had a head bishop who bore the title of PATRIARCH.
2. Sometimes there starts a confusion: ALL BISHOPS SHARE EQUALLY IN THE APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION, their SACRAMENTAL POWERS are all the same and every DIOCESAN BISHOP can come to A GENERAL COUNCIL and speak his mind, so why there is such thing as the system of Patriarchs and Metropolitans? The answer is it is a matter of ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATION and in the case of the hierarchy the Church is viewed from the viewpoint of ECCLESIASTICAL ORDER.
3. The Orthodox Church rejects the doctrine of PAPAL AUTHORITY but accepts the PRIMACY OF HONOR of the See of Rome – it is important the word ‘PRIMACY’ is used here, not ‘SUPREMACY’.
4. There are many parts in a priest’s VESTMENTS: CUFFS, AN ALB which is of white colour, A CHASUBLE, A GIRDLE which is a symbol of divine strength, A STOLE, and THE EPIGONATION.

1. The parts that distinguish A BISHOP’S VESTMENTS from a priest’s are such: A SAKKOS, AN OMOPHORION, A PALITSA, A MITRE and a staff, and A PANAGIA.
2. Although Arians formed no LASTING SCHISM, some of the Great Councils were A ROCK OF OFFENCE because protagonists of some of the heretic teachings wouldn’t accept the decisions of the Councils, despite the fact that several attempts were made to BRING THEM BACK INTO COMMUNION.
3. THE RISE OF ISLAM occurred at the beginning of the seventh century, THE HEJAZ is the place from which the MOHAMMEDAN EXPANSION started, spreading to the other regions, such as PALESTINE, Syria, and Egypt. SMALL BODIES OF MOUNTED RAIDERS drove in every direction and the Arab invasions have been called A CENTRIFUGAL EXPLOSION. 4. The fact that John says he was unworthy to STOOP DOWN and UNLOOSE sandals indicates his humility.

There was both outer and inner influence on THE ICONOCLASTS: MOSLEM and Jewish ideas, on the one hand, people inside the Church who saw A LATENT IDOLATRY in venerating icons and who even supported THE ISAURIAN EMPERORS attacking the icons, on the other hand. THE EMPRESS IRENE SUSPENDED THE PERSECUTION of icons started in 726 as she belonged to THE ICONODULES who had an opposite point of view on the MATTER. Then another empress started to attack holy images but finally everything ended up well and the victory of THE HOLY IMAGES is COMMEMORATED IN A SPECIAL SERVICE CELEBRATED ON “ORTHODOXY SUNDAY” and is called “THE TRIUMPH OF ORTHODOXY”. While this service is performed, THE TRUE FAITH – ORTHODOXY – IS PROCLAIMED, ITS DEFENDERS ARE HONORED, AND ANATHEMAS PRONOUNCED ON ALL WHO ATTACK THE HOLY ICONS. SAINT JOHN OF DAMASCUS was THE CHIEF CHAMPION OF THE ICONS during the first attack, SAINT THEODORE OF STUDIUM – during the second.

1. The charge of IDOLATRY was insupportable; in fact, the Orthodox aren’t GUILTY OF IDOLATRY: they don’t MAKE OBEISANCE to the material which icons are made of, the Cross of two BEAMS is adored because of Christ, wood itself doesn’t mean anything and THE WORSHIP is DUE TO GOD ALONE: the Orthodox don’t WORSHIP ICONS, BUT REVERENCE OR VENERATE THEM.
2. We couldn’t depict the INCORPOREAL and UNCIRCUMSCRIBED God of old but after God DEIGNED to dwell in MATTER we can make an image of Him and here is the DOCTRINAL importance of the icons: they safeguard the doctrine of the Incarnation.
3. The materials of which the icons are made can be A VEHICLE OF THE SPIRIT and can reflect THE CELESTIAL GLORY because God proved MATTER CAN BE REDEEMED, he made matter ‘SPIRIT-BEARING’.
4. NAZARETH OF GALILEE is the place where Jesus Christ came from and THE JORDAN is the place where he was BAPTIZED.
5. The names of CONSTANCE and TRENT are quite unknown among THE FAITHFUL yet the majority of the CLERGY at least have heard of them.

1. In our UNTHEOLOGICAL AGE it’s hard to imagine that trade contacts could INVOKE THE TRINITY and BE MARKED WITH THE SIGN OF THE CROSS.
2. There were disputes whether Christ is THE BEGOTTEN or THE UNBEGOTTEN.
4. Saint John THE ALMSGIVER gave away the wealth of his SEE to help the poor.
5. Some people do CHARITABLE WORK so that God would BESTOW UPON THEM the kingdom of heaven.

MONASTICISM is a way of life with AUSTERITIES and WITHDRAWAL FROM SOCIETY, which counterbalanced AN ESTABLISHED CHRISTENDOM and FULFILLED A PROPHETIC AND ESCHATOLOGICAL MINISTRY in the life of the Church. There are three forms of monasticism and through all of them one can enter ORTHODOX SPIRITUALITY: firstly, THE EREMITIC LIFE where a hermit LEADS THE SOLITARY LIFE, for example, on the top of the PILLARS, secondly, the COMMUNITY LIFE in which monks live together in a monastery under A COMMON RULE, and, finally, a SEMI-EREMITIC LIFE where a group of brethren dwells together UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF AN ELDER. Many of the ASCETIC HOUSES were located in Egypt including even the great PIONEER in cenobitic monasticism - Saint Pachomius of Egypt, and people making PILGRIMAGE to Jerusalem wanted to attend RELIGIOUS HOUSES in Egypt as well. Later PALESTINE became the center of the monastic movement, there was an important monastery founded by Saint Sabbas, to the community of which JOHN OF DAMASCUS belonged. Also, there was another important spot, which is still present (as well as the first one), the monastery of Saint Catherine at MOUNT SINAI.

А.В. [(78) 129]

I remember how we celebrated THE ANNUNCIATION with my parents. We MET FOR THE FEAST after the service with my parents’ friends.
Then another wonderful feast was PALM SUNDAY. I liked the icon of THE ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM. Jesus came into the city RIDING ON A DONKEY, so humble and calm. People greeted him and WAVED PALM BRANCHES the way we did at church, shouting “HOSANNA”.
PENTECOST was my favourite feast of the year! The church was full of green leaves and branches and I liked the smell. My mother told me that on PENTECOST we celebrate THE REVELATION OF THE TRINITARIAN GOD. THE HOLY SPIRIT DESCENDED UPON THE APOSTLES. They were granted the gift of speaking different languages. THE FIERY TONGUES were given to the DISCIPLES to SPREAD THE GOSPEL all over the world.

А.А. [(6,5) 27,5]

1) THE ASCENSION is connected with the ascent of risen Jesus into heaven.
2) While venerating the icons we do not MAKE OBEISANCE to stone or wood, but to the person depicted, so we are not GUILTY OF IDOLATRY.
3) When God was INCORPOREAL and UNCIRCUMSCRIBED He could not be depicted.

В.О. [(2,5) 64]

1) TO ACHIEVE UNION WITH GOD is the main goal for the believers, that's why we say PRAYERS and wear the cross.
2) Christ has two NATURES: DIVINE and HUMAN.
3) I don't quite remember what was A ROCK OF OFFENCE, frankly, it doesn't matter anymore.

Н.Л. [(1,5) 40]

1) BONDAGE to our bad habits interferes with goodness in us. For example, laziness.
2) God acts everywhere, even in the most DESOLATE wilderness, He BESTOWS His love on every creature on Earth.
3) There was a COFFIN in the centre of church, I heard the MOURNING.

Н.Л. [(2) 16]

1) The bishop IMMERSED my cousin in water and ANNOUNCED that he is protected from all evil.
2) Any WAYWARD man can find the SАLVATION in SERVING to God.
3) He said to me:"I have never said REDEMPTION comes easy, but if you are strong enough, you will be REWARDED for your patience".

Н.Л. [(1,5) 14]

1) Every human being wants their sins to be forgiven.
2) It is never too late for the REPENTANCE.
3) If you pray every day you will ATTAIN good results in your spiritual life.

Н.Л. [(0) 12,5]

1) If a man is sick, ELDERS OF THE CHURCH pray over him.
2) I heard the PRAYER OF ABSOLUTION and understood that ANOINTING is almost over.
3) The most important meaning of a sacrament is RECONCILIATION WITH GOD.
4) This SACRAMENT OF HEALING can help any sick soul.

1) My friend is waiting for ORDINATION TO THE PRIESTHOOD.
2) This FAST was started a week ago and I don't want to eat any meat at all.
3) Your OBEDIENCE is your duty if you want to be a Christian.

Н.Л. [(4) 12,5]

2) ALL THE MYSTERIES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION are shown in Orthodox Church art.
3) The Iconoclasts were convinced that the Iconodules were GUILTY OF IDOLATRY.
4) Following the CYCLE OF FEASTS AND FASTS is the way of Christian people's lives.
5) Christ became incarnate to expand and FULFILL THE COMMANDMENTS.

1) In our UNTHEOLOGICAL AGE CHRISTMAS is used as an event for marketing purposes.
2) Cyril was INTEMPERATE in his actions and sometimes might be ACRIMONIOUS but that was because of the desire to follow the Christian faith.
3) Saint John THE ALMSGIVER did a kind of CHARITABLE WORK giving all the wealth of his SEE to the poor.
4) Christian feasts include TWELVE GREAT FEASTS, MINOR FEASTS and SAINTS' DAYS.
5) ADVENT is the fast before the NATIVITY OF CHRIST.

В.О. [(8,5) 61,5]

1) There are SEVEN CANDLES around the dish.
2) There are SEVEN COTTON BUDS around the dish.
3) There is a WHEAT all around the dish.
4) DIAKONOS means servant in Greek.
5) Diacon is a GO-BETWEEN between the body of the church and the sacraments.
6) A SAKKOS is a robe with white sleeves that means chasuble.
7) An OMOPHORION is a long flat scarf wourn around the shoulders.
8) A PALITSA is a diamond shaped piece of brocade which hangs on the bishop's hip.

О.К. [(2,5) 27]

The family of Mota were fasting very strictly during THE LENT. They were on a VEGAN diet. THE GREAT FAST was an important event. They followed the example of Jesus who was fasting in the WILDERNESS. They were preparing for the MINISTRY as Christ did. They went together to the church services and made prostrations not only in church, but also during their PERSONAL PRAYERS. They were very educated and never prostrated on Sunday, as Sunday is the day of RESURRECTION.

А.А. [(3,5) 21]

1) THE ICONOCLASTS and THE ICONODULES struggled with each other over issues concerning Christian art.
3) SAINT JOHN OF DAMASCUS lived in Moslem territory which was a kind of THE PROTECTOR OF ORTHODOXY and he could work more freely there.
4) DURING THE MEMORIAL SERVICE called also PANIKHIDA the DEPARTED are commemorated.
5) FUNERAL SERVICE is performed over THE DEAD and reminds us of the Resurrection.

В.О. [(7,5) 53]

To be honest I hate FUNERALS. It is personal but I just can't stand this gloomy atmosphere overwhelmed with mourning. Even MEMORIAL SERVICES that can be held many years after THE DEPARTED was buried, seem to me unpleasant and unhealthy if they are wearing that blackness and grief where there is no place for joy and bright memory. Once I participated in a great FUNERAL SERVICE. It was our choir conductor. There were tears and sorrow, we looked at him in the COFFIN with PRAYER OF ABSOLUTION in his hand and couldn't help crying but the whole FUNERALS was joyful and our joy flowed into songs that we sang together (with watered eyes) and there was no room for cold and darkness. I'm sure funerals should be more cheerful and joyful than they are. The JOY OF RESSURECTION should not be forgotten.

А.С. [(4,5) 33,5]

PETRINE TEXTS. Those NEW TESTAMENT texts which are held by Catholics (mainly, but not exclusively, by Roman Catholics), to establish the SUPREME authority of Peter over the church, whose foundation, after Christ, he is. On these texts, the PAPAL AUTHORITY in fact and theory is founded.

А.С. [(3) 29]

The BISHOP was very pleased to see his mother again. He cared for her very much. Then he asked the cell attendant to give him the VESTMENTS. The bishop was proud of them. During the service the MITRE and OMOPHORION were shining bright. Especially he liked PANAGIA which had an image of the Mother of God. PANAGIA always reminded him of his early monastic life, when he decided to GIVE UP LIFE IN THE WORLD and follow Christ. Now he's 60 and DEVOTED HIS LIFE COMPLETELY TO GOD. His LIFE OF PRAYER AND FASTING was worth it. He could never have become a decent husband.

А.А. [(5) 17,5]

1) The bishop wears several specific vestments such as an OMOPHORION, PALITSA, SAKKOS, MITRE, STAFF and PANAGIA which the priest and the deacon can not wear.
2) To be CONSECRATED A BISHOP is a great honor as it is THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF PRIESHOOD and a heavy burden as the bishop must oversee the affairs of the diocese and SHEPHERD HIS FLOCK.
3) Among the five great sees an ORDER OF PRECEDENCE was established and they all CLAIMED APOSTOLIC FOUNDATION.
4) Patriarchs and Metropolitans are appointed according to ECCLESIASTICAL ORDER but we all should remember that ALL BISHOPS SHARE EQUALLY IN THE APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION.
5) Before the sixth Council there was THE RISE OF ISLAM and MOHAMMEDAN EXPANSION developed very fast.

В.О. [(7,5) 45,5]

1) My cat felt unwell yesterday in the morning, so I came to the church after THE GREAT ENTRANCE.
2) I'm standing in a line for the COMMUNION.
3) Prayers of THANKSGIVING are said after the final prayers of the Liturgy.
4) CHRISMATION is the seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit.
5) During Baptism and Chrismation besides water the priest also uses BRUSH, OIL, CHRISM, SPONGE, SCISSORS and BAPTISMAL ROBE.
6) There you can see PRIEST'S HAND CROSS.
7) ORARION is a long narrow stole worn over the left shoulder.
8) CUFFS symbolise obedience and mean that the deacon is ready to serve Christ.
9) The priest wears an ALB, a white garment comparable to the baptismal robe.
10) The CHASUBLE that is on that priest is one of the most beautiful I have ever seen.

О.К. [(7) 7,5]

1. During the procedure of CHRISMATION, the priest ANOINTS DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BODY with CHRISM.
2. With the issuing of the 'EDICT' OF MILAN came not only THE OFFICIAL TOLERATION OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH but the suppression of PAGANISM as well - it was no longer allowed to perform PAGAN RITES.
3. The point of THE COUNCIL OF NICAEA, similar to that of all such GATHERINGS, was to prevent men from DEVIATING INTO ERROR AND HERESY.

А.В. [(6) 18,75]

1. The Catholic Church and the Old Catholic Church recognise seven SACRAMENTS : Baptism , Reconciliation (Penance or Confession), Eucharist (or Holy Communion), Confirmation , Marriage (Matrimony), Holy Orders, and Anointing of the Sick (Extreme Unction).
2. For this reason a man shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his wife and they shall BECOME ONE FLESH.
3. Some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, and require a separate civil MARRIAGE for official purposes.
4. The Anglican Communion, as well as the Methodist Church and Presbyterian Church, has questions & responses for family members in its Rite of BETROTHAL.
5. The lighting of a "WEDDING CANDLE " is a relatively new inclusion in wedding ceremonies, first appearing sometime in the second half of the 20th century, and most commonly found in American Christian weddings.
6. LITANY, in Christian worship and some forms of Judaic worship, is a form of prayer used in services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions.
7. SOLEA—the elevation of the floor in front of the altar barrier or iconostasis in a Christian temple.
8. ANOINTING served and serves three distinct purposes: it is regarded as a means of health and comfort, as a token of honor, and as a symbol of consecration.
9. The sacrament of Penance or RECONCILIATION is considered the normal way to be absolved from mortal sin, by which one would otherwise possibly condemn oneself to Hell.
10. Regarded as a Christian belief that God heals people through the power of the Holy Spirit, faith HEALING often involves the laying on of hands.
11. With respect to CONFESSIONS of wrongdoing, there are several specific kinds of confessions that have significance beyond the social.
12. You are there to baptize their children and give them first HOLY COMMUNION.
13. The ordained PRIESTHOOD or the vowed religious priesthood is a wonderful life of dedication and service to the people of God.
14. PRIESTS flapped down on their knees before the BISHOP.
15. The term DEACON comes from the Greek word diákonos meaning servant or minister, it appears at least 29 times in the New Testament.
16. ORDINATION is one of the seven sacraments, variously called holy orders or cheirotonia ("Laying on of Hands").
17. APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION — the doctrine that the religious authority and mission conferred by Jesus on Saint Peter and the other Apostles have come down through an unbroken succession of bishop.
18. The deacon wears the ORARION crossed over his breast and the back.
19. The vestments of the diaconate are the sticharion, the orarion and the CUFFS.
20. As a simple derivative of ordinary first-century clothing, the ALB was adopted very early by Christians, and especially by the clergy for the Eucharistic liturgy.
21. By the 8th century the CHASUBLE was reserved for clergy members and began to be ornamented in a way that reflected its sacred function.
22. In Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite the palitza or EPIGONATION is worn by all Bishops, and as an ecclesiastical award for some priests.
23. More popular is the theory that the STOLE originated from a kind of liturgical napkin called an orarium (cf. orarion) very similar to the sudarium.

А.Н. [(11) 13]

1) To BECOME ONE FLESH means that you can't hurt each other because if you do you'll hurt yourself.
2) My brother and his wife were CROWED, the MARRIAGE CROWNS meant that they are the king and the queen of their family.
3) First, you need to put a ring on the RING FINGER.
4) Are you sure that you want to TAKE EACH OTHER AS MAN AND WIFE?
5) I've never been merried, but I know that MARRIAGE represents that you are TO BE WITNESSES TO CHRIST.

Н.Л. [(3,5) 8,5]

1. Nowadays the BETROTHAL is held right at the beginning of the marriage service.
2. Not all the married couples wear RINGS on their ring fingers.
3. You can often buy beautiful MARRIAGE CANDLES at candle desks.
4. This man is a DEACON, it means that he has one of THE HIGHEST DEGREES OF PRIESTHOOD.
5. After THE ORDINATION TO PRIESTHOOD a man can not divorce his wife.
6. There is a shop with very beautiful handmade VESTMENTS in the centre of the town.
7. On Easter service priests wear bright red CHASUBLES.
8. There gathered many bishops at that service, all in their glistening MITRES.

М.Ч. [(3) 28]

I would like to taste LOCUSTS. I think they are very crunchy like chips but much healthier especially with WILD HONEY and cheese. As you can see it goes beyond argument that I am the farthest from the SPIRITUAL FARE. Also I don't think I would be wearing HAIR-SHIRT and a LEATHER BELT, I prefer silver GIRDLE, BROCADE and golden CHASUBLE.

А.С. [(2,5) 26]

1) Every Bishop is a SHEPHERD who has his own FLOCK.
2) The deacon has a few elements of GARMENT such as an ORARION, CUFFS and a TUNIC of gold or silver. And the priest has more VESTMENTS. He wears cuffs, an ALB, a CHASUBLE, a GIRDLE, a STOLE and the EPIGONATION.
3) The deacon can not CELEBRATE AN OFFICE by himself, he is not independent in that.

В.О. [(6,5) 38]

1) RECONCILIATION with God is a part of the sacrament of Anointing with oil.
2) SERMONS of FLUENT AND ELOQUENT PREACHERS have an impact on their parishioners.
3) The three CAPPADOCIAN Fathers draw a lot of attention to GOD’S THREENESS but also keep balance speaking about THE ONENESS of GOD.
4) There were also confusions about Christ’s HUMANITY and DIVINITY because of the VIRGIN MARY ‘MOTHER OF GOD’ who was being called the ‘Mother of Man’ by Nestorius.

В.О. [(4,5) 14]

1. Others find in the Gospel of REDEMPTION the true theodicy.
2. During the SACRAMENT OF MARRIAGE the couple are crowned.
3. Sometimes THE BETROTHAL is announced during the sermon.
4. MARRIAGE CROWNS look like the real king's crowns.
5. During the wedding the couple hold the wedding CANDLES.
6. Then the couple drink from THE COMMON CUP OF WINE.
7. MAN'S DEFICATION is only possible in the Christian faith.
8. During the Council of Nicaea in 325 Arius was CONDEMNED as a heretic. Therefore ARIANISM was prohibited.
9. THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY is the main Orthodox doctrine.

А.А. [(4) 12,5]

How can I write sentences with such DIVINE words as "DEIFICATION", "INCARNATION", "THE INCARNATE CHRIST" that are true for me? I've never experienced them before and all the more I've never thought of them. But actually there is something that concerns me: it is the understanding of the DOCTRINE of the TRINITY. I mean I understand that we should believe in it but I don't have any idea of how it can be. Also I don't understand why the VISIBLE ORGANISATION OF THE CHURCH is so important and why the places of honor should be given by people?

А.С. [(4) 8]

1) BETROTHAL is a part of the sacrament of MARRIAGE.
2) There were arguments about THE FULLNESS OF CHRIST'S MANHOOD. People thought whether INCARNATE CHRIST is FULLY MAN and FULLY GOD. There was a heresy named ARIANISM which said that the Son was a creation, not God. And, in contrast, MONOPHYSITISM was a conception which said that He was not presented as truly man did not present Him as truly man.

В.О. [(4,5) 9,5]

There is something mysterious in feeling a STOLE over your head. And when a priest says the PRAYERS OF ABSOLUTION, you could feel, maybe for an instant, that you are REALEASED FROM your SINS and no more a sinner. It is a strange and inexplicable thing but when you are a PENITENT who is standing in REPENTANCE looking for the REDEMPTION, your feelings are different from those you have after the CONFESSION. To REPENT is to free yourself.

А.С. [(4) 4]

1. She wept during the CONFESSION and KNELT when the priest put the EPITRACHILION on her head.
2. When she was RELEASED FROM HER SINS she determined to change her life.
3. Some people claim THE CONFESSION to be one of the main SACRAMENTS of the Church.
4. THE PENITENTS lined up for confession.
5. Can the priest say THE PRAYERS OF ABSOLUTION aloud?

А.А. [(2) 2]

2) THE INCARNATION of Christ was necessary for man TO ATTAIN full SALVATION.
3) Each person of THE TRINITY is ONE IN ESSENCE with the others.

В.О. [(5) 5]

Д.Б. [3,75]

А.В. [12,75]

С.Х. [25]

О.К. [0,5]

Ал.С. [21]

2nd year of study: Autumn 2018

1) SAINT CYRIL AND SAINT METHODIUS, THE APOSTLES OF THE SLAVS, actually were Constantine and Methodius during their missionary work – Constantine was given the name Cyril shortly before his death upon becoming a monk.
2) In the 19th century the majority of ICONS were drawn in a very realistic manner, so they looked more like paintings.
1) Nowadays the average Russian’s knowledge about the Orthodox Church is still disappointingly low – some people do not even know how to MAKE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS correctly.
2) Some people take off A SMALL CROSS which they wear around the neck before doing physical activities or taking a bath, but I believe that it is incorrect to do so.
1) THE VULGATE, one of the most widely-used Latin translations of the Bible, was created by the Saint Jerome of Stridon.
2) Our family usually visits VESPERS only if we are going to receive communion the following Sunday.
1) Unfortunately, I think that my faith isn’t strong enough yet to survive THE PERSECUTION of the Church if it begins again.
2) Some little children don’t understand that they are not allowed to step on THE SOLEA, so their parents should look after them during the liturgy to prevent them from doing that.
1) There is usually more than one CHALICE in our church during the Communion.
2) In the Orthodox Church A SEVEN-BRANCHED CANDLESTICK symbolizes the seven Sacraments.
1) I RECEIVE ANOINTING once a year, during the Great Lent.
2) An Orthodox Christian cannot RECEIVE BAPTISM more than one time in his life.
3) There are quite a lot of people who believe that it is all right for a Christian to RECEIVE COMMUNION only once or twice a year.
4) THE SACRAMENT of ORDINATION is not possible without a bishop.

Д.Б. [(7,5) 35,55]

1) It was the most beautiful ICONOSTASIS I have ever seen in my entire life.
2) In most ORTHODOX churches women are not allowed to go into the SANCTUARY.
3) There are a lot of things you may see on the HOLY TABLE: THE GOSPEL BOOK, THE CROSS, A LAMP-STAND etc.
4) As far as I know, THE TABLE OF OBLATION is the place where the liturgy takes place.

Н.Л. [(2,5) 34,25]

1) THE FONT can be made of different materials and plays an important role in creating the interior decoration of the Church premises.
2) THE BAPTISMAL CROSS is a symbol of faith and a sign of belonging to the Church of Christ.

Ал.С. [(1) 44,5]

1) Ten years ago HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA Alexy II passed away, and my parents and I went to his funeral.
2) I’ve never read the Book of NUMBERS but I’d like to one day.
1) Actually, I’ve been in THE ALTAR once, about two years ago, when I was an altar boy at one Liturgy.
2) As far as I know, there aren’t many churches build in the shape of BASILICA in Russia – our architects tend to use circle or cross shapes more frequently.
1) The day of St. PATRICK (the 17th of March) is actually the day of my patron saint – St. Daniil of Moscow – as well.
2) The person at THE CANDLE DESK must be polite and patient, or he risks spoiling the newcomers’ impression of the whole parish.

Д.Б. [(3) 28,05]

1) The STOLE is liturgical vestment of the Orthodox priest and Bishop.
2) Heavenly hierarchy consists of the nine RANKS OF ANGELS.

Ал.С. [(1) 22,5]

1) A COMMEMORATION BOOK is a memorial book which records the names of all those for whom you pray (or should pray). 2) CHRISMATION is a SACRAMENT in which the gifts of the Holy Spirit are given to the believer by anointing the parts of the body with the Sanctified World.

Ал.С. [(1) 21,5]

1. Surely a man like you, well read in the SCRIPTURE and acquainted with the world, surely you can convince your wife to give up the superstitions of her childhood.
2. From the sack he took the sacred oil and ANOINTED his forehead and wrists.
3. I shall buy BISHOP Sterne's hair as well as his household goods.
4. Now I have to prepare for tomorrow’s MEMORIAL SERVICE and for a marriage.
5. Meanwhile the time was passing; the monastery services and the REQUIEMS for the dead followed in their due course.
6. An hour before she passed away she made her final confession and received the SACRAMENT with quiet joy.
7. After taking the communion, the service of extreme UNCTION followed.
8. He entered a quiet village church and lit a CANDLE in front of the icon of Christ.
9. Very few seemed to die at all except by violence, and their BURIAL places were very limited.
10. The PRIEST and the DEACON began putting on their vestments.

А.Н. [(4) 42]

1) The LAMB is the cubic particle that is cut from AN ALTAR LOAF during THE SERVICE OF PREPARATION. 2) DISKOS is a dish on the foot, depicting scenes from the New Testament.

Ал.С. [(2) 20,5]

1) SOLEA is the elevation of the floor in front of the altar barrier or ICONOSTASIS in a Christian Church.
2) AMBO is a special structure in the Christian Church, is for reading the Scriptures, singing or proclamation of some liturgical texts, reciting sermons.

Ал.С. [(1,5) 18,5]

1) GOLGOTHA was, according to the GOSPELS, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified.
2) THE RESURRECTION is one of the most famous events described in the books of the New Testament.

Ал.С. [(1,5) 17]

1) The word "NAVE" comes from the Latin "navis" that meaning "ship".
2) The NARTHEX can be arranged from the Western, Southern and Northern sides of the CHURCH.

Ал.С. [(1) 15,5]

1) Only after BAPTISM does a person have the opportunity to participate in all other sacraments of the CHURCH, and above all in the EUCHARIST.
2) The sacrament of BAPTISM consists either in the IMMERSION (single or triple — depending on the denomination) of a person into the water, or in the pouring of water upon the person receiving BAPTISM, with the pronunciation of established prayers by the priest.

Ал.С. [(1,5) 14,5]

1. There is always a very long queue to the RELICS of saint Sergiy of Radonej, for many people come to pray to him and ask for help.
2. After the Liturgy in churches priests give the parishioners to kiss THE CROSS.
3. There is a special tool named SPEAR, which priests use to take pieces from the Altar loaves.
4. Everyone who claims to belong to the Orthodox church must participate in the SACRAMENTS.
5. All the communicants, exept children under 7, first need to go to CONFESSION.
6. You are not supposed to sit during THE GOSPEL READING.
7. To give COMMUNION to the parishioners the priest goes out from the altar through THE Holy Doors.
8. A priest carries THE COMMUNION GIFTS through THE Great ENTRANCE while the choir sings THE CHERUBIC HYMN.
9. Not only the CHOIR, but everyone in the church is supposed to participate in singing THE CREED.

М.Ч. [(5) 44,5]

1. THE FONT is a place where a baby is IMMERSED THREE TIMES while being baptized.
2. After THE TRIPLE IMMERSION, a baby (or an adult) is dressed in THE BAPTISMAL ROBE and is given THE BAPTISMAL CROSS.

А.В. [(2,5) 83,5]

1. Her aunt is also her GODMOTHER.
2. According to common law, every parish church must have a BAPTISMAL FONT.
3. The AUTOCEPHALOUS and autonomous Orthodox churches are those churches which have self-government.
4. TONSURE is still a traditional practice in Catholicism by specific religious orders.
5. The primary use of CHRISM in Anglican and Lutheran churches is for the Rite of Chrismation, which may be included as a part of Baptism, even for infants.
6. In some of the latter churches, special BAPTISMAL ROBES may be worn by both the person being baptized and the person performing the baptism.
7. Given the fact that the early Christians were enduring a horrible period of persecution, the main theme of REVELATION is to provide the persecuted Christians with a sense of hope that would encourage them to remain faithful to Christ despite the fact that at any moment they could be put to death for the Faith.

А.Н. [(3) 23]

1) HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA Tikhon was selected the eleventh Patriarch after a period of 225 years long.
2) The Book of JUDGES is known as the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.

О.К. [(9,5) 51,5]

1) LOCAL COUNCIL is the council of clergy and laity of the local Church.
2) UNANIMITY shows the highest level of togetherness.
3) Church is CATHOLIC and CONCILIAR.
4) THE OFFICIAL TOLERATION OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH was proclaimed by Constantine and his fellow Emperor Licinius.
5) PAGAN RITES should not have been performed in Constantinople when it was founded.

В.О. [(3) 89,5]

1) I've never read PROVERBS, and my grandmother wants me to do it in the nearest future.
2) ISAIAH is my father's favorite book.
3) JEREMIAH is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
4) The NARTHEX is a place of transition from the world into the church.
5) The NAVE is life in the world on the journey towards the Kingdom of heaven.
6) Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are EVANGELISTS.
1) The Holy Apostle Paul wrote a letter to the CORINTHIANS.
2) GOLGOTHA was a place of Christ's death.
3) PENTATEUCH consists of only five first books of the 24 books of the Tanakh.
4) There are a lot of books that are DEUTEROCANONICAL.
5) THE ACTS should be read by everyone.
6) FIRST TIMOTHY is a book of the New Testament.
1) REVELATION was read at the lessons in the Orthodox school.
2) I'm reading JUDE right now.
3) The SOLEA is a raised platform which lifts the sanctuary slightly above the rest of the church.
4) The AMBO is a projecting part of the SOLEA from which the priest reads the Gospel.
5) In the bottom of the CENSER is a piece of burning CHARCOAL.
6) EPISTLE OF JAMES is being read by my grandfather right now.

О.К. [(9,5) 28,5]

1) Only in the Gospel of Luke there is the commandment of Chist to celebrate the SUPPER OF THE LORD.
2) ORTHODOX TRADITION means that the law of God and the sacraments are handed down.
3) The divine liturgy which is performed by an Archbishop is called a PONTIFICAL LITURGY.
5) All the PERSECUTIONS were because of the lack of TOLERATION.

В.О. [(3,5) 42,5]

In the Orthodox Church the first sacrament that uses CHRISM, the sacrament of Chrismation, is the second of the three Sacraments of Initiation (Baptism, Chrismation, and Divine Eucharist).

С.Х. [(0,5) 62,25]

1) During the Liturgy the LAMB is divided into four parts.
2) The service begins with a LITANY and the singing of psalms.
3) The ANTIDORON is ordinary leavened bread which is blessed but not consecrated and distributed in Eastern Orthodox Churches and Eastern Catholic Churches that use the Byzantine Rite.
4) The term CHRISMATION comes about because it involves anointing the recipient of the sacrament with chrism the Apostles sanctified and introduced for all priests to use as a replacement for laying on of hands by the Apostles.
5) The CHERUBIC HYMN is the troparion normally sung at the Great Entrance during the Byzantine liturgy.

С.Х. [(2,5) 31,25]

1. In 1 CORINTHIANS Paul the Apostle speaks of the power of God.
2. COLOSSIANS 1 deals with faith, hope and love.
3. The purpose of the epistle to the EPHESIANS is the matter of speculation.
1. Every Orthodox should PARTAKE IN THE MYSTERIES.
2. ANOINTING WITH OIL is a very important Chrurch SACRAMENT and an Orthodox can partake in it four times a year or even more often.
3. The Orthodox Church receives Roman Catholics through CONFESSION.
1. MEDITERRANEAN derives from Latin and means "in the midst of lands".
2. When LINING UP FOR COMMUNION, one should let parents with small children in their arms go first.
3. In the Divine Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom EPICLESIS is present.

А.А. [(4,5) 62,5]

LITANY is a form of prayer used in services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions.
The priest of our church gave us an interesting SERMON about importance of religion in family life.
The little girl kissed the CHALICE after COMMUNION and run back to her mother.
I have been singing in choir since I was sixteen.
In the altar there was a huge TABLE OF OBLATION made of wood.

О.К. [(2,5) 19]

1) The AER in the Christian Worship is called a large cloth which is used to cover The Holy Gifts prepared for the consecration on the DISCOS.
2) The priest returned the CHALICE to the vestry.

Ал.С. [(1,5) 13]

1) In the Orthodox Church, blessed ANTIDORON is distributed after every Divine Liturgy.
2) The concert continued with the performance of the Orthodox youth CHOIR.

Ал.С. [(1) 11,5]

2. John the Evangelist has written 3 epistles: 1 JOHN, 2 JOHN, 3 JOHN.
3. It is impossible for non-Orthodox to PARTAKE IN the Orthodox MYSTERIES.
1. Christ gathered with his DISCIPLES in THE UPPER ROOM.
2. During the communion, members of THE CONGREGATION should be very careful LINING UP not to UPSET the chalice.
3. THE COMMUNICANT is supposed to tell his name.
1. A SERMON might be the last point in THE SHAPE OF THE LITURGY.
2. THE CREED, in contrast with LITANIES, is a prayer that is sung not by THE CHOIR alone.
3. Some parts of THE LAMB go into THE CHALICE.
4. Behind THE HOLY DOORS, the communion gifts are prepared on THE TABLE OF OBLATION.

А.В. [(9,5) 44]

1. The Gospels of MATTHEW, MARK, and LUKE are called the Synoptic Gospels. The content of the JOHN'S Gospel is comparatively distinct.
2. The LAYOUT of the SANCTUARY includes, besides everything else, THE TABLE OF OBLATION, THE HOLY TABLE, on which the bread and wine are being CONSECRATED during the special part of THE WORSHIP, and THE BISHOP'S THRONE.
1. The New Testament contains a lot of EPISTLES. TO THE ROMANS is written by Apostle Paul.
2. THE ACTS is the fifth book of the New Testament.
3. People are given COMMUNION from THE CHALICE with THE SPOON.

А.В. [(8) 34,5]

1.The area around the HOLY TABLE is seen as endowed with greater holiness, and is usually physically distinguished from the rest of the church.
2. The Trinity is an ICON created by Russian painter Andrei Rublev in the 15th century.
3. The LAMPSTAND signifies the Triune God, in typology gold represents the divine nature.
4. The CHALICE made of the 30 pieces of silver given to Judas Iscariot to betray Christ.
5. The word RELIC derives from the Latin reliquiae, meaning "remains", and a form of the Latin verb relinquere, to "leave behind, or abandon".
6. The Catholic Church teaches that the SACRAMENTS are “efficacious signs of grace”, instituted by Christ.
7. While CHRISMATION is often performed without baptism, baptism is never performed without chrismation.

А.Н. [(2,5) 20]

UNANANIMITY is a very important part of the Orthodox Catholic Church. And now we can see a discord between two Orthdox Churches. How it can be? We are all COMMUNICANTS, we all TAKE PART in liturgy, we are all DISCIPLES of Apostles in some way. How can the OUTWARD situation divide people of one faith? And does it mean that for some people that lead the church there is no DEEP SENSE behind The Holy Gospel but only words. And then how can they lead the CATHOLIC church?

А.С. [(2,5) 72,25]

1) The BREAKING OF THE LAMB is a part of the Eucharist.
2) COMMUNICANTS LINE UP FOR COMMUNION during the particular part of the Liturgy.
3) PROSPHORAS represent the PRECIOUS BODY of Christ.
4) CONSECRATION OF THE GIFTS occurs during the Liturgy of the Presanctified gifts.
5) God GRANTS THE REQUESTS of the members of each CONGREGATION.

В.О. [(2,5) 39]

1) Communion was established by Christ in the UPPER ROOM with his disciples.
2) The EPICLESIS is the part of the Anaphora by which the priest invokes the Holy Spirit upon the Eucharistic bread and wine in some Christian churches.
3) The origin of the ENTRANCES goes back to the early church, when the liturgical books and sacred vessels were kept in special storage rooms for safe keeping and the procession was necessary to bring these objects into the church when needed.
4) PROSPHORA is made from only four ingredients, wheat flour (white), yeast, salt, and water. Salt was not used in early times and is still not used in the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem.

С.Х. [(2) 28,75]

1) The Liturgy of Preparation, also Prothesis or PROSKOMEDIA, is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox Church to the act of preparing the bread and wine for the Eucharist.
2) THE ACTS of the Apostles, often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
3) Biblical scholars agree that the Epistle TO THE ROMANS was composed by the Apostle Paul to explain that salvation is offered through the gospel of Jesus Christ.
4) The Epistle to the GALATIANS is a letter from Paul the Apostle to a number of Early Christian communities in Galatia.
5) Biblical scholars are in general agreement that the Epistle to the PHILIPPIANS was indeed written by Paul of Tarsus.

С.Х. [(2,5) 26,75]

1) Prior to becoming emperor, TITUS gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judea during the First Jewish–Roman War.
2) Epistle to PHILEMON, a book in the New Testament, it is a prison letter by Paul the Apostle to Philemon, a leader in the Colossian church.
3) The EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS is traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, but doubt on Pauline authorship is reported by Eusebius, and modern biblical scholarship considers its authorship unknown, perhaps written in deliberate imitation of the style of Paul.
4) The author of the EPISTLE OF JAMES identifies himself as "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ," who is writing to "the twelve tribes scattered abroad".
5) The author of the 1 PETER identifies himself as "Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ" and the epistle is traditionally attributed to Peter the Apostle.

С.Х. [(2) 24,25]

Many Christians MISINTERPRET the meaning of putting on a headscarf.
I am for the RECONCILATION of all churches, but how is it possible when even the priesthood sets a lot of unbelievable examples of a vicious life? And many NON-ORTHODOX people become confused and stunned watching it. The only way to get through it is that our God helps us and strenghtens people transfiguring their fears and doubts into pure faith.

А.С. [(1,5) 30,8]

1) CELEBRATING THE LITURGY is one of the things that the priest does.
3) Church is seen by many people as HIERARCHICAL and SACRAMENTAL.
4) THE CHRISMATION is performed only once in a lifetime.
5) Church was FOUNDED UPON BLOOD of many MARTYRS.

В.О. [(3,5) 36,5]

1) She could smell a SWEET SPIRITUAL FRAGRANCE entering the church.
2) It's a fact that Satan WORSHIP will end badly.
3) The first item that is being CENSED is the holy doors.
4) In the OLD TESTAMENT OFFERINGS are mentioned.

Н.Л. [(1,5) 13,5]

1) The world exists to prepare believers FOR SALVATION.
2) "We ARE already SAVED": went through my head.
3) People followed Jesus up to the CROSS on GOLGOTHA.
4) It is very hard to understand what ABRAHAM felt. Should be he loved God so much that he could SACRIFICE HIS SON.

Н.Л. [(2) 12]

1) THE ICON SCREEN was shining bright like thousand stars when we came.
2) Every time COMING INTO CHURCH feels like home.
3) I bought a candle AT THE CANDLE DESK and came to the ICON OF RESURRECTION.
4) The topic of our today talk is life of Evangelists.

Н.Л. [(2) 10]

1) The EUCHARIST is the CONSECRATION of bread and wine in a special way and their subsequent use.
2) There are HIERARCHICAL and SACRAMENTAL aspects of Church.
3) EPHESIANS is a book of the New Testament, one of the EPISTLES of the Apostle Paul.
4) PENATEUCH is the first five books of the CANONICAL Jewish and Christian Bibles.

В.О. [(5) 33]

I always liked Vespers: when you were almost alone in the sanctuary and OIL LAMPS were lit and soft glimmer gleamed in the altar dusk, everthing was covered by soft shades and the holy table where were lying THE GOSPEL BOOK, THE ANTIMINS and the cross appeared to me a mysterious huge stone. There stood an elegant SEVEN-BRANCHED CANDLESTICK, no, it was not a SEVEN-BRANCHED LAMP-STAND but a subtly decorated real gilt candlestick made of iron.

А.С. [(3) 29,3]

1. The objective of every Orthodox Christian is TO TAKE UP HIS CROSS AND FOLLOW CHRIST.
2. WISDOM is very often read during the Church sevice in Russia. I consider WISDOM to be very instructive.
3. Apochypha in the Catholic tradition is considered to be deuterocanonical. To Apochypha belongs such works as TOBIT, JUDITH etc.
1. I associate my childhood with a smell of INCENSE in the little church near our home.
2. ISAAC was the son of ABRAHAM and Sarah.
3. THE VULGATE was written by St Jerome of Stridonium, who is the patron saint of all translators.
1. MATTHEW, MARK and LUKE are synoptic Gospels, because they include many of the same stories.
2. The deacon reads the Gospel and RECITES LITANIES from the AMBO.
3. In his Gospel JOHN states a lot of important dogmatic issues.

А.А. [(7) 23]

I was always wondering why the BISHOP'S THRONE was empty most of the time. And I had never seen anybody sitting on it until came Easter. I served in the ALTAR at that time and it was a great picture: priests, deacons, were sitting around the bishop's throne opposite the holy gate, the nave, and the figure of our Archimandrite raised above everything except SOLELY the icon of Christ.

А.С. [(1) 26,3]

1) DANIEL is one of the prophets.
2) An ICONOSTASIS consists of several rows of icons.
3) There is the HOLY TABLE in the centre of the SANCTUARY.
4) The AMBO is intended for the reading of the Holy Scripture and for some other things.
5) RECITING LITANIES is one of the parts of the WORSHIP.

В.О. [(3,5) 28]

When I was a child I would go to the VESPERS and stand at the most distant corner and breathe in FRAGRANT INCENSE.
I liked to be a SERVER, to prepare a CENSER and offer it to the priest. I enjoyed being in the SANCTUARY watching the WORSHIP being performed.

А.С. [(3) 25,3]

1. The Letter of Jeremiah, also called the EPISTLE OF JEREMY, is one of the books of the APOCRYPHA. It is often included as chapter 6 of the BOOK OF BARUCH.
2. According to the writings in the New Tastement and prior to his conversion, APOSTLE PAUL was dedicated to persecuting the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem.
3. ABRAHAM was called by God to leave the house of his father Terah.
4. GOLGOTHA, also called Calvary, a skull-shaped hill in Jerusalem, is the site of Jesus’ Crucifixion.
5. According to the central mystery of most Christian confessions, there is only ONE GOD IN THREE PERSONS.

А.Н. [(3,5) 17,5]

1) According to the Bible, ABEL was the first person to die, murdered by his brother Cain.
2) JACOB, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.
3) The biblical APOCRYPHA denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament.
4) ELISHA ("My God is salvation") was, according to the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a wonder-worker.
5) ABRAHAM is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, Islam.

С.Х. [(2,5) 22,25]

1) THE MASORETIC TEXT is a very interesting text to read. At least, everyone should know about it.
2) THE APOCRYPHA was first published in 1534 as a separate intertestamental section.
3) ABEL is CAIN's brother and the son of Adam and Eve.

О.К. [(2) 16,5]

1. An OIL LAMP in the church usually stands or hangs in front of an icon.
3. An icon as A MEDIUM OF PRAYER acts as a window onto ETERNITY.
1. Making THE SIGN OF THE CROSS means to pray with the whole being.
2. The place where ABRAHAM was asked to sacrifice ISAAC was Golgotha.
3. THE THREE PERSONS OF THE TRINITY are the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.
1. When a priest or deacon CENSES the church, he uses INCENSE.
2. In the times before Christ people usually made OFFERINGS.
3. THE SEPTUAGINT is the translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew into Greek.

А.В. [(6,5) 26,5]

1) A CENSER contains CHARCOAL.
2) The priest CENSES during the Liturgy.
3) The SEPTUAGINT is the translation of the Bible from Hebrew into Greek.
4) The VULGATE is the translation of the Bible from Greek into Latin.
5) ABEL and CAIN are brothers whom we know from the Books of the Old Testament.

В.О. [(3,5) 24,5]

1. Jeremiah is the traditional author of LAMENTATIONS, but his authorship is still debatable.
2. ORTHODOX CHURCH IN JAPAN has a lack of priests.
1. The title of the Pope "SUPREME PONTIFF OF THE UNIVERSAL CHURCH" corresponds to the fact that the Pope should be commemorated even in space.
2. In his book, HAGGAI urged people to rebuilt the second Jerusalem temple.

А.А. [(2) 16]

1. The head of the ORTHODOX CHURCH OF ANTIOCH is called Patriarch.
2. Saint Nicholas proclaimed Orthodox Christianity nationwide, and was appointed as the first bishop of the ORTHODOX CHURCH IN JAPAN.
3. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH is the oldest institution in the western world.
4. SONG OF SOLOMON is often called Song of Songs, and even the Canticle of Canticles.
5. Our ICONS OF CHRIST are meant to spiritually inspire through imagery of the Son of God.

А.Н. [(2,5) 14]

The ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH traces its history to Jesus Christ and the Apostles.
Towards evening Saint John, having asked the caliph for the cut-off hand, put it to its joint and fell to the ground before THE ICON OF THE MOTHER OF GOD.

А.Н. [(1) 11,5]

1) The canoncial Book of EZRA and the Book of Nehemiah are the oldest sources for the activity of Ezra, whereas many of the other books ascribed to Ezra are later literary works dependent on the canoncial books of Nehemiah and Ezra.
2) The Church of Georgia is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.
1) 1 ESDRAS contains the whole of Ezra with the addition of one section.
2) Everyone should read the Book of BARUCH.

О.К. [(1,5) 14,5]

1) The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad is an integral SELF-GOVERNING part of the Local Russian Orthodox Church.
2) The Orthodox Church of Cyprus is an AUTOCEPHALOUS local Orthodox Church.

Ал.С. [(1) 10,5]

1) San-Paolo fuori le Moore is a church which was the NATIONAL CHURCH of England to the reformation.
2) A PRELATE is a high-ranking member of the clergy.

Ал.С. [(0,5) 9,5]

1) The Book of TOBIT is a book of Scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canons.
2) The MACCABEES were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.
3) THE EPISTLE OF JEREMIAH is a deuterocanonical book of the Old Testament; this letter purports to have been written by Jeremiah to the Jews who were about to be carried away as captives to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
4) THE SIGN OF THE CROSS, or blessing oneself or crossing oneself, is a ritual blessing made by members of most branches of Christianity.
5) The inscription 'INRI' represents the Latin inscription (in John 19:19), which in English translates to "Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Jews", and John 19:20 states that this was written in three languages — Hebrew, Latin, and Greek — during the crucifixion of Jesus.

С.Х. [(2,5) 19,75]

I cannot understand why people beyond the Orthodox church are doomed to PERISH. I mean if we look closer at Socrates' thougts we could find there DIVINE WISDOM. The way he suggests may lead us to an endless BLISS (I mean his doctrine about body and soul, and I guess that it still contains relevant knowledge).

А.С. [(1) 22,3]

1) Christ has two NATURES : HUMAN and DIVINE.
2) The HOLY APOSTLE PAUL was healed of blindness.

В.О. [(1,5) 21]

I never trusted to the TRYPTICH ICONS. I guess that it is one of the ways to make money at the people's spiritual need. I mean, we have an ICON CORNER where the prayer could be fervent and where OIL LAMPS and candles are lit. So why should we VENERATE icons that are printed (in great numbers) not even painted? (I suppose that the labour of an ICONOGRAPHER plays a significant role in the process of creating an Icon.)

А.С. [(2,5) 21,3]

1) MICAH records the sayings of Micah, whose name is Mikayahu.
2) HAGGAI is a book of the Hebrew Bibble or Tanakh, and has its place as the third-to-last of the Minor Prophets.
3) ARCHBISHOP OF SINAI, PHARAN AND RAITHO has come to our country for the summit.

О.К. [(1,5) 12,8]

1) With its roots in the medieval Novgorodian missionary work in Karelia, THE FINNISH ORTHODOX CHURCH was a part of the Russian Orthodox Church until 1923.
2) As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.
3) MICAH is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), and means "Who is like God?"
4) Haggai was a Hebrew prophet during the building of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, and one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the author of the Book of HAGGAI.
5) THE ICON CORNER is a small worship space prepared in the homes of Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Christians.

С.Х. [(2,5) 17,25]

1) FINNISH ORTHODOX CHURCH is one of the Autonomous Churches.
2) There are five MONOPHYSITE Churches (of Armenia, Syria, Egypt, Ethiopia and India).

В.О. [(1) 19,5]

1) There are quite many ICONS in our home ICON CORNER.
2) When my family GATHERS FOR PRAYER, THE LAMP in the icon corner IS LIT.

М.Ч. [(1,5) 13,25]

1) OBADIAH is a prophecy concerning the divine judgment of Edom and the restoration of Israel.

О.К. [(1) 1,5]

My spiritual life has a lack of church. I know many things about my religion (EVANGELISTS; prayer; names of church attributes etc.) but at the same time I understand, that it means nothing to me and I simply don't know what I'm supposed to do with all these PROPHETS, FEASTS, and CHRISTENDOM on the whole.

А.С. [(2) 5]

2) There are quite a few THEOLOGICAL COLLEGES in our country.

В.О. [(1,5) 5]

1. A BASILICA presents a shape in which a church building could be built.
2. A NAVE is a part of the church where believers gather and pray.
3. HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF BULGARIA is the head of the Church of Bulgaria.
4. SIDE DOORS are the doors on THE ICON SCREEN which are used by the deacons and servers.

А.В. [(2,5) 17]

1) According to the Jewish tradition, Jeremiah authored the Book of JEREMIAH, the Books of Kings and the Book of Lamentations, with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple.
2) The ORTHODOX CHURCH IN AMERICA consists of more than 700 parishes, missions, communities, monasteries and institutions in the United States and Canada.

С.Х. [(2) 3]

1. I saw a wonderful OCTAGON church at the Holy Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius.
2. To my mind, all the Orthodox churches are designed so magnificent in order TO LIFT THE MIND UP INTO PRAYER.

А.А. [(1) 14]

1) When I saw ICON OF THE MOTHER OF GOD for the first time I began to cry, it was an eye-opener for me.
2) He MADE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS and closed his eyes, his face seemed completely different.

Н.Л. [(1) 8]

Archaeology has provided numerous examples of ALTARS from Palestine dating back to approximately 3000 B.C.

А.Н. [(2) 10,5]

1) The church I visit has quite a spacious NAVE.
2) In the ICON SCREEN in that church you can find the icon of St. Valentine Bishop of Inteamna.

М.Ч. [(1) 2]

1) The largest ONION DOMES were erected in the seventeenth century in the area around Yaroslavl, incidentally famous for its large onions.
2) The term NAVE is from navis, the Latin word for ship, an early Christian symbol of the Church as a whole, with a possible connection to the "ship of St. Peter" or the Ark of Noah.

С.Х. [(1) 2]

I can't say that in the church I can LIFT MY MIND UP INTO PRAYER, syply there too many people. But I do remember several times when I was at home and nobody was in me and nothing diverted me, I could PRAY and felt a SPIRITUAL rise. For the prayer needs solitude to become a truly significant.

А.С. [(1) 3]

1) There are different styles of church building, such as BASILICA, OCTAGON and CROSS.
2) Patriarch Bartholomew I is the head of CHURCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE.

В.О. [(2) 3,5]

1) BISHOP Tikhon was confirmed as the prior of the St. Catherine monastery.
2) INCENSE is often burned in religious ceremonies.

Ал.С. [(1) 9]

1) HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA Tikhon was elected the elventh after a period of 300 years of the Synodal rule in the Russian Orthodox Church.
2) The Book of GENESIS is known as the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.

О.К. [(0,5) 0,5]

1. THE EXODUS is a book where the migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan is described.
2. The sign of the cross is a common part of THE order of the mystery of CHRISMATION.

А.В. [(1) 1]

1) HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA Kirill made a speech at the celebration of Victory Day.
2) There was the evening of memory of ARCHBISHOP Theofan (Galician) at the Russian House of Science and Culture in Berlin.

М.Ч. [(1) 1]

In some countries conversion from or the renunciation of Islam is considered APOSTASY and a capital crime.
I still have friends in the DIOCESE there.

Н.Л. [(1) 1]

1. Patriarch Tikhon HAD PASTORAL CHARGE not only in Russia, but also in America.
2. THE PHILOKALIA is a collection of texts about the spiritual life and prayers, written by spiritual masters of the Orthodox Christian tradition.

А.А. [(1) 1]

The story of the EXODUS is told in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
In COMMUNION believers have sacramental fellowship with Jesus Christ.

А.Н. [(1) 1]

My LITURGICAL YEAR was very poor, it would have been richer if I had gone to the CHURCH more than two times in a month.
My CONFESSOR was ORDAINED PRIEST-MONK in 1990, and he had alredy known that he would become a MONK since his childhood.

А.С. [(2) 2]

1) HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA Alexy II was the first patriarch in Soviet history to be elected without government pressure; candidates were nominated from the floor, and the election was conducted by secret ballot.
2) The Book of DEUTERONOMY is the fifth book of the Christian Old Testament and of the Jewish Torah, where it is called “Devarim”.

С.Х. [(1) 1]

1) Nowadays, there are plenty of RELIGIOUS DISPUTES on the Internet, which are zealously prevented by the government.
2) The first book of the OLD TESTAMENT is GENESIS.

В.О. [(1,5) 1,5]

Д.Б. [6,8]

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