Система Orphus

Religious Vocabulary
TEXT BANK 2022
*
texts by students



* graduation year



Условные обозначения:
  • CAPITALS: active vocabulary words and collocations students have used
  • Underline: elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Underline and Delete: superfluous erroneous elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Italics: where appropriate, elements which explain the corrected mistakes
  • Dotted underline: elements not graded for various reasons (e.g. dubious or erroneous statements, vague in meaning, words used repeatedly, non-religious context, elementary level words).
  • [numbers in brackets]: grades students have accumulated by the time of this post (include grades for word tests)
  • [(number in parenthesis inside the brackets)]: grades the student has received for this particular post
  • [underlined numbers in brackets]: mid-term grades (include grades for word tests, class attendance, posts, as well as deductions in fines)
  • [numbers in brackets in bold type]: total number of grades students have accumulated throughout the semester (continuous assessment)
См. также:
Правила и типичные ошибки

3rd year of study: Spring 2021

1. Sergius of Radonezh is the greatest national saint of Russia, he is closely connected with the RECOVERY of the Russian land in the fourteenth century.
2. The great hermits displayed the DELIBERATE SELF-HUMILIATION.
3. Sergius of Radonezh founded a HERMITAGE dedicated to the Holy Trinity.
4. One of the most striking features of Russia in the 14th century is the steady advance of COLONIST MONKS.
5. The EXPLORER MONKS preached Christianity to the wild pagan tribes.

1. Alexander Nevsky refused any religious compromise and chose political submission to the INFIDEL rather than SPIRITUAL SUBMISSION.
2. Through a TRIAL the Lord reminds us of the fragility of human life, and that our life depends on God.
3. During the service, prayers were OFFERED in connection with the threat of the spread of the coronavirus infection.
4. At the end of the service the priest delivered a SERMON.
5. On the porch of the church we can see BEGGARS.

Е.Т. [(5) 21,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(189)

To begin with, I want to say that I completely agree with this quote. The ability to see your sins is the greatest gift of a man. The Orthodox Church presents a view of sins as a spiritual sickness which distorts the whole human being and corrupts the Image of God. Sins disorient and distract a person from his main goal, salvation. And if a person does not see his sins, this is a poor person who does not have the opportunity to move towards the goal of salvation. And if a person sees his sins, it means that he can overcome them and change himself.

Е.Т. [(4,5) 16,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(155)

God is love. The Lord calls and waits for each of us, regardless of our position or our sins. I believe everyone has a mission in the world. There is no doubt that God has something to say to us, and that is why He gives us some trials. If we listen carefully to what the Lord tells us, each of us will certainly hear His answer. Perhaps, through these trials, the Lord reminds us of the fragility of a human life, and that our life depends on God. The Lord says: “Do not rely on your strength, do not think that you will be fine without My help. Turn to Me more often, ask Me, and even if it seems to you that I will not answer, I will always come to your aid.” When people fall into sins and turn away from God, they fall into spiritual misery and suffering and only God can save us from this suffering. But the most important thing is that God never turns away from us, he is always here waiting for us.

Е.Т. [(5) 12]


Sometimes a person WITHDRAWS into a remote area to live an ascetic live away from worldly temptations. He finds A PLACE OF RETREAT and stays there for a long period. Sergius of Radonezh is one of the most famous and venerable HERMITS. He gathered a group of disciples in a remote area and founded there a HERMITAGE that became THE GREATEST RELIGIOUS HOUSE IN THE LAND. Even Prince Dmitry Donskoy visited Sergius of Radonezh TO SECURE HIS BLESSING.

Ал.Д. [(3,5) 8]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(199)

To start with, I completely agree with this saying. Sometimes people may think that the main requirement of salvation is to fulfill such actions as fasts, reading Scripture, going to church etc. So, they do it, they turn these actions into the main point of faith. Of course, it`s better than nothing, but it`s less then salvation as it`s supposed to be. The main point of Christians` life is salvation and deification which are acquired through fasts, vigils, the study of Scripture etc. These things are supposed to help us make our hearts, souls and minds closer to God so that we can love Him and our fellow men.
Here I can refer to the dialog between Christ and the young man: «And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. The young man saith unto him, All these things have I kept from my youth up: what lack I yet? Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me».(Matthew 2;16- 21)
So here we can see that it`s not enough just to fulfill commandments to get redemption but we have to love God and our neighbors. But commandments, the study of Scripture, renouncing possessions, and other things are still important because they help us to achieve the love of God and our fellow men.

Ал.Д. [(4,5) 4,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(198)

I absolutely agree with the idea of Saint Paisios. I think that the more people move away from the natural, simple life and thrive in luxury, the more human anxiety increases in their souls. And because they are moving further and further away from God, they find no peace anywhere. We all can read in the Gospel: “And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.” (Mt 19:24) I understand that Saint Paisios spoke more about ascetic life, not about wealthy people. But for us it becomes really difficult even to refrain from luxury things in our everyday life. And I know a lot of people who have everything and their lives are full of comforts, but their misery is very deep.
Actually, I myself have many conveniences, but I cannot feel happy about it. I think that not everyone can lead an ascetic life, depriving themselves of all the benefits. But everyone can fast, pray, and try not to go to extremes, not to surround themselves with luxury.

А.Ж. [(4,5) 11,5]


1. Sir Paul Rycaut wrote that it is remarkable to see and consider how ignorant and poor men KEEP THEIR FAITH with Constancy, Resolution, and Simplicity.
2. After the falling of the "GOD-PROTECTED CITY", the Greeks were under the rule of THE INFIDEL.
3. The Christian religion in MOSLEM eyes is not entirely false, but incomplete.
4. As per Mohammedan teaching, Christians are TO UNDERGO no PERSECUTION.
5. People had taken Byzantium for granted as a permanent element in GOD’S PROVIDENTIAL DISPENSATION to the world for more than a thousand years.

А.Ж. [(3) 7]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(199)

I agree with the St. John's quote. Because his idea is close to my thoughts about being a good man. His main idea is that we should begin with love. I think that the first step is to learn how to love our neighbours. The second is to learn how to love our enemies. And then, at last, we can start "fasts and vigils, the study of Scripture, renouncing possessions and everything worldly". Because without love in our hearts all these things are worthless. Through a pure heart, the Kingdom of Heaven comes to man."Blessed are the pure in heart," says the Scripture — " for they will see God (Mt 5: 8). We have this pure heart only if we're able to love each other and God. And this squarely fits my idea of Christianity.

А.Ж. [(4) 4]


1. During the Mongol OVERLORDSHIP the Russian dukes were obliged to PAY TRIBUTE to the Mongol rulers.
2. It was THE GRAND DUKES OF MOSCOW who led Russia at Kulikovo.
3. At the beginning of the 14th century, THE MOSCOW PRINCIPALITY expanded due to the annexation of Kolomna, Pereslavl-Zalessky and Mozhaysk.
4. Alexander Nevsky inflicted decisive defeats upon THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS in 1242.
5. During the Mongol period there were such saints as Alexander Nevsky, STEPHEN of Perm, and SERGIUS of Radonezh.

А.Д. [(3) 9,5]


1 Alexander Nevsky, one of the great WARRIOR SAINTS of Russia, played an important role in preserving the Orthodox Church in the 13th century. 2 Although he decided to submit to Tartars and TO PAY TRIBUTE, he defeated THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS whose avowed aim was THE REDUCTION OF THE RUSSIAN “SCHISMATICS” TO THE JURIDICTION OF THE POPE.
3 During the SUZERAINTY of the Mongol Tartar over Russia, Kiev’s place was taken by THE PRINCIPALITY OF MOSCOW, partly because Peter, Metropolitan of Russia, decided to settle in Moscow.
4 Under the Mongols the Russian Church continued its MISSIONARY WORK and sent EVANGELISTS among the pagan conquerors.
5 When a priest gives us Communion, he gives us THE PRECIOUS AND MOST HONOURABLE BODY AND BLOOD of our Lord God and Saviour Jesus Christ unto THE REMISSION OF SINS and unto LIFE EVERLASTING.
6 It’s important for a Christian to receive THE DIVINE, HOLY, MOST PURE, IMMORTAL AND LIFE-GIVING MYSTERIES every Sunday.

С.Г. [(7) 27]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(184)

I fully agree with Father Jack Sparks. People tend to think that they are better that others. And consequently people see a speck in other person’s eye when they themselves have a log in their own.
And as time goes by and science is developing more and more, people’s feeling of self-importance and superiority is only increasing. People think that they have solved the mystery of this world. And while they put themselves above God and nature, they even more readily put themselves above other people. And when one feels that one is better than others one starts to judge and despise others. And then our own faults seem insignificant or even non-existent. And when such is the case, we not only cannot improve ourselves as we close our eyes on our flaws but we also become vainglorious. And this can be true not only for people who have got faults but chooses not to see them, but also for people who can be very good and precisely because of that feel better than others and be judgmental of others.

С.Г. [(5) 20]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(186)

I fully agree with Righteous John, Wonderworker of Kronstadt. Indeed, the charity of the man who bestows it unwillingly and grudgingly is worthless. Although it will still help others it will not benefit the soul of the one who performs this act of charity. And it is true not only about unwilling charity. It is also true when a person takes too much pride in their charitable work. As Archbishop Averky said “Vainglory, like a moth, eats away all our good deeds.” Vainglory can ruin any good dead and so when one is being charitable, one should try not to think too highly of oneself because of it.
Also I believe that one only can be truly charitable when one gives away not a surplus of whatever one has got but something that perhaps one could use oneself.
But at the end of the day I still think that people should bestow charity even if it is a useless surplus and it is done unwillingly. It still will be helpful if not for the one who performs this act of charity but for a person who accepts it and I would still encourage people to be as charitable as they possibly can.

С.Г. [(5) 15]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(189)

I fully agree with Abbot Nikon Vorobiev. I believe that being able to see your own sins is the greatest and most needful of all gifts. And it is vital not only see your sins but also to cry over them. Because it is not enough to recognize that we have done something wrong. People can understand that and don’t feel sorry at all. Some may even be proud of what they’ve done. But when we see our sins and cry over them we can repent. And repentance is an important step to becoming better and more worthy. Of course, a person can be sorry for what they’ve thought, said or done and still do nothing about it. But still it is something.
The theme of vainglory keeps coming up through my essays and here it is again. Because the best way to cope with vainglory is vainglory itself. Or rather awareness of vainglory. If one thinks that one is better than others because one is more righteous than others, distinguishing vainglory in oneself will help to understand that one is not that saint-like after all.

С.Г. [(5) 10]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(197)

I fully agree with Archbishop Averky. Unfortunately, it is too often that people would say, for example, “You should not break the ten commandments or you will go to hell and you will suffer.” Too often people do certain things and lead a certain lifestyle because they are afraid of God and do not want to be punished. And, sure, it is an effective way to make people better. But God is not cruel and severe. God is kind and merciful. As Archbishop Averky said: “God cares for us like an all-loving Father, and even more gently, like an adoring mother.” And isn’t it natural to try to please someone who loves you that much? To try to become a person who deserves such love. In my opinion, such motivation is much stronger that fear to be punished. And once I was told that we start to obey God because of fear to be punished but gradually we start to obey God because we love him and we do not want to be separated from him.

С.Г. [(5) 5]


1. CRESCENT and star symbol is mostly used by the Muslims and symbolizes heaven and heavenly religion.
2. We need to understand that God PROVIDENTIALLY guides and SUSTAINS our everyday lives and the only thing that we have to do is just trust Him.
3. During the Roman times the Christians were TO UNDERGO PERSECUTION in many ways, they were murdered for their faith, were also thrown into jail, beaten, and expelled from their countries.
4. Fortunately, in these days, we can safely and without INTERFERENCE KEEP OUR FAITH.
5. Our church was CONSECRATED in 1861.

Е.Т. [(2,5) 7]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(188)

I fully agree with these words. Indeed, only one who leaves everything to the will of God can feel truly joyous. Nowadays we all worry about ourselves too much. We turn in the whirlwind of entertainment and problems, not allowing ourselves to collect our thoughts and contemplate our inner state, our soul. Everyday worldly concerns make us forget the most important thing, a man is created to be happy. And this happiness is not possible without God, and without understanding that everything is in the hands of God.
I would say that all our problems come from distrust and doubt. We are afraid to trust God. Indeed, we cannot hope to trust in someone who is essentially a stranger to us, but God has not made Himself difficult to find or know. All we want to know about God, He has made it available to us in the Bible.
Of course, everyone in this life deals with doubt, even the great apostles and disciples in the Bible dealt with doubt, and it is normal for human beings.
From this we can conclude that the problem lies in us and in our own will.
And a person can become truly happy only by trusting God.

Е.Т. [(4,5) 4,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(198)

I absolutely agree with this quote. In our days comfort has the highest value. Each of us strives for a comfortable life. We are trying to buy the most comfortable seats on the plane, the most expensive equipment, the most delicious food etc. The pursuit of comfort has consumed everyone. But is this comfort really necessary? Let’s imagine your life with all the exciting conveniences. You have tried all things you wanted, have visited all countries you wanted, have tasted dishes you wanted. And what would you do then? What would you strike for if you have already had all you wanted? Life would lose its colours. And it would be more difficult for you than if you were far from a comfortable life. Life is more exciting and breathtaking when you achieve everything on your own.
And we us people who try to be Orthodox Christians should remember that striving for comfort is not the main goal of our life. Sometimes we have to refrain from some conveniences. We have an example of how we should live. Did Christ have all comforts during His earthly life? So let’s follow the example of our Saviour’s life and be indifferent to these temporary conveniences.

А.Д. [(3,5) 6,5]


1. My father and brother as the altar servers PARTAKE of THE COMMUNION within the Altar.
2. On the domes of MOSLEM temples we can see THE CRESCENT.
3. This Crusade was against the INFIDEL.
4. In the Soviet Union the Orthodox Christians have UNDERGONE PERSECUTION.
5. Greeks called Sultan Mohammed II "THE PRECURSOR OF ANTICHRIST and the second SENNACHERIB".

А.Д. [(3) 3]


The CRESCENT is the curved shape of the waning moon is used by MOSLEMS.
Constantinople was the GOD-PROTECTED CITY, an element in GOD’S PROVIDENTIAL DISPENSATION which fell and turned out to be under the rule of the INFIDEL.
Sultan Mohammed II, so called the PRECURSOR OF ANTICHRIST and the second SENNACHERIB instituted the Patriarch investing him with his PASTORAL STAFF and became CHAMPION OF ISLAM and protector of Orthodoxy.

Д.Ж. [(4) 4]


3rd year of study: Autumn 2020

1. I think it is way more important to think about the PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE GOSPEL, rather than wander in the matters more or less purely theoretical.
2. MOUNT ATHOS is one of the most important places in the Orthodox world and the monasteries there tend to have very strict RULE OF THE MONASTERY.
3. PASSION BEARERS are people who died a SACRIFICIAL DEATH in a Christ-like manner, such as Boris and Gleb or the Imperial Family of Russia.
4. DEATH PENALTY and CORPORAL PUNISHMENT are very controversial instruments of law, and are often discussed in relation to THE SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY.
5. It is always a joy when a newly made icon finally gets SANCTIFIED by a priest.
6. It is sometimes hard to tell whether the hardships that the Orthodox peoples often face are THE BANE OF ORTHODOXY or are actually spiritually BENEFICIAL.
7. St. Nicholas of Japan CHRISTIANISED many Japanese people.
8. The PRINCIPALITIES of Rus’ and Poland were divided, among other things, by DOCTRINAL CONTROVERSIES.
9. The Westminster Abbey was CONSECRATED in 1090.
10. The ARCHBISHOP of Canterbury is one of the central figures of the Anglican Church.
11. The Book of Revelation describes, among other things, a series of prophetic VISIONS.
12. Old Georgian is the LITURGICAL LANGUAGE of the Georgian Orthodox Church.
13. ALTARS are necessary TO HOLD SERVICES.
14. Among other things, it is important for missionaries to translate SERVICE BOOKS into the local language.
15. INITIATING MISSIONARY WORK in distant lands is important, but converting people at home is just as necessary, so a long MISSIONARY JOURNEY isn’t the only option.

С.З. [(11) 45]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(192)

Vainglory is a peculiar thing, I feel like almost everyone thinks that they are invulnerable to it, that they will easily escape its grasp, and yet, this is rarely the case. Everyone is capable of great achievements, noble deeds, we can all engage in the good works. And of course, it does feel good when we do that. I think that Archbishop Averky is wise when he says that good deeds are better done in secret. Part of that good feeling that I mentioned before is the public admiration we get from our good deeds. The approval of our peers can be intoxicating, and it is a seductive idea to perform the good works to experience more of that approval as a reward. But this devalues our work, debases it. We must do good deeds first and foremost for the glory of God, rather than for ourselves. Keeping that in mind, I think that doing them in secret is a very wise thought.

С.З. [(4,5) 24]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(189)

I think that Abbot Nikon Vorobiev makes an important point. Sin is insidious and perhaps the worst part about it is that it is, in some way, an invisible enemy. We cannot fight our sins until we find them, only then can we face them and repent. I think one of the most important parts of a Christian life is keeping vigil and watching for our trespasses. A person who fails to detect and contemplate their sins, however virtuous this person may be, fails to make the first and the most important step on their path to repenting for these very sins. With this in mind, I think that the gift of seeing one’s own sins truly is one of the most important gifts that God can bestow upon somebody.

С.З. [(5) 19,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(188)

The world is an oppressive, chaotic place. Most people live out their lives in constant stress, in fear of tomorrow. Modern life is full of uncertainties and we live from salary to salary, from one economic crisis to the next in tension, in anticipation. This is the true curse of living a worldly life, the curse of perennial worry. I think that Elder Thaddeus has a great point and leaving our lives to the will of God would lead to a lighter experience. Not in the daredevil “Jesus take the wheel” kind of way of certain people, after all, I feel like this goes against what Jesus told us: “Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God”. I don’t think everyone is capable of dedicating their lives completely to God, and leaving everything to God, and this is okay. But we can still alleviate part of that everpresent worry by living a Christian existence, because deep down we all know that Christ has our best interests at heart, and as long as we are good Christians, the most important thing in our lives will be certain: our salvation.

С.З. [(5) 14,5]


1. Early Christians were PERSECUTED for their faith.
2. The angels announced THE GOOD TIDINGS of great joy.
3. Unlike the GREAT LITANY, in which PETITIONS are for the whole world, in the LITANY OF FERVENT SUPPLICATION the petitions are specifically for people who are involved in the local church community.
4. All of the known authors of the EPISTLES are apostles and each of these individuals had a unique CALLING from the Lord.
5. These Epistles, INSPIRED by the Holy Spirit, are preserved as part of the New Testament’s writings today.

1. Anyone walking the HALLOWED GROUND can surely sense sacredness.
2. The priest blessed the house and sprinkled us with holy WATER.
3. In ancient times, people had to make OBLATIONS to please God.
4. She was MOURNING for her husband.

Е.Т. [(5,5) 91]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(15)

I can agree with this statement.
First of all, all Christians are praying otherwise we couldn’t be called Christians.
Secondly, Christ asks us to pray. He tells us in the Gospel of Luke, How much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him (Luke 11:13). We pray so that God can help us to become more like Him in our actions. We also pray for our renewal and the growth of our soul. We pray to give thanks to God for all he provides for us. We also pray to seek forgiveness for our sinfulness. We can also pray to seek help for others as well as ourselves. But we must not forget to pray for His help in our own spiritual growth.

Д.Ж. [(5) 82]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(192)

I want to start with one interesting thing about the word «vainglory». As you can see it can be divided into two parts «vain» and «glory». And the point here is in the first one. So when people perform deeds of mercy not in the name of God, but to gain glory and fame, all good about this thing becomes vain. Even when people do something with pure intentions any drop of praise may set vainglory in the weak human heart.
That`s why Jesus Christ said: «But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth». And of course, that`s true. When we do something we have to ask ourselves: «Do I perform it in the name of God or for my own benefit?» We have to do it not to lose «the reward from our Father Who is in heaven».

Ал.Д. [(4,5) 45]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(193)

I find this quote quite appropriate but I can`t say for sure if I agree with it. It`s a controversial issue because the main responsibility actually lies on men`s shoulders. But if we speak in general it`s right. The more comfort people get, the more motionless they become. Here I think works logic like this: «I have everything here, why should I go somewhere and seek for something else?» Saying «everything» I mean bodily comfort and «go and seek» means here spiritual growth. And those who have everything usually don`t think of anybody else, they behave in the way similar to the rich man from the parable: «And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry». (Luke 12:19)
But those who have no comfort and actually live in poverty or sickness just have to move and seek and grow spiritually. Just to survive and not to break in their circumstances. And I`m talking not only about religious point of view, but even in general. Usually when people face and overcome difficulties, they become more sensible and attentive to others. So they move closer to one of the most important commandments «Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself». (KVJ Mark 12:31). They grow in spirit and «bring forth fruits» even if they don`t know this commandment.
But finally, there are people who living in wealth always seek for truth. And there are ones who in afflictions fall into temptation and death of soul. So, of course, if we generalize, this quote is relevant and extremely accurate. But I prefer to think about a single person and his deeds.

Ал.Д. [(4) 36]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(178)

To begin with, I want to say that I completely agree with this quote. Here I can refer to the Gospel. «Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you». (Luke 17:21) And as it seems to me St. John of Kronstadt wants to explain exactly this thing. If our soul, mind and heart are clear and we are ready to let God in and fill us with his Divine grace, the Kingdom of God will be straight inside our souls. Heaven is not a particular place, it`s more about our closeness to God and his presence in our life. And when God is with us it actually is the Kingdom of God and it may be even during our earthly life. And as we know there is no discomfort, poverty and sorrow in the Kingdom of God, so our mourning turns to Joy when we are close to God.
Concerning my life, I haven`t had such experience, but I can refer to the words of St. Nikon Belyaev. He was put in a concentration camp, he suffered from tuberculosis, but in one of his letters he wrote: «Радости моей нет предела». So, I think this is the way how presence of God changes our attitude to misery. When we accept God, we also accept misery that he may send to strengthen or to test us. But it is not misery already but a way to being closer to Him.

Ал.Д. [(4) 32]


1) When the Lord will EXECUTE JUDGEMENT those who stand against God shall PERISH if they don`t repent.
2) People who are FETTERED with their sins should remember that God SETTETH ARIGHT THE FALLEN and not to fall into despair.
3) The CRUSADES were a reaction to the expansion of Islam but under the cover of a sacred duty the CRUSADERS did WANTON and systematic SACRILEGE even against Christians.

1) The long and thoughtful HOMILY ended with the idea that the main point of Orthodox Christian`s life is DEIFICATION.
2) In a monastery human iniquities and infirmities can be REDRESSED with prayer and ASCETIC life.
3) The Uncreated Light of Thabor isn`t SENSIBLE or material light but a form of God`s energy through which GOD ENTERS INTO A DIRECT AND IMMEDIATE RELATIONSHIP WITH MANKIND.

1) To set up Orthodox communities all over the world we have TO INITIATE MISSIONARY WORK and organize MISSIONARY JOURNEYS to remote regions.
2) SERVICE BOOKS are used to guide people how to TAKE SERVICES.
3) There is a controversy between the Orthodox, some people think it`s normal TO HOLD SERVICES in the modern language but there are those who insist on keeping church Slavonic as THE LITURGICAL LANGUAGE.

1) There are a lot of heresies that Christians have to be aware of, one of them is DONATISM which is a heresy that is critical of moral unworthiness of clergy and it claims that all sacraments being performed by such priests are invalid. 2) In my opinion it`s close to NOVATIANISM which claims that serious sin can never be absolved. 3) Also, CHILIASM which is comes from literal understanding of words about the Kingdom of God and also has reflection in communism and ideology of the Third Reich. 4) And one of the heresies that marked the schism inside Christianity which of course is FILIOQUISM.

1) Those FAITHFUL who can truly be named SERVANTS and HANDMAIDENS OF GOD will inherit His Kingdom.
2) The commandment «Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself» is about that one who wants to be with Christ and should gain ONENESS OF MIND, BROTHERLY LOVE with his fellowman.
3) Not to grumble means that one should be grateful to God for any TRIBULATION and need because if they suffer it with humbleness, they will gain PEACE FROM ON HIGH.

1) DEATH PENALTY is forbidden in many countries, but there are some where it still exists.
2) Saint Theodosius who introduced in Petchersky Lavra THE RULE OF THE MONASTERY was a SUCCESSOR of Saint Antony who was the founder of the monastery.
3) Those who live their life in poverty and voluntary "SELF-EMPTYING" follow the words of Christ: «If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me».

Ал.Д. [(17,5) 28]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(137)

I can see the point in the quote of Abbot Nikon Vorobiev. And I suppose that I’m totally agree with it.
If anyone says, “I love God,” and yet hates his brother or sister, he is a liar. For the person who does not love his brother or sister whom he has seen cannot love God whom he has not seen.
Love for others, especially fellow Christians, is a primary commandment from Christ. So, a person who exhibits hate for others, but claims to know God, is lying.

Д.Ж. [(5) 69]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(188)

Unfortunately, that’s is true.
Elder Thaddeus (Strabulovich) of Vitovnica was right saying that.
Our modern civilization is aimed at diverting the attention of man from himself, from his heart and from the true values. We are too worried about ourselves but only a person who fully believes in the will of God can become joyful and peaceful.

Д.Ж. [(3) 64]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(147)

I agree with this quote! Yes, we can be slaves of passion but actually we can be free.
As St. Paul says «There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it».
Sometimes it seems too hard for us to struggle against all troubles. But people can overcome them by full trust in God and in His mercy.

Д.Ж. [(5) 61]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(161)

I think that this quote is really good. And I agree with it.
Archbishop Seraphim calls upon us not to grow angry or teach but to restrain ourselves.
I can only say that we must not forget about humility. Because that’s the «mother of all virtues and pride has been made». And it is the basis of our spiritual life without which it is impossible to be saved.

Д.Ж. [(4) 56]


1. Most of heresies appeared during the age of DOCTRINAL CONTROVERSIES.
2. Russian people were CHRISTIANIZED in the 10th century.
3. In “The Nun” of Denis Diderot abbess Christina insisted on customs which boarded with CORPORAL PUNISHMENT.
4. The place of king Oswald‘s death is thought to be SANCTIFIED.
5. In Voltaire’s “Candide” the Jesuits seem to SERVE THE ENDS OF NATIONAL POLITICS rather than the ends of their faith.
6. In Russia the DEATH PENALTY has not been used since 1996.

Е.Ш. [(3) 65]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(192)

Vaninglory is an excessive desire for fame, a desire to appear better than others. A synonym for vanity is pride. Vain people in their actions are not guided by moral categories, but only by their desire to be the center of attention.
Let's look at the so-called "stars", famous people whose activities are related to art, show business or sports. These people almost always serve the idol of vanity. They put on the altar of this deity the best years of life, health, family happiness, mother- or fatherhood. Everything that is usually of great value to a person is sacrificed to vanity. All for one thing: a little more time on the pinnacle of fame, basking in its rays.
The main danger of vanity is that such people forget about the voice of reason, so they often find themselves in a stupid, even dangerous situation. It is like a crooked mirror that does not allow a person to see their shortcomings, drowning out conscience, the voice of reason. Vanity can eventually overshadow all the advantages of a person, or it can lead to sad consequences.

В.Л. [(4,5) 54]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(191)

We, living people, can help our deceased relatives in easing their fate beyond the line of eternity. We need to pray sincerely and regularly, because sincere prayer works wonders and the Lord can even pull a person out of hell with such a prayer, because the final fate of the dead has not yet been determined before the Last judgment and it is in our power to change everything.
Christian love always lives, including love for the dead, and the dead are not dead, but alive, and they themselves are able to love us. For the soul of man is immortal. As long as we live, it is our duty to pray for our dead relatives and teach our children to do so, so that when it is our turn to leave this world, there will be those on Earth who will offer their prayers to the Lord for us.

В.Л. [(5) 43,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(196)

Without humility, Christian spiritual life is impossible. We all know that a person who has humility never loses his temper, does not judge anyone, does not exalt himself or swear about anything. A person who endures all humiliations and humiliations without a murmur, gets a great benefit from it, thereby gaining a precious humility that saves him. A person who humbly endures all the condemnation directed at him is approaching perfection. Humility, first of all, consists, as it seems to me, in the fact that a person performs a very courageous act.
In our time, it is extremely difficult to meet a person who does not strive for fame, praise, and wealth. And now it is extremely difficult to meet a person who is not afraid to admit his stupidity, if he is stupid, is not afraid to admit his inability, if he is not able, is not afraid to admit his lack of talent, if something does not work out for him.

В.Л. [(5) 38,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(188)

Now people are too demanding of themselves, even sometimes trying to jump above their heads. When a person, for example, makes a deal with his conscience for the sake of wealth or worldly success, giving up love and truth, instead of finding joy, he loses it. In the material world, a person is never satisfied with what is, he is always hungry for something else. Our duty is to obey the revealed will of God, not to speculate on what is hidden from us. While we should strive to be moved by the Holy Spirit, we should never forget that the Holy Spirit first leads us to the truth and aligns us with the image of Christ so that our lives will glorify God.
If we are not careful, we can easily become overly involved or even obsessed with finding the "will" of God in our lives. Searching for His secret, hidden, or decree will is pointless. Life in accordance with His revealed will should be the main goal of life.

В.Л. [(5) 33,5]


«DIONYSIAN» writings were thought to be the work of SAINT DIONYSIUS the AREOPAGITE, and SAINT MAXIMUS the CONFESSOR composed commentaries on them, and they were quoted by THOMAS AQUINAS in SUMMA.
JOHN OF DAMASCUS wrote that «God is INFINITE and INCOMPREHESIBLE and all that is comprehensible about Him is His INFINITY and INCOMPREHESIBILITY.
Now we know that a HESYCHAST is one who in silence devotes himself to INNER RECOLLECTION and secret prayer.

Д.Ж. [(6) 52]


Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the ACCESSION of Queen Victoria in 1837.
By an UNANIMOUS decision, the church should be preserved as a museum.
Sebastian gathered his FELLOW-BELIEVERS and they went searching for the body.
The ACCESSION of Elagabalus or Heliogabalus was a strange episode in a history of the Roman Emperors.

If you are going to CHARGE anybody WITH HERESY, you have to prove your case.
At the end of that century, Pope Victor I threatened to EXCOMMUNICATE the Eastern bishops who continued to celebrate Easter on 14 Nisan, not on the following Sunday.
These reports were SUPPLEMENTED by information received from several international relief organisations.
If you are restless right now, praying and listening to what God is speaking to your heart can make this time SPIRITUALLY PROFITABLE.

It is respectful to show REVERENCE to those who have passed away.
In 1930, the firm "René Neymann" began to sell UNLEAVENED BREAD to the non-religious public.
Religions promote RECONCILIATION by impelling people to move forward in a spirit of mutual cooperation.
People's TORMENT is kept hidden, but rules their lives.

We have to have faith in us so that we can strongly bear this TRIBULATION.
I've learned an INFALLIBLE method for doing just that, remembering things.
THE CLAIMS TO UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION which Nicholas had made was naturally revived by the reformed Papacy.
In 1054 Pope Leo IX sent three LEGATES to Constantinople to settle the disputed questions of Greek and Latin USAGES, but because of the Patriarch's refusal, Humbert lost his patience and laid a BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION against Cerularius on the ALTAR of the Church of the Holy Wisdom.

The subsequent Great Schism of 1054 ensured that THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE would continue for the Orthodox faithful.
Migration to a city will be the only choice for many DISPOSSESSED peasants.

He has committed a WANTON and terrible SACRILEGE, and he will pay for it with his life!
One of the key pillars of the spiritual health of any congregation is the level of A SPIRITUAL COMMITMENT among its members.

The RELIGIOUS REVIVAL that took place during the 1990s had created the conditions for people to practise their religion freely, in a climate of equality and respect.
CLERGY and LAITY from all Anglican churchmanship traditions have been active in the formation of the Continuing Anglican movement.
The SUCCESSOR of Michael VIII repudiated the union of Lyons for its APOSTASY.
Alfred Edward Taylor was greatly influenced by the thought of classical antiquity, by such philosophers as Plato and Aristotle, as well as medieval SCHOLASTICISM.

When we COMMIT OURSELVES TO GOD daily, we will experience the blessings that He promises us.
God in His INFINITE wisdom decided to spare that from the flames.
In heaven, God’s INCOMPREHENSIBILITY will no doubt be lessened when the effects of sin no longer ravage minds.
Meditation and prayer help a person to open many INNER RECOLLECTION that are not available to him in the normal state.

THE INVOCATION OF THE HOLY NAME of Jesus is the simplest way of praying always because when the holy name is repeated often by a humbly attentive heart, the prayer is not lost by heaping up empty phrases, but holds fast to the word and brings forth fruit with patience.
MOUNT THABOR, located in the heart of the Lower Galilee, is known for its beautiful round shape rising from the ground. In Christianity, this mountain is traditionally considered the place of the TRANSFIGURATION of the Lord.
To explain how the Hesychasts did indeed experience the Divine and Uncreated Light of Thabor, Gregory developed THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE ESSENCE AND THE ENERGIES OF GOD.
SANCTIFICATION begins with a definite breach with sin.
God is Light, but this Light is not a SENSIBLE or material light, but it can be seen with physical eyes.
In the process of vocational guidance for schoolchildren, psychologists identify the real interests, values, mental and BODILY FACILITIES, personal qualities, and the nature of the child's creativity.
In religion, TRANSCENDENCE is the aspect of a God’s nature and power that is fully independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
The doctrine or theory of IMMANENCE holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
The term «WHOLLY OTHER" is used in Christian theology to describe the difference between God and everything else.

THE LAY THEOLOGIAN is a Christian lay person who teaches or writes in the field of Christian theology.
The Church Fathers have always reminded us that for our salvation, the salvation of our soul, we should lead a SACRAMENTAL LIFE within the Orthodox Church.
The human rights-related issues that are at the heart of the political disputes must be addressed DISPASSIONATELY.
The Derbent Juma MOSQUE is the oldest MOSQUE in Russia and the CIS and it is located in the center of the old part of Derbent.

Nothing of human beings is meaningful without morality which is fundamental to develop RIGHTEOUSNESS, responsibility and humanity in the mankind for differentiating a man from an animal.
The CATHOLIC CHURCH of St Catherine in St. Petersburg is the oldest Catholic church in the Russian Federation.
The first part of the Divine Liturgy called the Liturgy of the CATECHUMENS, that is, the liturgy of those who were receiving instructions in the Christian Faith in order to become members of the Church through baptism and CHRISMATION.
REVERENCE has been defined as a feeling or attitude of deep respect, love, and awe, as for something sacred.

The environment is a PRECIOUS GIFT from God to humanity that must be preserved for generations to come.
Even in our awful TRIBULATION people have to stay quite optimistic.
A person who loves Jesus experiences his love and receives REMISSION of his or her sins and OFFENCES.
Godliness, or true spirituality progresses as the result of removing things from our lives that are not SPIRITUALLY PROFITABLE and bringing into our lives principles and practices that further our spiritual growth.

In the Church, the Western tradition professes the CONSUBSTANTIAL communion between the Father and the Son, by saying that the Spirit proceeds in eternity from the Father and the Son.
In Christianity the word INCARNATION means the union of divinity with humanity in Jesus Christ.
Christian OBLATION is based in Christ's one offering of himself for our salvation. The choice of a LITURGICAL LANGUAGE is determined both by religious and practical considerations and is based, in part, on the ways in which people view sacred activities.

The most important part in the Baptist’s ministry was leading people to a true and faithful repentance, so that they might realise that they could obtain salvation only by REMISSION OF SINS.
The IMMACULATE Conception of Mary is one of the four Marian dogmas of the Catholic Church, meaning that it is held to be a truth divinely revealed, the denial of which is heresy.
As we, with praise and thanksgiving, call God our Father, then we must not forget the first petition in the Lord’s Prayer: “HALLOWED be Thy name.“
The SPIRITUAL FRAGRANCE of the Christian Church is the harmonious unity and co-operation of its members and also the product of INTERNAL grace and divine favour.

В.Л. [(28,5) 28,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(197)

I fully agree with the idea of Archbishop Averky's quote. I came to this idea not so long ago. However, it is no longer new to me. In my childhood I thought of God as of a strict parent, because I couldn't undertand all actions of my earthly parents. I thought they wanted to limit me, to make me do boring things. I was a child and it was difficult for me to understand that all their prohibitions came out of love to me. The same thing is with the relations with God. I have grown older and am beginning to understand and accept the fact that God loves me and cares for me as a loving Father. And of course, it helped a lot to love him back with all my heart. Love out of fear and misunderstanding will not bring good. You can't even call it love. Love should be warm and fearless. I think, this idea will be closer and clearer to me when I become a mother. Once I've read an interview of one poet and she wrote that her relations with God changed after the birth of her first child. So, I wonder what else I can understand about this topic. I think it will be amazing.

А.Ж. [(5) 80]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(192)

I agree with the quote of Archbishop Averky. I always think about this topic when I help someone (especially when I give alms to someone). But for me, this othen means the other side of the coin. I'm afraid to look too ostentatious, and I wonder if people around me have noticed. And I begin to doubt whether I did good to others out of good intentions. What if I did it for myself? What if I wanted God or people to notice my good deeds? At such moments, I feel heartless.
But sometimes it turns out to be vanity. While talking to people, we often talk first and then think. And very often we accidentally mention some kind of good deed. You may not have wanted to. But you already did. And words can't be taken back. I read a good topic on this theme. It is written by Saint Theophan The Recluse and called "Thoughts for every day of the year (Gal. 2, 6-10; MK. 5, 22-24. 35-6, 1)". I especially like the quote from it about people who praise our good deeds. He believes that it's not bad, but we just shouldn't listen to them. We can praise each other, but we can't accept praise. In general, this quote was useful and topical for me, but it was not something really new.

А.Ж. [(5) 64,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(194)

I fully agree with this quote of Abbot Nikon Vorobiev. The direction of his thought seems to me right. I mean the very beginning of the quote, where he expresses the idea that you need to work for God. Usually people don't think about working for God. Many people come to pray only when something bad happens in their life. But in fact, you need to work all the time. Everyone can do this. Of course, first of all, Nikon Vorobyov mentions prayer as a part of this work. Prayer is our communication with God, so I agree that it is a necessary part. Then he writes about being "vigilant over oneself". I understand this phrase in a way that you need to control your actions and thoughts and try to make sure that all of them are directed towards being closer to God. Strictly speaking, we need to discipline ourselves. Also he writes that we need to struggle with thoughts, not argue over trifles, humble ourselves before others, make peace quickly and reveal our thoughts. All these things are good to be done in our everyday life. Also he reminds us to partake more often of the Holy Mysteries. This is an essential part of any Christian's life and his advice is very relevant. In general, this quote was useful and topical for me, but it was not something really new. In my experience all these recommendations are quite hard to follow in everyday life, but I'm trying to cope with this task.

А.Ж. [(5) 58,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(197)

I agree with this statement. Archbishop Averky says that if we become aware of how God cares for us ‘then our hearts will be filled to overflowing with ardent and reverent love for Him'. The commandment to love God is the first and the greatest commandment. However, it is hard to love someone we have never met. For example, it is like when you love someone but do not know how that person treats you. Therefore, in order for us to fulfill this commandment, we need to reflect on God's love for us. We know from the Gospel how merciful God is, how He loves us. If we were to watch and observe closely, we would see a lot of evidence for His love. Thinking about God’s love and mercy, it becomes much easier and natural to love Him.

В.П. [(5) 85]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(174)

There is no way one can argue with The Holy Scripture, but I feel that I must elaborate on this topic. Indeed, the way to salvation lies through the narrow gate, because there is only one way to it – to believe in Christ and lead a righteous life. And since the right way is only one, but the quantity of different ways seems to be immeasurable, it’s no wonder that it’s easy to stray away from salvation.
Truly, man can sin without restricting himself, but only through restriction we can get that spiritual power to confront evil. But it may not always be so obvious. Sometimes you may think you are going the right way, but in fact you are heading towards your own destruction because you just took a little step aside the true path.
We don’t need to go far for the example, there are plenty of them in world literature. Of course, I must mention “The Pilgrim’s Progress” by John Bunyan and especially the scene where Christian and Hopeful leave the stony road and decide to walk on a softer path which lies along. It seemed that it went along all the way, but eventually it led to Giant Despair. Although by that moment they seemed to have walked through the narrow gate and left it behind, the symbol of it is still present throughout the novel. And every Christian must take the hard way, not to stray further from God.

Д.Н. [(5) 98]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(185)

Here Metropolitan Saba (Esber) raises a crucial question of Christian faith – the question of active and passive faith. And that is perfectly represented in the symbol of the cross. Some may see it as a thing that they may meditate on, some may admire the sacrifice of Christ, who died for humankind, without actually projecting it on their own lives. Such people think that since Christ has already died for our sins, they may be calm. But I wouldn’t call it true faith. In fact, the cross symbolizes not only the Crucifixion of Christ.
After all, why would every Christian have a little cross tied around their neck? Because that is the metaphorical representation of taking your own cross and following Christ. “Taking” and “following” require action, not meditation. As He suffered, as He endured and died for us in this sinful world, we must suffer, endure, and even die for Him. To take your own cross means literally to follow Christ, to lead His life and to die His death, if needed. Thankfully, history is full of examples of longsuffering people whose lives and deaths may be great illustrations of my words. The first tragic fate which comes to mind – the martyrdom of Elizabeth Feodorovna Romanov, whose life serves as an example of enduring, of standing against the brutal and violent torment of revolutionaries.

Д.Н. [(4,5) 82,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(189)

Abbot Nikon Vorobiev saw the essence, the very first step that man takes to salvation of his soul. That step is – to see his sins and cry over them. Eyes and minds of people are often clouded by their sins, by their lust and pride, and they can’t even see that they are heading towards their inevitable spiritual destruction and death. It is too easy to be unconscious of your trespasses, but we must always see them. Therefore, the second thing we ask our Lord in prayer is to “forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us”. We can’t genuinely ask for His forgiveness if we don’t see clearly what we are guilty of.
“Crying over them” is not about seeing, but about acknowledging. It’s about repentance and asking for God’s mercy. Those two things, are, indeed, what man should constantly do to save his soul. And that is the greatest gift, because being able to do that means to “have everything”, that is, to open the gate to Heavenly Kingdom.

Д.Н. [(5) 78]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(193)

St. John of Kronstadt rightly stated that every person has his animal nature, which pushes him to constant consuming, to unrestrained freedom of sinning. That is the way of instinct – to achieve more, to possess more, to rise above others, to show everyone that you are better, that you are stronger. That is the fate of many authoritarian people, people who assert themselves often by diminishing others.
If one lives in prosperity, he is more likely to overlook the ever-present suffering of this world. He may ignore that and, again, rise himself above others, which leads to the feeling of superiority, to pride. Of course, there is no way for such a man to do good works. Surely, we have examples of rich people, who do good deeds, but often they shape their lives and mind through voluntary restriction, straitness and humbleness. It is always a great pleasure to see such people, who could have everything they want and “grow in body”, but decide to limit themselves to what is necessary, giving everything else to those who need it.

Д.Н. [(4,5) 73]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(197)

That’s true, because people tend to forget the most important things in their lives. You can see it not only in their relation to God, but even in smaller things. I know that some people can’t even acknowledge love of others, despite all the proof that they are given. Being aware may be really hard and there are many people that are really desperate and are constantly in need of reminding that they are loved by someone. And even then, it may be quite hard to believe and to always keep it in mind.
Constant awareness of God’s love for us is what we all must strive to achieve. Because His Love is more than anything that a human being can possibly experience in the earthly world. And I have no doubt that if one becomes and stays fully aware of God’s all-conquering unstinted love, he will not resist and will be overflowed with deep mutual love for Him.

Д.Н. [(4,5) 68,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(147)

These words of the St. Antony the Great are directed at each one of us. We all face, or are under the power of an inner struggle: a struggle with darkness, a struggle with evil, with fear, with perplexity, with everything that makes up fallen human nature.
Some people may think that God doesn't hear them, that the Lord does not answer this cry of the soul. But in fact, the Lord stands beside us, watching joyfully when we courageously, with faith, with faithfulness in our hearts, struggle in His name. And this is our human calling. If we are Christians then we are sent to this world by Christ in order to struggle and conquer by His name and in His name. We should remember this every time we find ourselves under the power of temptation, when bitterness rises in us, and anger, fear, hatred, and every other passion.
We are granted this struggle. It is our honor, our glory that God entrusts us — us, the weak and insignificant — to struggle with evil in the world. And this struggle begins not outwardly, not in our opposition to those close and far, but it begin within us, in the victory over ourselves, in overcoming everything, becoming the masters of our own souls, taking control over our souls, bodies, minds, hearts, will, and lives.

Е.Т. [(4,5) 79,5]


1. PARDON AND REMISSION of our sins and offences we ask of God.
2. We pray to God to deliver us from all TRIBULATION, WRATH and need.
3. We pray to God to send upon us THE GRACE AND GIFT OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.
4. The great martyrs followed Christ in their SACRIFICIAL DEATH.
5. We admire the BOLDNESS and strong faith of the saints.

Е.Т. [(4) 74]


1. Byzantium conferred A SYSTEM OF CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE and a developed Christian civilization upon the Slavs.
2. DOCTRINAL CONTROVERSIES arose in the ninth century.
3. Theodosius followed Christ in his life of POVERTY and SELF-EMPTYING.
4. Theodosius was conscious of THE SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF CHRISTIANITY and he applied them in a radical fashion, identifying himself closely with the poor.
5. The IDEAL OF HUMILITY we can find in Russian folklore and in writers such as Dostoyevsky and Tolstoy.

Е.Т. [(3) 70]


1. This saint EMBODIES some of the most attractive features in Christianity.
2. Our Church received singing in Greek THE SOLEMN GREETING to a bishop at the divine service with the blessing of the Holy Confessor Ambrose.
3. Vladimir was concerned with social justice and COMPASSIONATE treatment of criminals.
5. The greatest misfortune for Russia was that it had very little time to assimilate the full SPIRITUAL INHERITANCE of Byzantium.

Е.Т. [(2) 67]


Christmas is also called Feast of the Nativity, because it commemorates THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST.
Up to this day in Russia you can meet OLD BELIEVERS, and there are even several Russian Orthodox OLD-RITE churches in Moscow.
VESPERS and MATINS are crucial parts of Canonical hours, and matins is the longest part of them.
THE GREAT LITANY is a vital part of liturgy, a form of prayer that consists of a number of PETITIONS.
Our country and Russian Orthodoxy suffered a lot from THE BITTER TORMENT OF ATHEIST RULE in the 20th century.
ONENESS OF MIND, BROTHERLY LOVE AND PIETY is what all the Christians should strive to achieve.
Orthodox people pray to the Lord for the salvation of all THE SICK, the SUFFERING AND the CAPTIVE, because we look for every human being to be delivered from TRIBULATION, WRATH AND NEED.
It’s always a pity to look at the quarrels among FELLOW-BELIEVERS.
Human FRAILTY is the thing that leads to our INIQUITIES and INFIRMITIES.
If you ARE WRONGED, you must remember that forgiveness is the only SPIRITUALLY PROFITABLE thing both for you and for the ‘perpetrator’.

Д.Н. [(11) 64]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(173)

I totally agree with this statement. Righteous John was right saying that.
We can’t just love without any effort or attempt. Love is work. But there is no free time, weekends or vacations. As soon as we stop working on a relationship, they become more fragile and there is a risk of breaking at any moment.
Yes, True love is hard work, but totally worth every effort.

Д.Ж. [(4) 46]


1. The priest preached that REPENTANCE was the first step on the path of REDEMPTION.
2. More and more people due to pandemic think that THE DREAD JUDMENT OF CHRIST is coming.
3. The Romanovs followed Christ in his SACRIFICIAL DEATH.
4. Some people view tattooing as a DEFILEMENT of the body temple.
5. After the priest carries out the chalice with the PRECIOUS GIFTS from the altar, people PROSTRATE.

А.Д. [(3,5) 59]


1. CRUSADES which made the schism definitive began with great ÉCLAT.
2. THE PORCH OF SOLOMON was the name of two porches associated with THE TEMPLE in Jerusalem.
3. THE CEREMONY of the HOLY FIRE is like a miracle that occurs every year at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem on Great Saturday.
4. Religious CONGREGATIONS are groups of men or women who have chosen to express their Christian commitment by living in community.

Д.Ж. [(3) 42]


1. Once THE PAPACY made a mistake by not including the new Pope’s name in THE DIPTYCHS.
2. Three LEGATES were sent to Constantinople to dispute questions of Greek and Latin USAGES (such as using «AZYMES» or UNLEAVENED BREAD).
3. After the letter that was unfriendly in tone Humbert laid A BULL of EXCOMMUNICATION against CERULARIUS on the ALTAR and further attempts at RECONCILIATION made it just worse.

Д.Ж. [(3) 39]


1. The close identification of Orthodoxy with the life of the people, (in particular the system of national Churches) led to the fact that the Orthodox Slavs have made the Church SERVE THE ENDS OF NATIONAL POLITICS.
2. Unfortunately, we had THE BANE OF ORTHODOXY that lasted for the last ten centuries and it was called nationalism.
3. Olga's grandson Vladimir brought priests, relics, SACRED VESSELS and icons into Russia.
4. Vladimir also instituted ECCLESIASTICAL TITHES and held mass baptisms in the rivers.
5. Vladimir paid his attention to THE SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY (e.g. when he feasted with his Court, he distributed food to the poor and sick).
6. There was no DEATH PENALTY in the Byzantine law code and CORPORAL PUNISHMENT in Kievan Russia was very rarely used.
7. Boris and Gleb were both canonized, being given the special title of "PASSION BEARERS".
8. Saint Antony was Russian and lived ON MOUNT ATHOS.
9. Saint Theodosius introduced at The Petchersky Lavra THE RULE OF THE MONASTERY of the Studium at Constantinople.
10. Their marriage was SANCTIFIED by the church.

А.Ж. [(5) 53,5]


1) We know about Saint Anthony who lived on MOUNT ATHOS and founded the PECHERSKY LAVRA which was reorganized by Saint Theodosius (his SUCCESSOR).
2) Divine Liturgy calls upon the participants to remember Christ’s SACRIFICIAL DEATH and RESURRECTION and participate in it.
3) ALBAN and BOTOLPH are known as English saints, while MARTIN OF TOURS is a French saint.
4) The Filioque was INSERTED INTO the CREEED as an anti-Arian addition, by the THIRD COUNCIL OF TOLEDO in 589.

Д.Ж. [(4,5) 36]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(197)

I can see the point in the quote of Archbishop’s Averky. And I suppose that I’m totally agree with it. But there is the problem. We actually know that God loves everybody, kind of way. But not everyone can realize that.
First of all, God loves us just because He created us. We are His creations and He looks on us with a great joy.
Secondly, The greatest proof of love is sacrificing for someone. As Jesus said in John 15:13: “Greater love has no one than this, that someone lay down his life for his friends.»
And He did it. Jesus died for us on the cross. Because God’s love for us is so extravagant that he was willing to sacrifice his Son to save all people.
We should love Him just because of understanding these facts. Of course we don’t realize the fullness of His care and love, but I think that’s enough.

Д.Ж. [(5) 31,5]


1) England was CHRISTIANIZED (began the christianization) in Kent after king Ethelbert received Baptism from St. Augustine.
2) The TRIBULATIONS are SPIRITUALLY PROFITABLE and they help us to come closer to God.
3) MOUNT ATHOS is the monastic center of the Greek Orthodox Church.

В.П. [(2) 72]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(187)

I fully agree with the quote of Saint Paisios of Mount Athos.
We should face our problems spiritually, solve them with God’s help. We should pray to find a solution, to find some spiritual help. If we do not trust God and try to solve all the problems ourselves, we can easily become exhausted.
Thus, it is very essential to trust God, to believe in His will. However, I think I am far from that, because of the desire to control everything. We should understand that God is waiting for our cry for help, we should trust Him. Spiritual help gives us confidence and helps to overcome the problems.

В.П. [(5) 70]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(184)

First of all, I totally agree with the quote of Fr. Jack Sparks. Condemnation is a terrible sin, we elevate ourselves above others, judge people. But who are we to judge others? It is always easier to see the sins of others than your own. Therefore, the devil gives us the temptation of condemnation.
However, this is how we move away from God and from salvation. We should think that we are much worse and more sinful than other people, and not the other way around. We cannot divide people by their sinfulness, only God knows their spiritual life, and only He can judge people and will do it. We must remember that people can't be judged equally and sinfulness cannot be compared. The more given, the more will be demanded.

В.П. [(5) 65]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(167)

I fully agree and understand Archbishop Averky's words.
Nowadays almost everyone is a subject to this condition. We turn in the whirlwind of entertainment and diversions, not allowing ourselves to collect our thoughts and contemplate our inner state, our soul. Everyday worldly concerns make us forget the most important thing, our great goal, salvation.
Today's world gives us access to an entire world of information, communication and entertainment. And that in itself is not a bad thing. But sometimes we forget that all of this was created to assist and serve us, but we begin to serve it. We let someone think for us and control us. And then we lose the greatest gift given to us by God. The gift of freedom. When we lose our freedom, we lose our soul. And the worst thing is that we try to justify ourselves and blame everyone around us. And then we begin to drown in our disappointments, sins, and tears. And then we can assume that the goal of the enemy of the human race is achieved.

Е.Т. [(5) 65]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(173)

I fully agree with St. John of Kronstadt's opinion. It's true that love will not come of itself without our zeal, efforts and activity. Nothing can happen without our desire. After all, in order to get something, we must make an effort. Nothing is given without an effort. And in order to get something, we must not only want it but also be ready to toil and, in the first place, be ready to obtain and keep it.
In my opinion, this Love is hard work. This is a constant struggle with yourself and your emotions. It's a deliberate sacrifice. This is a sacrifice that we make in the name of someone or something.

Е.Т. [(5) 60]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(171)

To begin with, I fully agree with the idea expressed by St. John Climacus that the forgetting of wrongs is a sign of true repentance. It is truly said that forgiveness is often directly tied to repentance. And we know that without repentance there can be no forgiveness.
Sometimes it can be very difficult to forgive someone. It happens because we can't know for sure that a person has realized their mistakes. And witnessing one mistake, we begin to judge a person. And this is our delusion. We can't know what's going on in somebody's soul. This is revealed only to the Lord. But we must remember that God would forgive anyone if they truly repent.
Without forgiveness, there can be no true repentance. We must forget our wrongs to purify our souls, we must forgive a person as the Lord would forgive us.

Е.Т. [(5) 55]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(168)

I fully agree with Metropolitan Saba’s words. There is no true faith without the cross. To carry your cross means to choose not what you like, what is easier, but what is better, what is pleasing to God, what benefits one's fellow.
You can carry your cross in your thoughts and feelings. And the struggle with thoughts is a very important part of our spiritual life. The man became proud and came down from the cross. The man judged and came down from the cross. The man gave up patience and came down from the cross. You can endure something for a very long time, and then instantly come down from the cross.
The Cross is truth, it is wisdom. Sin, pride is stupidity. And if we lose our cross, we lose not only Christianity but also ourselves.

Е.Т. [(5) 50]


1. At the divine Liturgy we hear the choir singing : "It is truly meet to bless thee, O Theotokos, the ever-blessed and most IMMACULATE , and the Mother of our God".
2. The apostles BLAZED abroad the divine truth.
3. Christ preached in the desert and people came to Him from every Quarter.
4. Many great writers had BENEFACTORS.
5. The Lord healed the LEPERS.

Е.Т. [(2) 45]


1) Byzantium lived in a PATRISTIC ATMOSPHERE, while in the west thrived SCHOLASTICISM. 2) It was one of the reasons for THE HESYCHAST CONTROVERSY, which derived from MYSTICAL THEOLOGY, if being precise – from two trends. 3) These two were: “a way of union” – cataphatic theology – and “a way of negation”, which is also called APOPHATIC THEOLOGY. 3) And though God's INFINITY AND INCOMPREHENSIBILITY is the only thing that is comprehensible about Him, we can somehow get an IMMEDIATE EXPERIENCE of UNAPPROACHABLE God.
1) Although ORIGEN was a great thinker, he was often accused of borrowing too much from PLATONISM. 2) For instance, he paid much less attention to the role of man’s body in REDEMPTION and DEIFICATION. 3) But the balance between body and soul was REDRESSED in the Macarian HOMILIES. 4) There you can find the HEBRAIC idea of the “heart”, which includes the whole man, his intellect and body. 5) And during the continual prayer with RECOLLECTION our intellect and our heart become united. 6) DIADOCHUS OF PHOTICE and SAINT JOHN CLIMACUS recommended for such prayers to use THE INVOCATION OF THE NAME of Christ, which is known to us as the Jesus Prayer.
1) The Hesychasts believed that the highest point of the mystical experience is THE VISION OF DIVINE AND UNCREATED LIGHT, which is the same thing the Christ’s disciples saw on MOUNT THABOR. 2) They were attacked and claimed to fall into A GROSS MATERIALISM by Barlaam the Calabrian, who considered the Hesychasts wrong about AN IMMEDIATE EXPERIENCE OF GOD, for He is UNAPPROACHABLE. 3) Barlaam the Calabrian started from the EXEGESIS of Dionisius and was probably influenced by THE NOMINALIST PHILOSOPHY.
1) SAINT GREGORY PALAMAS defended the Hesychasts and he drew THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE ESSENCE AND THE ENERGIES OF GOD. 2) He reaffirmed THE BIBLICAL DOCTRINE and said that our body is not our enemy because the whole MAN WAS CREATED IN THE IMAGE OF GOD. 3) So, since Christ took human flesh and saved the whole man, the flesh was made a source of SANCTIFICATION. 4) And the Light which was seen on mount Thabor was not a SENSIBLE light, but it could be seen since all of one’s BODILY FACULTIES are transformed when one is deified. 5) In this way, Palamas avoided UNGUARDED MYSTICISM which could lead to the pantheism, by preserving God’s TRANSCENDENCE, but allowed for God’s IMMANENCE.
1) Nicholas Cabasilas was a LAY THEOLOGIAN, but one of his works on the Divine Liturgy became an Orthodox classics. 2) In his works Cabasilas emphasized the unity between Christ and THE SACRAMENTAL LIFE and all his mysticism was CHRISTOCENTRIC, SACRAMENTAL and ECCLESIAL.
1) In 1438-1439 was held a council at Florence, which led to THE FLORENTINE UNION. 2) According to this union, Orthodox accepted the Papal claims, the filioque and the Roman teaching on PURGATORY. 3) The Greeks couldn’t discuss theology DISPASSIONATELY because of their desperate political situation. 4) Nevertheless, the west didn’t help the east against the Turks and the great Church of the Holy Wisdom became A MOSQUE.

Д.Н. [(28) 53]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(183)

First of all, I fully agree with this statement. A person is made up of spirit, soul, and body. This is how God created us. The body is a vessel for the soul and spirit, so every person should take care of the body. Visit the doctor on time, eat healthy food, sleep enough, keep fit, walk. The body plays an important part in our earthly life. Everything is connected in a person - if something hurts for a long time or you do not have enough rest, then you might be in a bad mood, irritated or even disheartened.
On the other hand, we all know about many saints who were bodily infirm and great in spirit. If a person strives to gain a peaceful spirit, then he is not afraid of any bodily deprivation, he accepts everything with humility. Sometimes it is the other way around, the beauties turn out to be immoral or indifferent, evil people. The body will remain in the earth, but the soul is called by God to live forever. No matter how much we care for our physical health, everyone gradually becomes old. An immortal soul can be young and beautiful at any age. Especially if a person wants eternal life with God and lives according to His commandments. It is scary to approach Eternity with nothing. It is terrible not to think at all about the fact that eternal life and the Judgment of God awaits every person on earth. It is terrifying to be a spiritual invalid.

В.П. [(4,5) 60]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(190)

I believe that this statement is absolutely correct. Very often people who take the first steps on the path of spiritual life go too hard and "For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne" (Mat. 23:4). They begin to fast according to the strict monastic rules, deny themselves even small consolations, comfort, pray all night long, make vows, go to pilgrimage and practice obedience. Undoubtedly, all these actions are very pious and can be useful if you treat everything reasonably.
It is useful and necessary for any Christian to practice asceticism. Both fasting and prayer, as well as works of charity - are our first helpers in the matter of repentance and approaching God. Unfortunately, there is a danger for those who take on a lot, very quickly run out of steam and work out on this difficult path. Just get tired and drop everything.
Therefore, the best way for every Christian is to have an experienced and wise leader, master on the path of spiritual life. The Confessor prays for his spiritual child, sees his heart, knows his repentance, and understands what exactly and when is useful for his spiritual growth.

В.П. [(4,5) 55,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(191)

I agree with the statement that reposed need our help incomparably more than those among the living. As long as a person is alive, he can always repent, this means he can receive forgiveness from God. But after death, the human soul, which has passed into eternity, can no longer repent. Only the living can intercede with the Lord for them.
Each of us after death expects the Judgment of God, the judgment over the person's soul, performed after his death, which precedes the final determination of his fate at the Last Judgment.
The souls of repentant sinners who have not had time to bear the fruits of repentance and good deeds, although they may go to hell, will be there in hopes of salvation. And this hope can be realised by the living, who will pray for them. The Intercession for the dead can improve the condition of the souls of sinners and even free them from hell.
According to the Elder Paisius: "The reposed come to their senses, ask for help, but they can no longer help themselves. Those who are in hell would like only one thing from God: that He would give them five minutes of earthly life to repent. We who live on earth have plenty of time to repent, while the unfortunate dead can no longer improve their own situation, but are waiting for help from us. Therefore, we must help them with our prayer. Just as when we visit prisoners, we bring them soft drinks and thus relieve their sufferings, so we relieve the suffering of the deceased by prayers and alms that we perform for the repose of their souls. The prayers of the living for the dead and the services performed for their repose are the last opportunity to receive the help that God gives to the deceased - until the Second Coming. After the final Judgment, they will not be able to get help no longer".

В.П. [(5) 51]


1. The great period of DOCTRINAL CONTROVERSIES is the age of the Seven Councils.
2. These policy changes have BENEFICIAL side effects for the whole economy.
3. When Vladimir set to CHRISTIANIZE his realm, there were imported priests, relics, SACRED VESSELS and icons.
4. During the reign of Vladimir in Russia ECCLESIASTICAL TITHES were paid only by the state authorities.
5. Their marriage was SANCTIFIED by the church.

1. The lawyer achieved MITIGATION of charges.
2. DEATH PENALTY is forbidden in Russia now.
3. CORPORAL PUNISHMENT in Russia existed until 1904.

А.Д. [(4,5) 45,5]


1. The brothers Cyril and Methodius used Slavonic as THE LITURGICAL LANGUAGE in Moravia.
2. Hadrian II laid copies of brothers' Slavonic service books on THE ALTARS of the principal churches, because he approved their translations.
3. Despite the best efforts of Cyril and Methodius, the attempt TO FOUND A SLAVONIC NATIONAL CHURCH in Moravia came to nothing.
4. Cyril and Methodius had a great VISION as they had HELD SERVICES in Slavonic.
5. Saint Sava WAS CONSECRATED at Nicaea AS ARCHBISHOP of Serbia in 1219 and the Serbian Church gained a partial independence that time.

А.Ж. [(2,5) 48,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(195)

To begin with, I totally agree with the statement of Righteous John of Kronstadt. Of course, if we call upon the saints with faith and love, then they will hear and help us. We should humbly pray to the saints and it will help if we believe. We often pray to God and to the Mother of God, to Christ and to the Guardian angel, and we should not forget to pray to the saints. They are our teachers and defenders. Apostle Paul wrote in his Epistle to the Hebrews: Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation (13:7). Orthodoxy has called for the veneration of saints since Apostolic times. And of course, we should do it with pure love in our hearts, "for they are in God, and we are in God, Who is Love." Love is always around us, if we know how to love ourselves.This quote was helpful to me, as I don't pray to the saints as often as I should. This is a good reason to think about it.

А.Ж. [(5) 46]


1. The Grand PRINCIPALITY of Moscow existed from 1263 to 1478.
2. Hadrian II confirmed the use of Slavonic as THE LITURGICAL LANGUAGE of Moravia.
3. There wasn't any possibility TO FOUND A SLAVONIC NATIONAL CHURCH in Moravia.
4. He had a VISION of Christ.
5. Thomas Becket WAS CONSECRATED ARCHBISHOP.

1. Jesus Christ is CONSUBSTANTIAL with the Father.
2. He was INCARNATE of the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary.

А.Д. [(3,5) 41]


1. Orthodox ETHOS is a collective effort of ordained and LAY ORTHODOX CHRISTIANS.
2. The bishops were UNANIMOUS in making this decision.
3. In this store we can find SPIRITUALLY PROFITABLE reading.
4. RECOLLECTION for a Christian means the state of mind that one must work towards in order to be saved.
5. All theology is MYSTICAL inasmuch as it shows forth the divine mystery.

Е.Т. [(2,5) 43]


1. When we pray at first we pray with the lips, and then we have to make a CONSCIOUS INTELLECTUAL EFFORT in order to realize the meaning of what we say.
2. THE BEATITUDES are eight blessings recounted by Jesus in THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT.
3. The REDEMPTION and DEIFICATION are UNAPPROACHABLE without a balance between mind and body.
4. THE CONGREGATION of our church are very friendly.
5. The countries of the former Soviet Union witnessed A RELIGIOUS REVIVALISM in the final years of the Soviet regime.

Е.Т. [(3) 40,5]


1. THE BIBLICAL DOCTRINE OF MAN says that the whole MAN WAS CREATED IN THE IMAGE OF GOD.
2. The distinction between the ESSENCE and the ENERGIES of God was developed by GREGORY PALAMAS.
3. DEIFICATION is the Orthodox word for becoming “one with God” but it is not any sort of pantheism, God remains God, and although He makes us divine as we are adopted as His Sons, we remain separate from Him.
4. Athanasius said that of all the ancient philosophies, he found PLATONISM having the most affinities with Christianity.
5. Everyone has a chance for REDEMTION.

Е.Т. [(4) 37,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(181)

Nowadays the word «love» brings different meanings to different people. Most of them define love as some type of feeling and this feeling for them is temporary and can change depending on the circumstances. But the true love is not a feeling. It is a permanent state of the human soul.
The example of the true love is shown in God's love to us, the sinners. He loves us, he died for us and paid our debt of sin. This shows that the true love is not a matter of emotion, but of will and faith. God loves us and His love is not based on our meriting it but on his own choice to love everyone. He shows us that everyone deserves love whether we think so or not. God tells us that relationships based on emotion fail, but those based on the tenants of the true biblical love never fail.
From all of the above we can conclude that the true, pure love is impossible without the love for God and faith in Him.

Е.Т. [(4,5) 33,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(177)

The goal of life for a Christian is salvation. And human salvation is impossible without deification. To be saved, it is not enough for a person to be a "good person", "believe in their soul", or formally belong to the Church. It is necessary to have a personal close relationship with God, to be His child not in words, but in deeds.
The Bible says that if we claim to be in the Kingdom of God, then anyone who looks at us and analyzes our lives, our words and actions, can say that we are children of God. But it's not enough to just copy the Father. To be truly like our Father, we need to be born from Him. This means that we should try to act and think as Jesus Christ during His life on earth. We must struggle with our sinful nature and strive to be a worthy daughter or son of God throughout our lives.

Е.Т. [(5) 29]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(175)

People who enjoy and experience life only in a worldly way are spiritually poor and unhappy people. Usually such people are not satisfied with their lives. They are selfish, rude, envious and subject to all kinds of negative emotions which they temporarily try to drown out with the help of worldly joys. They watch life from the sidelines, they are jealous of happiness of others who are able to enjoy simple things. And this causes much stronger negative feelings.
Negative sinful feelings eat away at their mind and rob them of all the joy life has to offer. And the longer they hold on to these feelings, the worse they feel. These feelings fester in their hearts and consume them. And they just never seem to be able to find happiness.
Peace of mind, on the other hand, makes a body healthy. People who live spiritually and accept bitterness with joy are truly happy people. They understand the importance of trials and accept them with humility. They simply accept things for the way they are, and do not demand changes from someone else, but try to change themselves. These people have an understanding of what is happening around them and they are aware of their place in this world. And we can say that such people live a sweet life.

Е.Т. [(5) 24]


1. St Gregory Dialogus was the person who decided TO INITIATE MISSIONARY WORK in Britain. 2. He sent St Augustine on that MISSIONARY JOURNEY as a leader. 3. The process of evangelisation of British people succeeded primarily due to THE VISION of the saint and the hospitality of King Ethelbert. 4. Monks were allowed TO HOLD SERVICES with their SERVICE BOOKS and to preach with much less risk which resulted in the conversion of the king and his subjects to Christianity. 5. And later St Augustine was CONSECRATED at Arles AS ARCHBISHOP of Britain.

Е.Ш. [(4,5) 53,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(194)

I see the point of the quote and can definitely say that its ideas aren’t new for me as even it says that we already know all the ways to work for God. But I cannot fully agree with it because of the part “…humble yourself before others (even if this causes your work to suffer; afterwards you will gain all the more).” Generally it is good to be humble but not when you are wronged. As for me, being humble sometimes opposes being defensive.
We discussed that issue when we were speaking about Frederica’s podcast “Forgiveness” and came to the conclusion that it is fine to feel righteous anger and a desire to protect yourself. And moreover if you do not prevent the person who does wrong from such deeds, you will not protect them from their own sufferings.

Е.Ш. [(4,5) 49]


1. The deacon or priest reads the names of the departed on the LITANY for the COMMEMORATION OF THE FAITHFUL DEPARTED.
2. We all will appear before God at THE DEAD JUDGMENT OF CHRIST.
3. The future patriarch Tikhon was appointed AS ARCHBISHOP OF Vilna and Lithuania in 1913.

В.П. [(1,5) 46]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(193)

To begin with, I fully agree with the idea expressed by the righteous John, Wonderworker of Kronstadt that when the person’s animal nature is crushed, he grows spiritually. It is incredibly easy to forget about God, living in full liberty, in abundance and prosperity. However it does not mean that we should become hermits, live in terrible conditions, thinking that it will help us to reach the Kingdom of God. All the earth’s wealth distracts us a lot from the most essential.
I believe that God sends us sorrows, illnesses and grief not as a punishment, but to strengthen our faith, because, in fact, we turn to God mostly in difficult times. We usually ask but do not thank.
People always try to escape all difficulties, even just a mild illness, immediately take medicines, when they can be patient and wait a bit. I believe that ‘suffering’ is really useful sometimes.
Thus, only through humility and suffering we can attain eternal life.

В.П. [(4,5) 44,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(188)

I fully agree with the idea stated by the elder Thaddeus (Strabulovich) of Vitovnic.
We all make too much fuss around ourselves, think too much about oversleves and feel sorry for ourselves. However, all this worry will not lead to something good, if we do not trust God.
One of my school teachers always repeats the following words from the Cherubic Hymn: “now lay aside all earthly care”. Thus, when we can’t make a decision, for example, we should not worry, but should lay aside all care, pray and ask God for help.
God knows what is better for us, and all that we have to do is to pray to reveal His will and show us our way. Only if we trust God we can feel truly joyous, light, and peaceful.

В.П. [(4,5) 40]


Once my mom has met a man who believes in CHILIASM or MILLENARIANISM.
Jesus Christ made the flesh an INEXHAUSTIBLE source of SANCTIFICATION.
Our Lord forgives us every OFFENCE.
All we are SERVANTS of God.
BLESSED be his MEMORY!

Д.Ж. [(3,5) 26,5]


All we know about the LAY THEOLOGIAN Nicholas Cabasilas and about «his» MYSTICISM which is always CHRISTOCENTRIC, SACRAMENTAL and ECCLESIAL, and he exactly shows the link between mysticism and THE SACRAMENTAL LIFE.
I’ve never heard about such heresies as APOCATASTASIS and PELAGIANISM but I’m absolutely sure that literally everyone have heard about ICONOCLASM.
The sound echoed out of the MOSQUE towers across the town.

Д.Ж. [(5) 23]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(194)

We know that God did everything for us. He created the whole world for us, descended to Earth for our salvation and suffered to pay for our sins. Moreover, He continues doing everything for us. He forgives us, tolerates us. We easily forget about Him and He patiently waits for us to turn to Him again. But what can we do for our beloved Creator? We shouldn't grieve Him. It seems sometimes that it’s too easy. But if you just try not to envy, not to judge or avoid constantly bad thoughts for at least a day and you’ll see how much effort it takes.
I see the point and I absolutely agree with this. So that’s enough for us to pray, “struggle with thoughts, not argue over trifles, humble ourselves before others, make peace quickly, reveal our thoughts, partake more often of the Holy Mysteries, and so forth”. Of course, we have to receive holy Communion as often as possible, because it connects us with God and makes it easier to struggle with bad thoughts. So this quote squarely fits my idea of Christianity.
I suppose it can have a practical application in your life. For instance, when any obscene thought comes to your mind, remember what our God did for us and what He has done until now. Is it really too hard to be more kind for the sake of the One, Who suffered for us?

А.Д. [(4) 37,5]


1) Apostle Paul after his conversion INITIATED MISSIONARY WORK and made three MISSIONARY JOURNEYS.
2) CYRIL and METHODIUS were sent to PREACH and to TAKE SERVICES and HOLD them in Slavonic and they used a SLAVONIC BIBLE and Slavonic SERVICE BOOKS.
3) All we know that our God CONSUBSTANTIAL and was INCARNATE of the HOLY SPIRIT.
4) Church Slavonic is the current LITURGICAL LANGUAGE of the Russian Orthodox Church.
5) The priest stood before the ALTAR.

Д.Ж. [(5) 18]


1. After the deacon's words, the choir EXCLAIMS: Lord, have mercy.
2. The choir repeated after the prayer: GRANT THIS, O LORD.
3. Cyril and Methodius made the first MISSIONARY JOURNEY to the Khazars.
4. The text of religious service is set out in the SERVICE BOOKS.
5. Some priests HOLD SERVICES without deacons and without choirs in some villages due to a small number of people.

А.Д. [(2,5) 33,5]


1 God’s IMMANENCE is about His energies through which GOD ENTERS INTO A DIRECT AND IMMEDIATE RELATIONSHIP WITH MANKIND in order to make the salvation and deification of humanity possible.
2 When Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden their BODILY FACULTIES were transformed.
3 Alfonso’s ghost in “The Castle of Otranto” was unfamiliarly SENSIBLE and material not like ghosts usually are.
4 As it was expressed in the Nicene Creed of the First Council of Constantinople, one of the significant features of the Church of Christ is that it is CATHOLIC.
5 If Pope Leo IX had sent somebody who could have acted more DISPASSIONATELY than Humbert, Bishop of Silva Candida, this attempt of RECONCILIATION would have resulted in a better way.
6 After THE FLORENTINE UNION the Roman clergy stopped arguing whether the usage of LEAVENED or UNLEAVENED BREAD in the Eucharist is valid but the Eastern Church refused to accept the decision of that Council.
7 CATECHUMENS were not allowed to take part in any service but they could attend it.
8 Cats are the only animals that can enter A MOSQUE.
9 THE GREAT ENTRY symbolizes the triumphal entrance of Jesus Christ into Jerusalem leading to his Passion.
10 The tradition of making a PROSTRATION dates back long ago – to the times of the Old Testament.
11 In Asian countries PEOPLE BOW TO THE WAIST to greet, to tell goodbye and to thank or apologise for something.
13 Rameau's nephew has no REVERENCE for morality or God and definitely does not want any PARDON of his OFFENCES.
14 CHILIASM is a heresy that asserts that there will be a thousand-year reign of the Son of God prior to THE DREAD JUDGEMENT OF CHRIST.

Е.Ш. [(10) 44,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(192)

I cannot find the words to express how much I agree with this quotation.
Starting from the opposite side, I want to tell about a small text I read once in some textbook of the Russian language. There it was said that it is no good to demand a compliment for your good deed and such behavior does not deserve anything but reprobation. The idea amazed me so much that I memorized it.
And I suppose that it is so true. When a person seeks for an approval in any case it feels like the aim of that deed is a benefit for that very person but not for somebody who was given a favour. And vice versa when there is only a wish to help, to smooth things down for somebody, a benefactor has no thought about what it gives to him or her but only about the other side.
It is like the reason why I enjoy New Year or birthdays. I do like to give presents not because people think that I choose gifts very accurately but because it is always so pleasant to see how happy and content they are. And the same is with helping people. It is good to know that you can do something and frankly speaking there is no need in any reciprocal gesture. I believe that if you are kind to people they can become benefactors themselves and more good deeds will be done towards more people.

Е.Ш. [(4,5) 34,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(193)

I fully agree with the opinion of Saint John, the Wonderworker of Kronstadt. And I guess that this idea can be related to our everyday life. Looking around I have noticed that those who have been suffering from illnesses or have endured some bad events in their lives are more compassionate towards people and are ready to help others as they know how hard life is.
For example, it always strikes me that rich people have so much money so that they could help basically all the sick who don’t have enough money for proper medical treatment or take part in any other charitable activity. But many of them don’t do that or do partially and spend the rest on goods which cost a lot due to brand label or they are simply expensive and not so necessary.
Talking about living with God, we can turn to any saint’s story of life. At Lev Viktorovich’s classes we learnt about the life of Saint Cuthbert whose biggest wish was to spend his life on a remote little island in a small hut praying and serving God. The impact of his life is so immense and his miracles are so well- known, but all of it has nothing to do with the fleshly world, only with the purity and the strength of his spirit.
Summing up, going through life trials and preserving piety we crush our weaknesses and open our hearts for true love towards people and towards God.

Е.Ш. [(5) 30]


1. Any child needs the explanation from his parents, that God is strict, but GRACIOUS.
2. Photius INITIATED MISSIONARY WORK on a large scale among Moravians, Bulgarians, Serbs, and Russians.
3. Cyril and Methodius went on the first MISSIONARY JOURNEY to the Khazars around 860.
4. The Prince of Moravia, Rostislav wanted to invite Christian missionaries, capable of TAKING SERVICES in Slavonic (with the help of Slavonic SERVICE BOOKS) and preaching to the people in their own tongue.

А.Ж. [(2,5) 41]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(194)

I certainly share the idea, expressed by the abbot Nicon Vorobiev. He answers the question of how we can work for God. I believe that everyone agrees people should work a lot to reach eternal life in the Kingdom of Heaven. We should pray a lot, work on ourselves, be humble, not to quarrel, make peace quickly, confess and take Holy Communion more often.
In other words, we should live according to the commandments of God, to His will, love Him, serve Him. Thus, we have clear rules, even it is difficult to follow them because of the temptations and our weakness.

В.П. [(4,5) 35,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(192)

First of all, I partly agree with the statement. This idea is stated in the Gospel of Matthew 6:1. The archbishop Averky (Taushev) makes a very accurate comparison, calling vainglory a moth, I believe it works exactly like this. Doing something good, we usually think of some benefits, we want to be praised, want to be seen. We boast about helping someone, about good deeds. Even if we do not tell anyone, we still think about some benefits. Since childhood everyone usually knows that if you tell someone about a good deed you have done, it won’t. However, what is the point?
We should do good deeds out of love for God and people, instead of waiting for God to praise and reward us for this. Thus, it is better to forget about a good deed you have done as soon as possible, never remember not to become proud. We should always remember that good deeds are nothing special, and we are not commendable for them, we just fulfil our duties, do God’s will.

В.П. [(4,5) 31]


1. God’s TRANSCENDENCE is a theological concept that reflects the infinity of God, his transcendence to the created world.
2. God’s IMMANENCE is a theological concept that reflects the presence of God in the world created by Him.
3. LAY THEOLOGIAN is a lay person engaged in theology.
4. There is the oldest MOSQUE in Moscow near my home.

I know priests who do MISSIONARY WORK and during their MISSIONARY JOURNEYS they preach to the people and baptize a huge number of people. They TAKE SERVICES in such places where there hasn’t been a single priest for a very long time, thus they often have to take some SERVICE BOOKS from their churches. Sometimes they have to HOLD SERVICES in abandoned temples.

В.П. [(5,5) 26,5]


1. I'm so glad that recently I've met new friends who are FELLOW BELIEVERS.
2. We are praying to the Lord to be delivered from all TRIBULATION.
3. A CATECHUMEN was taught the principles of Christianity by a priest.
4. God is UNKNOWABLE in His essence.
5. We should live with faith, REVERENCE and the fear of God.

А.Д. [(2,5) 31]


1 PURGATORY and AZYMES were among issues covered at the second REUNION COUNCIL.
2 The FLORENTINE UNION was another attempt of reconciliation between Orthodoxy and Catholicism.
3 A MITER is a piece of headwear worn by bishops.

С.Г. [(2,5) 57]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(193)

It is hard to disagree with Righteous John, Wonderworker of Kronstadt. So many saints are known for their life in straitness, poverty, sickness, misfortune, and afflictions. And there are so many examples when men and women who had lived in abundance and prosperity left their home, gave out their money and valuable possessions and devoted their life to God. They grew in spirit and not in body and brought forth fruits — good works.
But I do not think that living in poverty is the only way to be with God. King Solomon, who built the first Temple in Jerusalem, is portrayed as great not only in wisdom but also in wealth and power. And we know accounts of people of considerable prominence who did not abandon their position and now are revered as saints.
I think that in a way living in poverty makes it even a bit easier to be with God. Whereas when one is surrounded by wealth and power, one can sooner to forget about God and fall into temptation. I am not saying that life in straitness is easy. It is extremely difficult. And usually when one lives in abundance and prosperity, one grows in body and does not grow in spirit. But it is not always the case. It is difficult but possible. And such people can help those less fortunate not only through their prayers but also through material goods.

С.Г. [(4,5) 44]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(193)

I certainly agree with the idea of the quote. I strongly believe that man can be better only by crushing his animal nature. But, I suppose, it's one of the hardest tasks in our life, especially in the 21st century. When we have all opportunities to do less and get more. In the big city's bustle it's very easy to forget about care of your soul. Of course, it squarely fits my idea of Christianity. In my experience it looks like constant working on myself. I can't boast of great results, since I don't even read the Gospel every night. But when I can read the Gospel several nights in a row, I feel much better. Very often, laziness prevents you from doing good things. Despondency also interferes, sometimes even more than laziness. But despondency is not the same as "the narrow path" from the quotation. Every person has difficulties in his life. But we should be more modest and strive for spiritual joys (helping people, virtue, going to Church).

А.Ж. [(5) 38,5]


1. THE LAY THEOLOGIAN Nicholas Cabasilas was sympathetic to the Hesychasts.
2. Despite the danger that mysticism may become speculative and individualist, the mysticism of Cabasilas remains CHRISTOCENTRIC, SACRAMENTAL, ECCLESIAL.
3. The Greeks could not discuss theology DISPASSIONATELY, because the political situation had now become desperate.
4. THE FLORENTINE UNION was based on respect for the legitimate rites and traditions peculiar to each Church and unanimity in matters of doctrine.

А.Ж. [(3) 33,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(192)

We, as people who try to live according to the Gospel’s laws, have to avoid every sin, including pride, arrogance and loftiness. This implies that we have to control and humble our whims and not to talk about our life and especially about our achievements.
Sometimes it’s really hard to restrain yourself from telling about your accomplishment or success, but if you do this, your good deeds will have more value. If we don’t talk about this, God Himself will reward us.
I see the point of this statement and I fully agree with it. In my view, telling about your good deeds shows that you did it not sincerely, not out of kindness and mercy but due to your pride and desire of praise. For instance if you helped your close friend and then advertised it among people that surround you, this wouldn't be considered a truly good thing. On the contrary, when you helped a stranger and kept it in secret, it would be much better for you, because it’s not people who will praise you, but God. And it squarely fits my idea of Christianity. So we have to keep in secret all our achievements and good deeds to be closer to God.

А.Д. [(4) 28,5]


1. Nicholas Cabasilas, THE LAY THEOLOGIAN, is the author of a Commentary on the Divine Liturgy.
2. For the Greeks it was difficult to discuss theology DISPASSIONATELY.
3. In Greek, MITER means "head band".
4. The FLORENTINE UNION was based on respect for the legitimate rites and traditions peculiar to each Church.
5. After the Emperor’s death the city fell to the Turks and the great Church of the Holy Wisdom in Christendom became a MOSQUE.

А.Д. [(2,5) 24,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(192)

Archbishop Averky (Taushev) of Syracuse rightly stated that vainglory is the thing that can eat away all our good deeds. Among all the sins, vanity, or pride, is the worst and the most harmful one. Even when people do something good to each other they can still sin in the process. People may be immersed in the vanity of the earthly life so deeply that they will expect their reward in this life as well. What is meant by this ‘earthly reward’? Good treatment and praise from those around you, who know about the good things you’ve done. It may be your friends, your family, or just people you do or don’t know.
Many rich people donate to different charities and often they brag about it, intentionally or not. It happens primarily because their deeds go public with the help of today’s media. And you can’t be absolutely sure that a person does good out of pure love and that they don’t try to simply ‘buy’ praise and gratitude. But the most terrible thing is when you start praising yourself, because praise from others can easily lead to self-praising and pride. It is terrible because it is extremely hard to avoid. One may be so proud of oneself that they can forget why they actually do good things to others. It’s not a coincidence that among all the virtues humility and humbleness are the most important ones.
That’s the reason why all our good deeds are better kept in secret. God sees them always, and He is the One and the Only who can give us true reward for our spiritual strength in the face of sins. And when we tell people about our good deeds, we only put ourselves in danger of meaningless self-praising.

Д.Н. [(5) 25]


1 God is both TRANSCENDENT and IMMANENT. 2 TRANSCENDENCE is the aspect of God that is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws. 3 IMMANENCE is the aspect of God that is fully present in the physical world and thus accessible in various ways.
4 In the 15th century the HAGIA SOPHIA was converted into a MOSQUE.

С.Г. [(4) 39,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(192)

I agreed with the previous quote only in part and I had to stop and think about it but now I can say with confidence that I am fully agree with Archbishop Averky. It is true that vainglory ruins our good deeds. Good deeds are best performed silently. And it is far too often that people do something good only in order to show others, themselves, or both what wonderful people they are. And even if a good deed was performed without selfish reasons, it still can easily lead to vainglory. It is so easy to be full of conceit because you helped someone. And it is not only about helping others. Even if we do something that is beneficial for us. For example, if someone is engaged in an argument and decides to step aside and not to answer back even if they know they are right, it will be good for their soul. But usually instead of humility we take pride in what we have done. “I was able to keep silence even though I know I am right. What a good Christian I am.”
This quote doesn’t really express anything new to me and it squarely fits my idea of Christianity. But I think that it is something that we should remind ourselves constantly about. Christians should not think that they are better than others. They should not be vainglorious. And maybe thinking about our saints’ feats and comparing our in no way exceptional good deeds with theirs will help us overcome vainglory and feel more humble.

С.Г. [(4,5) 35,5]


1. A Christian scholar and theologian ORIGEN sometimes borrowed too much from PLATONISM. 2.The scholar seemed to notice no positive role of man’s body in the processes of REDEMPTION AND DEIFICATION.
3. In the ASCETIC writing "The Macarian HOMILIES", we can see a more Biblical idea of man - a single and united whole, soul and body together.
4. Saint DIADOCHUS OF PHOTICE was a fifth-century ascetic whose works are included in the Philokalia.
5. JOHN CLIMACUS, also known as John of the Ladder, John Scholasticus and John Sinaites, was a 6th-7th-century Christian monk at the monastery on Mount Sinai.
1. SAINT GREGORY PALAMAS was a preeminent theologian and a proponent of hesychastic theology.
2. St. Gregory developed THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE ESSENCE AND THE ENERGIES OF GOD to explain that the Hesychasts did indeed experience the Divine and Uncreated Light of Thabor.
3. A Christian should have a proper understanding of THE BIBLICAL DOCTRINE OF MAN to be able to understand the other doctrines.
4. God is Light that is not a SENSIBLE or material light, but it can be seen with physical eyes.
5. Palamas allowed for God’s IMMANENCE, for His continual presence in the world.

А.Ж. [(7) 30,5]


The boy looked at the icon with REVERENCE.
This takes the UNANIMOUS decision of all people.
This pilgrimage trip was SPIRITUALLY PROFITABLE to him.
I have some friends who are FELLOW BELIEVERS and they go to our church and participate in the sacraments.
The prayer book was written in the SLAVONIC FONT, so he could barely read it.
THE CHANTERS SING “LORD, HAVE MERCY” and all people cross themselves.
The deacon began the WORSHIP with the EXCLAMATION.
ONENESS OF MIND, PIETY, GRACE AND BROTHERLY LOVE are felt in this HOLY HOUSE.
God is MERCIFUL, COMPASSIONATE and LONGSUFFERING.
God reveals His ATTRIBUTES through Revelation and in the spiritual experience of the Church.
THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE is a miracle that occurs every year in Jerusalem on Great Saturday.
There was THE VISION OF DIVINE AND UNCREATED LIGHT on THE MOUNT THABOR.
He gave a lecture on the EXEGESIS of the OLD TESTAMENT.
THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE ESSENCE AND THE ENERGIES OF GOD was first formulated by SAINT GEORGY PALAMAS.
Saint DIADOCHUS OF PHOTICE was a fifth-century acetic, whose works are included in the PHILOKALIA.
SCHOLASTICISM is the logical exposition of the theological truths.
APOPHATIC THEOLOGY (or Negative theology) is a method of describing God by negation, in which one asserts only what may not be said about God.
The ideas of MYSTICAL THEOLOGY were developed by THE CAPPADOCIANS.
God is INFINIT AND INCOMPREHENSIBLE.
God is UNKNOWABLE in His essence.
We should reach RECOLLECTION.

В.П. [(17) 21]


1. DIADOCHUS OF PHOTICE and SAINT JOHN CLIMACUS of Mount SINAI recommended the JESUS PRAYER and the INVOCATION OF THE NAME.
2. As we know, DONATISM, ARIANISM, CHILIASM and PELAGIANISM are HERESIES.
3. THE BIBLICAL DOCTRINE OF MAN says that the whole MAN WAS CREATED IN THE IMAGE OF GOD.

Д.Ж. [(5,5) 13]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(191)

The most important thing for a Christian is to be with God. And whether we will achieve it or not mostly depends on how we live our life in this world. But it depends even more on how we leave this world. Not everyone has an opportunity to see a priest and confess their sins and receive Holy Communion on their death bed. And if the most important thing for a Christian is to be with God, then in the first place we have to help those who could not for one reason or another reconcile with God in their last moments on the Earth.
Of course, Metropolitan Gregory does not say that we should forget about the living and think only about the reposed. But still, should not we help those who are closer to us first? I suppose that it is natural for human beings to help those around them. A person will sooner try to save someone before them then someone who is no longer here.
I see the quote’s point and in part I am agree with it. But I still think that we should at least divide our help between the reposed and the living evenly. In my childhood my siblings and I prayed with our mother in the evening. And when we came to praying for our family members, we prayed for both the living and the departed.
When we are talking about our close ones we do not have to prioritize someone in our prayers because it is possible to divide our attention evenly. And not only in prayers. But on a larger scale praying for everyone is beyond ordinary people and only saints manage it. And we know that saints have always helped “than those among the living who are extremely impoverished.”

С.Г. [(4,5) 31]


1. We have a chance for REDEMTION while we are living.
2. Evagrius allowed no positive role to man’s body in the process of DEIFICATION.
3. PLATONISM is Plato's philosophical teaching that affirmed the absolute reality of ideas and the immortality of the soul.
4. ORIGEN’S main work is Hexapla, the first example of scientific biblical criticism in history.
5. The great material damage was REDRESSED with his parents’ help.
1. SAINT JOHN CLIMACUS of Mount SINAI is honored by the Church as a great ASCETIC and as the author of The Ladder of Divine Ascent.
2. The priest ended the worship with a little but meaningful HOMILY.
3. Today on a new temple dedication, we should thank God for giving us an opportunity to build this holy church.
4. God is Light, but He is not a SENSIBLE or material light.
5. The work of Nicholas Cabasilas shows how closely mysticism and the SACRAMENTAL LIFE were linked together in Byzantine theology.

А.Д. [(5,5) 22]


1 Barlaam’s view was that a person could not attain the vision of DIVINE AND UNCREATED LIGHT. 2 He argued that an IMMEDIATE EXPERIENCE OF GOD was impossible.
3 But SAINT GREGORY PALAMAS developed the distinction between the ESSENCE and the ENERGIES of God.

С.Г. [(3) 26,5]


1. Sorrows put FETTERS upon the soul and plunge it into gloom.
2. Jesus Crist was INCARNATE by the holy Theotokos and Ever Virgin Mary.
3. THE PROSELYTES need support and help of more experienced people.

1. We pray at every Liturgy for the PROSPERITY, peace, TRANQUILLITY and REMISSION OF SINS of all Orthodox Christendom.
2. When we pray at first we pray with the lips, and then we have to make a conscious intellectual effort in order to realize the meaning of what we say.
3. If we need to skip a class, we must submit a PETITION.

1. The Seraphim-Diveyevo Monastery is my favorite CONVENT, which I try to visit as ofen as possible.
2. St. Seraphim served and GLORIFIED God in a variety of ways by all his life.
3. Saint's beloved humility, kindness and LOVE FOR MANKIND provide an excellent example for all of us.
4. Speaking about Serafim of Sarov Metropolitan Anthony used to say that "…everything is holy and MIRACLE-WORKING when a man is holy, even his shadow, not just his body or bones...”

Е.Т. [(5,5) 19]


1 The FERVENT commitment to his mission and faith helped Saint Augustine to evangelize the people of Britain.
2 The HOLY HOUSE of Martha and Mary was founded by grand duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna.
3 At our university we often fill out PETITIONS for different reasons.
4 A sinner who suffers from WRATH cannot know true TRANQUILITY.
5 THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE ESSENCE AND THE ENERGIES OF GOD is the distinction between His TRANSCENDENCE and immanence.
6 Last year we studied the EXEGESIS of New Testament.
7 After receiving the baptism of John the Forerunner, people were able to be granted THE REMISSION OF SINS.

Е.Ш. [(4,5) 25]


1 In Christianity there are many HERESIES such as GNOSTICISM which is highly DUALISTIC and CHILIASM which teaches about the THOUSAND-YEAR KINGDOM after the SECOND COMING.
2 NOVATIANISM teaches that people who APOSTATIZE can never be ABSOLVED. 3 Which cannot be true for God is LONGSUFFERING and PLENTEOUS IN MERCY.
4 The INVOCATION OF THE NAME became known as the JESUS PRAYER.

С.Г. [(7) 23,5]


1. GNOSTICISM is a corruption of the faith that borders on GROSS MATERIALISM.
2. THE INVOCATION OF THE NAME of Jesus is one of the most widely recited prayers in Orthodoxy.
3. JUDAISING resembles, but should not be confused with, Messianic Judaism.

С.З. [(1,5) 9,5]


1. SAINT DIONYSIUS THE AREOPAGITE is a Christian Saint who, according to Church tradition, was a disciple of Saint Paul.
2. SAINT MAXIMUS THE CONFESSOR was born in Constantinople around 580 and raised in a pious Christian family.
3. Italian theologian SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS was one of the most influential medieval thinkers of Scholasticism and the father of the Thomistic school of theology.
4. In our lessons of dogmatic theology we were told that God is INFINITE and INCOMPREHENSIBLE.
5. Inner RECOLLECTION and secret prayer in silence were the two main things in the life of a hesychast.

А.Ж. [(3) 23,5]


1) King Ethelred and his wife Bertha received a proper CHRISTIAN BURIAL.
2) We were told about APOPHATIC THEOLOGY at our classes of introduction to the Orthodox doctrines.
3) Saint David of Wales emulated the customs of the monks of THE EGYPTIAN DESERT with a regime of manual labour and study, and his monastery became a nursery of saints.
4) THE CAPPADOCIANS are also well-known for composing The Philokalia in which contained pieces of writing of ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA.
5) THE BEATITUDES were proclaimed by Jesus Christ in the Sermon on the Mount.
1) Liturgics is a study of WORSHIP.
2) GOD’S TRANSCENDENCE refers to his UNKNOWABLE essence but it does not exclude the possibility of a union with God and AN IMMEDIATE EXPERIENCE of the KNOWABLE part energies of God.
3) The way of REDEMPTION and DEIFICATION is UNAPPROACHABLE without a REDRESSED balance between mind and body which are two inseparable parts of a human being.

Е.Ш. [(6,5) 20,5]


1. THE CONGREGATION knelt in prayer.
2. In 1261 the Greeks recovered their capital and these times in Byzantium there was a great cultural, artistic, and RELIGIOUS REVIVAL.
3. Michael VIII really needed the support and protection of THE PAPACY, because of being threatened by attacks from Charles of Anjou.
4. At the reunion Council which was held at LYONS in 1274 the Orthodox delegates agreed to recognize THE PAPAL CLAIMS (and also they agreed to recite the Creed with the filioque).
5. Overwhelming majority of CLERGY AND LAITY of the Byzantine and the other Orthodox Churches rejected the union.
6. Michael VIII was deprived of CHRISTIAN BURIAL because of his "APOSTASY".
7. SCHOLASTICISM means the synthesis of philosophy and theology, which was worked out in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
8. Byzantium used the ideas and language of the Greek Fathers of the fourth century and lived in A PATRISTIC ATMOSPHERE.
9. THE HESYCHAST CONTROVERSY is a dispute about the doctrine of God’s nature and the methods of prayer used in the Orthodox Church.
10. ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA was an early Christian scholar, ascetic, and theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
11. CLEMENT of Alexandria was a Christian theologian and philosopher who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.
12. The three Great CAPPADOCIANS were Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory of Nazianzus.
13. Evagrius of Pontus was a Christian monk and ascetic in THE EGYPTIAN DESERT.
14. APOPHATIC THEOLOGY is a trend of the mystical theology, which speaks of God in negative terms.

А.Ж. [(8,5) 20,5]


1 The central focus of SALVATION is DEIFICATION or DIVINIZATION, which means becoming more like God in union with Him.
2 APOPHATIC THEOLOGY speaks of God in negative terms and states what He is not.
3 SAINT MACARIUS THE GREAT was a monk who lived in THE EGYPTIAN DESERT and left us his HOMILIES.

С.Г. [(3,5) 16,5]


1) The next thing that already made the schism definitive were the CRUSADES, which began with great ECLAT 2) The first Crusade was a great success, although THE TEMPLE and THE PORCH OF SOLOMON were said to be filled with blood and corpses. 3) But the invasion of the Crusaders to Constantinople during the fourth Crusade was so WANTON and SACRILEGIOUS that it’s hard to believe those knights were even Christian.
1) In 1274 at LYONS was held a reunion Council which had a political reason. 2) It means that CLERGY AND LAITY of Byzantium rejected this reunion that existed only on paper. 3) Michael VIII, who was the initiator of this action, was later repudiated for his APOSTASY and was deprived of CHRISTIAN BURIAL.

Д.Н. [(5,5) 20]


1) The conflict between Photius and the Pope led to the ENCYCLICAL LETTER to all the Patriarchates of the east. 2) It was written by Photius, and in this letter he condemned filioque and everybody who uses it, CHARGING them WITH HERESY. 3) After this letter a council was summoned in the east, which DECLARED Pope Nicholas EXCOMMUNICATE. 4) The next Pope, John VIII, in his turn didn’t try to ENFORCE THE PAPAL CLAIMS.
1) In 1054 Humbert, the bishop of Silvia Candida and one of the LEGATES which Pope Leo IX sent to Constantinople, put a BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION on THE ALTAR of the Church of Holy Wisdom. 2) And though Humbert was ANATHEMATIZED when he came back to Rome, RECONCILIATION between east and west was never achieved.

Д.Н. [(5,5) 14,5]


1. THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE takes place each spring in Jerusalem.
2. The CONGREGATION knelt to pray in front of the cross.
3. This company is accused of WANTON cruelty toward homeless animals.
4. One of the SPIRITUAL COMMITMENT of the Orthodox Christian is to visit the Holy Places.
5. The last centuries of the Byzantine Empire were marked by RELIGIOUS REVIVAL.
1. SCHOLASTICISM was a synthesis of Christian theology and Aristotle's logic.
2. The main features of the EASTERN MYSTICAL THEOLOGY were worked out by CLEMENT.
3. The CAPPADOCIANS were highly religious, and often followed Christian religious practices.
4. Evagrius Ponticus was a Christian monk and ascetic, who lived for some time in THE EGYPTIAN DESERT.

А.Д. [(5) 16,5]


1) Tom Jones was accused of SACRILEGE because of his WANTON behaviour.
2) King Raymond of Toulouse promised to send a CRUSADE against the Cathars as he was afraid of being DISPOSSESSED after he had received a BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION.
3) The day of THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE is said to precede Orthodox Easter.

Е.Ш. [(3) 14]


1 The Orthodox Church believes that Jesus Christ is FULLY DIVINE and FULLY HUMAN and the ONLY-BEGOTTEN Son of the Father.
2 Amongst other issues Eastern MYSTICAL THEOLOGY was concerned with the HESYCHAST CONTROVERSY.
3 In western Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries a PATRISTIC ATMOSPHERE was replaced by SCHOLASTICISM.

С.Г. [(3) 13]


1. The success of early Christianity is not to be described as a great ÉCLAT but it had soon gained a very strong foothold.
2. THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE is one of the most important events for the Orthodox worldwide.
3. Shallow works of art are often distinguished by their WANTON symbolism, which is not to be said of religious art.

С.З. [(1,5) 8]


1. The office of the pope is called THE PAPACY.
2. The Patriarch of Constantinople did not include the name of Pope Sergius IV in the DIPTYCHS.
3. The Catholic Church considers the Pope INFALLIBLE.
4. In the Eucharist there was the Latin use of "AZYMES" or UNLEAVENED BREAD.
5. I took a book on the Latin and Greek USAGES in a library.
6. It is so hard for me to take the first step towards RECONCILIATION.
7. One day the priest ANATHEMATIZED her publicly.
8. The PROSELYTES family came into the cathedral.
9. From childhood, you need to learn to be COMPASSIONATE.
10. The priest in confession listens to all our INIQUITIES.

А.Д. [(5,5) 11,5]


1) Orthodox believe that you cannot change even a small thing in TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY, because it would have serious consequences for the whole Christian doctrine. 2) That is one of the reasons we consider filioque THEOLOGICALLY UNTRUE and the west may be even accused of MORAL FRATRICIDE because of changing the Creed without consulting with the east. 3) Besides filioque there were also minor reasons for the division, such as PRIESTLY CELEBACY, on which the Latins insisted, and use of different breads in the Eucharist: the Greeks used LEAVENED BREAD, while the Latins used AZYMES. 4) These matters had an incredible impact on the history of the Church, the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Pope even stopped mentioning each other’s names in THE DIPTYCHS since 1009.
1) The next conflict appeared fifteen years after THE TRIUMPH OF ICONS, it was when a new Patriarch of Constantinople, Photius, was appointed. 2) Since the last Patriarch, Ignatius, was imprisoned by the Emperor, his supporters at once accused Photius to be A USURPER and the Pope sent his LEAGES to look further into this quarrel. 3) Legates were received with great DEFERENCE, but for some reason the Pope decided to DEPOSE Photius FROM ALL his PRIESTLY DIGNITY anyway, thought the east just didn’t recognize it. 4) Once again, THE PAPAL CLAIMS TO UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION were clearly involved in this case.

Д.Н. [(9) 9]


1 One can hear EXCLAMATIONS said during the services.
2 The PROSELYTES were the PAGANS that had converted to JUDAISM.
3 In many aspects the CRUSADES turned out to be WANTON and systematic SACRILEGE.

С.Г. [(3,5) 10]


1 In Defoe's novel God was highly PLENTEOUS IN MERCY towards Robinson Crusoe.
2 Reading Old and New TESTAMENT, Robinson became more COMPASSIONATE to savages and other people.
3 Seeing the cannibalistic traditions of the local barbarians, Crusoe WAS WROTH because of the INIQUITIES of those traditions.
4 And their victims he considered to BE WRONGED by them.
5 When he came to help the betrayed captain, he was thought to be one of the HOSTS of God.

Е.Ш. [(4,5) 11]


1. THE DIPTYCHS are lists, kept by each Patriarch, which contain the names of the other Patriarchs, whom he recognizes as orthodox.
2. Michael and his supporters objected to the Latin use of "AZYMES" or UNLEAVENED BREAD in the Eucharist.
3. In 1054 Humbert laid A BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION against Cerularius on THE ALTAR of the Church of the Holy Wisdom and Cerularius and his synod retaliated by ANATHEMATIZING Humbert.
4. Friendly relations between east and west continued even after 1054, but THE CRUSADES made the schism definitive.
5. During THE CEREMONY OF HOLY FIRE, the Greek lamps were lit miraculously, while the Latin ones were supposed to be lit from the Greek ones.
6. The Greeks were shocked by the WANTON and systematic SACRILEGE of the Crusaders.
7. THE GREAT LITANY is also called the Litany of Peace because the first three petitions all concern peace: "In peace let us pray to the Lord".
8. We can all receive THE GRACE of God if we humble ourselves and repent.
9. Angels are trying to protect us from INIQUITIES.
10. LONGSUFFERING is one of the qualities a Christian can learn from God.

А.Ж. [(6,5) 12]


1) A PRAYER ROPE is used to help us concentrate on prayer when is has to be repeated many times, but my friend`s sure that it`s a kind of useless arithmetic. But I prefer not to STIR UP PURPOSELESS POLEMICS, so I asked the priest to explain him the point of this thing.
2) THE FELLOW BELIEVERS are old ritualists who still fulfill OLD PRACTICES and OBSERVANCES but they are still under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate.
3) INACCURACY in the FULFILLMENT of RULES of prayer is a kind of witness of humans FRAILTY.
The Lord`s GRACIOUS and PLENTEOUS IN MERCY he will forgive all our INIQUITIES and heal all our INFIRMITIES if we repent.
Christianity teaches to be COMPASSIONATE to those who are in need and TO PERFORM DEEDS OF MERCY.
Those LONG-SUFFERING ones who WERE WRONGED and endured all the trials shall inherit the Kingdom of God.

Ал.Д. [(7,5) 10,5]


The Lord is GRACIOUS, full of COMPASSION and plenteous in MERCY.
He has borne our INFIRMITIES and was crushed for our INIQUITIES.
All Thy COMMANDMENTS are RIGHTEOUSNESS.
It’s really important to respond rightly when you ARE WRONGED.

Д.Ж. [(4) 7,5]


1. In the USAGE of the Orthodox Church in America, the word "RECONCILIATION" can be synonymous to "confession", because through confession we are reconciled with God.
2. Thomas Becket was martyred at THE ALTAR for ANATHEMATIZING the archbishop of York, along with Gilbert Foliot, the Bishop of London, and Josceline de Bohon.
3. UNLEAVENED BREAD is forbidden for the use in the Eucharist.

С.З. [(2,5) 6,5]


1 The CHANTERS sang beautifully.
2 There are two HOLY HOUSES that are close to our town.
3 Many saints are especially known for PERFORMING DEEDS OF MERCY.

1 Even if a PIOUS person is wronged, he or she will not BE WROTH.
2 I think that it is a good thing even for a non-Christian to follow the TEN COMMANDMENTS that MOSES brought from Mount Sinai.
3 My grandfather was a very COMPASSIONATE and MERCIFUL man.

С.Г. [(4) 6,5]


1) A HOLY HOUSE is filled with the GRACE of God.
2) We do not WORSHIP icons, we venerate them.
3) It was impossible to solve the problems between the Western and Eastern Churches mainly because Popes kept on ENFORCING THE PAPAL CLAIMS the point of which was UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION.

Е.Ш. [(2,5) 6,5]


1. The GREAT LITANY is so called not only because of its length, but because of its importance, coming near the beginning of major services.
2. We need to treat all that is Holy with REVERENCE.
3. BITTER TORMENTS and TRIBULATIONS await sinners in the hell.

1. GOD'S GRACE will be directed at the RIGHTEOUS and WRATH at the ATHEISTS.
2. During the great litany the CHANTERS pray FOR THE PEACE FROM ON HIGH AND FOR THE SALVATION OF OUR SOULS.
3. Our Lord Jesus Christ is COMPASSIONATE AND MERCIFUL, LONGSUFFERING AND PLENTEOUS IN MERCY.

Е.Т. [(7,5) 13,5]


1. It can sometimes be difficult for the Papacy to ENFORCE THE PAPAL CLAIMS.
2. The PHOTIAN SCHISM was very damaging to Christendom.
3. The FILIOQUE is perhaps the main theological divide between the East and the West.

С.З. [(0,5) 4]


1 Thomas Becket EXCOMMUNICATED about five supporters of Henry II during their conflict. 2 The second excommunication greatly insulted the King and he announced his infamous phrase CHARGING Becket with disobedience. 3 The MANUSCRIPT known as Silver Codex was found in the middle of the 16th century in the library of Verdun.

Е.Ш. [(1,5) 4]


1. THE PASCHAL CANON sounds very solemn and joyful.
2. THE PSALTER is a collection of psalms for liturgical and DOMESTIC PRAYER.
3. THE DESERT FATHERS are the Christian hermits, monks and ascetics.
4. There were SUMMONED seven Ecumenical COUNCILS.
5. THE TRIUMPH OF ICONS is a celebration that commemorated the end of Byzantine Iconoclasm.
6. He was DEPOSED FROM ALL PRIESTLY DIGNITY and A COUNCIL DECLARED HIM EXCOMMUNICATE.

В.П. [(4) 4]


1. In 451, Emperor Marcian has SUMMONED A COUNCIL, CHARGING the Monophysites WITH HERESY and DECLARING them EXCOMMUNICATE.
2. Since 1979 at least 19 ENCYCLICAL LETTERS have been sent from the Vatican.
3. We, as well as the OLD RITUALISTS and many others, celebrate THE TRIUMPH OF ICONS.

С.З. [(2) 3,5]


1. Saint Photius the Great became a new Patriarch of Constantinople in 858, fifteen years after THE TRIUMPH OF ICONS under Theodora.
2. Photius treated the LEGATES sent by Nicholas with great DEFERENCE, because he did not want to start a dispute with the Papacy.
3. The dispute between Photius and Ignatius was clearly related to THE PAPAL CLAIMS.
4. In 867 Photius wrote AN ENCYCLICAL LETTER to the Patriarchs of the east and CHARGED those who used the filioque WITH HERESY.
5. After sending the letter, Photius SUMMONED A COUNCIL to Constantinople, which DECLARED Pope Nicholas EXCOMMUNICATE.
6. A PRAYER BOOK is a book that contains various prayers.
7. THE HERMIT FATHERS is the name of Christian monks, hermits, and ascetics of the period of the emergence of monasticism in the IV—V centuries.
8. The library owns the author's original MANUSCRIPT.

А.Ж. [(5,5) 5,5]


1. The ASCENSION of Elizabeth to the throne was sung in poems by Mikhail Lomonosov.
2. The king's army caught up with the USURPER, and defeated his army.
3. In 861 Nicholas sent LEGATES to Constantinople to investigate into the quarrel between the new Patriarch and the Ignatian party.
4. Photius in turn treated the delegates with great DEFERENCE.
5. There is no evidence for these PAPAL CLAIMS.

1. ENCYCLICAL usually refers to a letter sent by the pope to the bishops of the Catholic Church.
2. The police CHARGE him with armed robbery.
3. A COUNCIL was SUMMONED in Constantinople which DECLARED Pope Nicholas EXCOMMUNICATE.
4. There are a lot of INACCURACIES about the DESERT FATHERS in your essay.

А.Д. [(6) 6]


The main difference between UNLEAVENED and LEAVENED bread is the word – LEAVEN.
There were massacres of all possible claimants after the ACCESSION of a USURPER to the throne.
In SLAVONIC PRAYER BOOKS you can easily find texts printed in the SLAVONIC FONT.

Д.Ж. [(3,5) 3,5]


1 The establishment of the feast of THE TRIUMPH OF ICONS is connected with the events of the Council of Constantinople in 843, gathered by Empress Theodora to restore veneration of icons in Byzantium.
2 In ancient Rome there were elective temporary and permanent LEGATES who worked not only for the Pope but also for propretors, proconsuls and many other ministers.
3 Many troubles between the Eastern and Western Church arose because of THE PAPAL CLAIMS.
4 The ACCESSION of Patriarch Photius STIRRED UP THE POLEMICS between him and the Ignatian party.

Е.Ш. [(2,5) 2,5]


1. A succession of ECCLESIASTICAL DIFFERENCES and THEOLOGICAL DISPUTES between the Greek East and Latin West predated the formal SCHISM that occurred in 1054.
2. Prominent among these were the issues of THE PROCESSION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT, whether LEAVENED OR UNLEAVENED BREAD should be used in THE EUCHARIST, the Bishop of Rome's claim to UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION, and the place of the See of Constantinople in relation to THE PENTARCHY.
3. Opening the SLAVONIC PRAYER BOOK we find that it contains DAILY PRAYERS and prayers for special needs and it also includes the Divine Liturgy, and AKATHISTS to Jesus Christ and the Most Holy Theotokos.

Е.Т. [(6) 6]


There were a lot of DELIBERATIONS about the Filioque in 850, because such AMENDMENT has to be introduced with great FIDELITY.
Photius was next patriarch of Constantinople, he was accessed fifteen years after THE TRIUMPH OF ICONS and was considered as a USURPER by the supporters of Ignatius.
THE BOOK OF CANONS is a kind of extended version of the PRAYER BOOK, it contains canons, akathists, the daily prayer rule, and the prayers to the Holy Communion for Church and home prayer.

Ал.Д. [(3) 3]


1. Some denominations hold beliefs that oppose the TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY, which are obviously THEOLOGICALLY UNTRUE and mustn't be met with even a hint of DEFERENCE.
2. The unspeakable horror and brutality of THE CRUSADES has likely made some contemporary Catholics doubt THE PAPAL CLAIMS to infallibility.
3. Catholic priests have to abide by PRIESTLY CELIBACY, lest they be proclaimed to be DEPOSED OF ALL PRIESTLY DIGNITY.


С.З. [(1,5) 1,5]


1 TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY stands at the heart of the Christian faith.
2 In the Orthodox Church LEAVENED BREAD is used in the EUCHARIST.
3 My aunt has got a DIPTYCH that shows the scenes of the CRUCIFIXION and the LAST JUDGMENT.

С.Г. [(2,5) 2,5]


2nd year of study: Spring 2020

When I was going to Nottingham, it was an important issue for me whether there was an Orthodox Church or not, as it is a big part of my life. First days in Nottingham were quite difficult for me, as I understood that now I belong to a different country with its own culture and habits and I was really looking forward to going to the Church to take solace.

The Russian Orthodox Church of St. Aidan and St. Chad in Nottingham belongs to the diocese of Sourozh, which is a part of the canonical Russian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate. The diocese was founded by the Metropolitan Antony of Sourozh (of blessed memory) and is currently ruled by the Bishop Matthew of Sourozh.

I well remember the very first time I came there: it was Sunday morning (there is no All-night Vigil on Saturdays because the parish is small and everyone works, including the priest. I didn’t know before that priests in England have a secular job in addition to their priesthood to make a living). I had a man who kindly helped me and gave me a lift to the church every week. Every time we arrived before The Hours and Divine Liturgy, as that man helped at the candle desk, so I had time to look at the service preparation.

The rector of the church is father Gregory and he is the only priest there, who is the real father and shepherd for his folk.

The church is very different from which I used to be in, it has a basilica shape and looks more like a house because it is just a rented space from a Methodist Church. There is no dome and the building, made of red brick, is very typical for England. There is a library, a kitchen and a big hall - a small house for the Orthodox community.

There is a quite small but very friendly parish, which every Sunday gets together for the tea. These meetings made me feel at home and safe. I made many friends there, especially I warmly remember talks with father Paul, the deacon. He told me many amazing stories about his pilgrimage to Russia and asked me about Orthodox communities and traditions in Russia.

Thankfully, I know well the texts of the services and I could easily understand almost everything. Attending services in English helped me to consider each word of services I am so used to, and Slavonic translation is much more complicated than the English one. For instance, listening to the Litanies, I began to pay attention to those words which I did not notice in Russia or just did not understand them, because the English translation sounds very clear but unusual sometimes.

I was singing in the choir there and it was the best gift for me. The Great Canon of St Andrew of Crete was read every evening on the first week of Lent. The services of Lent are my favourite and the most beautiful and special for me. When I came to the church, there it was almost dark and candlelight everywhere, and father Gregory asked me if I could sing the Great Cannon in Russia. I had to sing absolutely alone and it was completely unexpected, however, I will remember this wonderful experience all my life: when and where else will there be an opportunity to sing the Great Canon alone. Of course, we sang partly in English and in Russian and for me these services were the most touching and wonderful.

I am very grateful for this unforgettable experience which I had: to participate in the services in English, to see a baptism in English Orthodox Church, to sing and talk with truly British people, I had an opportunity to be at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts which was celebrated with the Nottingham Romanian Parish at their church and many other things.

I came to the church as to my family, where everyone was glad to see each other, to help and to pray together. There was the real parish, where the birthdays and feasts were celebrated together and the cohesion, which the Church speaks about, was felt.

В.П. [(56) 84]


As a child king Alfred often went to PILGRIMAGES and visited shrines.
When he left his CELL a lot of people came to talk with him and ask for advice.
In some churches priests PREACH SERMONS at the end of the Liturgy but a sermon also may be preached after reading the Gospel.

The BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION was a turning point that denoted the schism.
Nowadays we can see some ESTRANGEMENT inside the Orthodox community because of the isolation period.
We read «THE SAYNGS OF THE DESERT FATHERS» to gain their wisdom and use it in our lives.

THE CYCLE OF FEASTING AND FASTING is a very important part of the church`s year.
The FEAST of EXALTATION OF THE CROSS was established in the 4th century.
THE DORMITION OF THE MOTHER OF GOD is one of the TWELVE GREAT FEASTS.

THE CISTERCIAN ORDER was a part of THE BENEDICTINE ORDER but it separated in the 9th century.
THE OLD MAN or THE ELDER is a monk that guides other people in their spiritual life.
One of the Emperor`s privileges in church was PREACHING SERMONS.

In Byzantium the Church and the EMPERIAL POWER worked together to form a cooperation with each other.
CAESARO-PAPISM is a kind of political system where the state governs the Church.
If the church encounters with a dangerous heresy, it SUMMONS A COUNCIL.

LITURGICAL BOOKS are books that are used during the service.
If somebody forgets the words of a prayer he may read them in a DEVOTIONAL BOOK.
The OLD BELIEVERS or the OLD RITUALISTS were officially called "schismatics" and were persecuted by Church and secular authorities until the end of the 19th century.

The ORTHODOX TRADITION is understood as experience of participation of the Holy Spirit in the life of the Church.
Nowadays LAY THEOLOGY is becoming more common thing than it was before.
DEIFICATION should be the final aim of Orthodox Christian`s life.

The TRISAGION is a hymn in the liturgies of the Greek and Eastern Churches in which a THREEFOLD INVOCATION to God is used.
At the COUNCIL OF NICEA a UNANIMOUS agreement was declared against the Arian heresy.
The Pope insisted on UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY of the Roman Church.

Ал.Д. [(14) 29]


1. The TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY of Saint Augustine has always attracted and continues to attract the attention of various researchers.
2. The Orthodox Church follows to the practice of PRIESTLY CELIBACY for bishops and marriage for priests and deacons.
3. I LAY NO CLAIM TO the originality of this thought, I just expressed my opinion.
4. The ITALICIZED headings of the present procedures are for reference purposes only.
5. An actor reads the poems in English translation, with brief musical INTERPOLATIONS.
6. FOR THE SAKE of rational CLARITY of Christian message, theologians, especially of the west, fell into a one-sided formalism.
7. Quite a few relics of material culture, icons included, perished in internecine wars and their INEVITABLE companions, fires.
8. There are literally thousands of bright and innovative individuals in the world, working DILIGENTLY to develop these energy generation technologies.
9. Given the specifics of translating Church Slavonic liturgical texts, literary workers sometimes made EMENDATIONS that did not meet the generally accepted norms of the Russian language.
10. Saint Nicholas is an infinitely CHERISHED Saint by the Russian people.
11. Some argue that the religious themselves are VEHICLES OF SALVATION, while others dispute this allowing only that Jesus Christ is somehow operative within the context of other religions.
12. Our traditions teach us to treasure nature as a most PRECIOUS HERITAGE to be passed whole to our children.
13. No doubt the most serious defect of the work is the lack of UNIFORMITY, but to expect this is perhaps unrealistic.
14. An icon presupposes continued concentrated CONTEMPLATION and reflection.
15. Many who are regarded as LAY THEOLOGIANS have advanced degrees in other academic disciplines.
16. The New Testament does not offer us a strong case for making a SHARP DIVISION BETWEEN CLERGY AND LAITY.
17. The theory that he offered is too SPECULATIVE for most of his colleagues to accept at this point.
18. It has been observed that Anglican Catholic worship helps people to experience the timelessness of the Mass in THE FULLNESS OF CATHOLIC TRADITION with the particular blend of dignity and homeliness which is the cultural ethos of historic British SPIRITUALITY.
19. THE IMMEDIATE POWER OF JURISDICTION of the individual bishops in their dioceses is not impaired by the primacy, but only strengthened and defended.
20. Inside the fortress were built stone and brick houses, there was a water supply, there was a SANCTUARY of the Roman gods.
21. In MATTERS OF DOCTRINE and ethics, John Paul II represented the conservative view.
22. Differences should not lead to mutual ESTRANGEMENT, but rather should serve as a catalyst for enriching a society.
23. Wisdom, or SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT, is something that comes from knowing Jesus Christ.
24. It may also be that living in WITHDRAWAL and SOLITUDE expresses a hidden fear of life, of being and living, or even a rejection of life.
25. Very few women would choose a LIFE OF STRICT ENCLOSURE and total dedication to the discipline of prayer and concentration on THE SALVATION OF THE SOUL.

В.Л. [(13) 43]


1. THE SACRAMENT OF MARRIAGE is one of the most beautiful sacraments I have ever been to. The sacrament is full of symbols which show that the betrothed ‘BECOME ONE FLESH’. During the sacrament, they do everything together. For instance, they drink three times, in turn, form A COMMON CUP OF WINE, what symbolises that they share life together.
2. Recently wedding witnesses held MARRIAGE CROWNS over the betrothed, but it is not necessary now and the essence does not change.
3. Usually, sick people are ANOINTED WITH OIL and their confession is heard for the healing and RECONCILIATION.
4. PRIESTHOOD is an enormous gift and labour.
5. During the ORDINATION TO THE PRIESTHOOD, the wedding ring is taken off from the priest. The priests even do not wear a wedding ring. In a sense, the priest does not belong to his family, he does not even belong to himself. First of all, he belongs to God and the church ministry.
6. THE BISHOP is the highest degree of PRIESTHOOD.
7. During the ORDINATION of THE DEACON, the bishop places the ORARION on the deacon’s left shoulder, loudly saying: “Axios” (Greek “worthy”).
8. CUFFS are integral to the deacon, priest and bishop’s VESTMENTS. Wearing the cuffs means that it is not human hands, but the Lord Himself through them who performs the sacraments.
9. A priest’s and bishop’s ALB is the lower liturgical clothing. Its difference from the DEACON’S TUNIC is that it is sewn from white silk and has narrow sleeves.
10. A priest covers a person’s head with a STOLE after confession.
11. A GIRDLE symbolizes the girdling of the Lord Jesus Christ before the Last Supper and means the Divine power that strengthens the clergyman.
12. The EPIGONATION is the first priest’s award, symbolizes the “spiritual sword,” which is the word of God for the clergy, the Gospel.
13. At the beginning of the Divine Liturgy, a bishop, standing in front of the solea solemnly robes in his vestments which consist of A SAKKOS, AN OMOPHORION, A PALITSA, A MITRA, A PANAGIA.
14. FUNERAL SERVICE of a priest is very different from the usual one.
15. On the Saturday of Remembrance of The Departed Parents, the Church performs A MEMORIAL SERVICE, PANIKHIDA.
16. THE DECEASED priest lies in an open COFFIN in the VESTMENTS.
17. Every time people are in the church they try to light candles on the MEMORIAL TABLE in memory of the dead.
18. FASTING is not a diet and abstinence from certain types of food but one of the means of spiritual growth that the Church offers us.
19. During the FAST the Church calls us to spiritual efforts that will lead to the eternal joy of Heaven. To help people the Church has established fasts in remembrance of the most important FEASTS in the history of salvation. LENT, LEADING UP TO EASTER, is the most important and the strictest fast.
20. There are twelve GREAT FEASTS, nine of which are fixed.
21. NATIVITY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD is the first great feast of the LITURGICAL YEAR.
22. On ENTRY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD INTO THE TEMPLE, priests wear blue vestments.
23. THEOPHANY is celebrated on the 19th of the January.
24. After THE ANNUNCIATION Mary went to visit Elisabeth and to share the news with her.
25. There is a procession with children, holding palms branches, on THE ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM, which symbolises the coming of Jesus into the city riding on a donkey, and greeted by the people.
26. PENTECOST is a very solemn feast which comes on the fiftieth day after EASTER when the Church celebrates THE REVELATION OF THE TRINIATIAN GOD. ‘O, Heavenly King’ is sung the first time after the Resurrection of Christ, everyone wears green and there are three special kneeling prayers after the Divine Liturgy.
27. At the Feast of THE TRANSFIGURATION the churches are full of fruits, especially apples, which people bring for the BLESSING.
28. There is a bottle of HOLY WATER near the ICON CORNER to be used for some special occasions, as blessing the sick, or at any time.
29. When Orthodox Christians move house they ask the priest to BLESS THE NEW HOUSE to feel safe at a new place.
30. I think it is very important to ASK FOR BLESSING all the time: after the meal, when you go to your work or study, just go out. There are many simple BLESSING PRAYERS for this.
31. THE MONOTHELITE HERESY claimes that Jesus Christ has two natures but only one will. It is a modified form of MONOPHYSITISM.
32. The last ECUMENICAL COUNCIL was convened against THE ICONOCLASTS, who claimed that Christians WORSHIP THE ICONS, however, we VENERATE them but do not worship.
33. SAINT JOHN OF DAMASCUS and SAINT THEODORE OF STUDIUM were THE CHIEFS CHAMPIONs OF THE ICONS in the first and second periods.
34. MONASTICISM is an enormously difficult but the best way to penetrate ORTHODOX SPIRITUALITY.
35. THE HERMITS were widely spread. Monks, LEADING THE SOLITARY LIFE, were living in huts, tombs or forests. SAINT ANTONY OF EGYPT was the father of THE EREMITIC LIFE.

В.П. [(28) 28]


1. I learned that the FILIOQUE is the teaching in which the Spirit proceeds not only from Father but also from the Son.
2. I believe that EMENDATIONS might make my work better and more useful.
3. The SALUTATION helps to call people's attention back to prayers and adds emphasis to important moments in the liturgy.

1. Since recently, the Church has been introducing ENTIRELY NEW technologies in the FIELD OF communication.
2. THE PSALTER ACCORDING TO THE SEVENTY was translated into English by the monks of THE HOLY TRANSFIGURATION MONASTERY.
3. I believe that what should happen will happen, it is INEVITABLE and it can not be prevented.

1. I read that the draft translation was DILIGENTLY reviewed by Fr. Theodore Jurewicz, who offered criticism and suggested EMENDATIONS.
2. In the third chapter of the book it was said that Pope's INFALLIBILITY is not his prerogative and he doesn't have the UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY.
3. As we all know, in the early Church there was unity in the faith but a DIVERSITY of THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS.

1. Our Metropolitan demands that we CONFORM to what was written in our church laws.
2. In the Gothic language class we read THE KING JAMES VERSION OF THE SCRIPTURE.
3. I REGRET TO COMMEMORATE the event that happened to me a year ago.

Е.Т. [(6) 69]


1) Other troubles between east and west are matters of CHURCH WORSHIP and CHURCH DISCIPLINE, they had different RULES OF FASTING and used LEAVENED BREAD and UNLEAVENED BREAD (AZYMES) during the EUCHARIST.
2) My Academic advisor makes every effort to RENDER THE TEXT of my course paper IN GOOD GRAMMATICAL ENGLISH.
3) I hope that readers will be TOLERANT and will understand that I’ve tried to be ACCURATE.

Д.Ж. [(3,5) 77]


1) THE LITURGICAL and DEVOTIONAL BOOKS, that were CHERISHED by OLD RITUALISTS (they were actually called OLD BELIEVERS), were the sources from which the Slavonic text of this book was created.
2) Our ORTHODOX TRADITION doesn’t know UNIFORMITY.
3) The Pope was assigned with a PRIMACY OF HONOUR but not THE UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY.

Д.Ж. [(4,5) 57,5]


1) Nowadays, we all use PRAYER BOOKS and RULES OF PRAYER that were handed down to us by our GOD-BEARING FATHERS.
2) Greeks approached THE CHRISTIAN MYSTERY in a practical way while Latins did it in more SPECULATIVE one.
3) There were lots of differences between them; Latins talked about REDEMPTION and Greeks about DEIFICATION, talking about the CRUCIFIXION Latins thought of Christ the victim while Greeks about Christ the Victor etc.

Д.Ж. [(4) 53]


1) There were two main MATTERS OF DOCTRINES because of which THE GREAT SCHISM occurred-THE PAPAL CLAIMS and the FILIOQUE.
2) There was in incident which marks the beginning of schism, when some people came to THE SANCTUARY in the Church of the HOLY WISDOM and placed a BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION upon the ALTAR and MARCHED OUT and passed through the doors.
3) Our God motivated the holy fathers to lead lives of CONTEMPLATION and gave us the perfect love but LATTER-DAY CHRISTIANS do not really understand it and are far from it.

Д.Ж. [(4,5) 49]


1) In the religious life of Byzantium MONASTICISM played a significant role so there was a belief that you could PENETRATE ORTHODOX SPIRITUALITY by entering it through monasticism.
2) During the lesson we’ve learned about THE ORDER OF FORGIVENESS, and the ORDER OF THE MOLEBEN and THE SUPPLICATORY CANON to the MOTHER OF GOD.
3) It’s important to know about RULES OF PIETY which includes some GUIDELINES, EXPLANATIONS of LESTOVKA, Calendar of the Liturgical COMMEMORATIONS etc.

Д.Ж. [(4) 44,5]


1) After the housewarming we asked a priest to do the HOUSE BLESSING, so he came and SPRINKLED it THROUGHOUT with the use of HOLY WATER.
2) At Easter we usually go to church to with wich we wil BREAK our FAST and CELEBRATE CHRIST’S RESURRECTION.
3) Before entering the church I always say THE PRAYER ON ENTERING and after leaving THE PRAYER ON LEAVING and my granny does always say such prayers when she enters or leaves our home.

Д.Ж. [(3,5) 40,5]


1) During the LITURGICAL YEAR we celebrate such feasts as PALM SUNDAY or THE ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM which is quite SOLEMN among the others.
2) Another great feast is THE DORMITION or, in other words, FALLING ASLEEP OF THE MOTHER OF GOD.
3) Talking about BLESSINGS we remember THE FEAST OF THEOMPHANY and about THE FEAST OF TRANSFIGURATION because during these feasts we are dealing with holy water and food.

Д.Ж. [(4,5) 37]


1) The Bishop IMMERSED my little niece in water and ANNOUNCED that now she is protected from every evil.
2) Christ has two NATURES: HUMAN and DIVINE.
3) The main goal for all believers is TO ACHIEVE UNION WITH GOD, so that is why we all SAY PRAYERS and wear the cross.

Д.Ж. [(1,5) 32,5]


1) The deceased is buried facing the east, because he is anticipating coming of the ‘SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS’ – Jesus Christ.
2) There are TWELVE GREAT FEASTS in the Liturgical year: eight of them are in honour of Christ and four in honour of the Mother of God.
3) But there are also many MINOR FEASTS and SAINTS’ DAYS, and every Sunday is considered a feast day due to the resurrection.
4) PALM SUNDAY is a very SOLEMN great feast which marks the coming of Jesus into Jerusalem.
5) The Orthodox people acknowledge A PRIMACY OF HONOUR of the Pope, but don’t accept his IMMEDIATE POWER OF JURISDICTION in the east, where Roman Church also tried to take over and establish its UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY.
6) The Roman Church’s altering the Creed might be regarded as MORAL FRATRICIDE, because it goes against the unity of the Church.
7) The filioque is believed by the Orthodox to be THEOLOGICALLY UNTRUE, and, since the doctrine of Trinity is the foundation of the Christian faith, even at first sight such a small detail in TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY may have far-reaching consequences.
8) There are some more minor differences in CHURCH WORSHIP AND DISCIPLE between east and west, such as accepted marriages of the clergy in the east, while the western Church insists on PRIESTLY CELIBACY.
9) Also, Orthodox people use LEAVENED BREAD because it symbolizes the living body of Christ while the Catholics use UNLEAVENED BREAD, or AZYMES.
10) It’s an Orthodox tradition to place a written PRAYER OF ABSOLUTION in the hand of THE DECEASED during THE FUNERAL SERVICE.

Д.Н. [(9,5) 98]


1. PRIESTLY CELIBACY is when a member of the clergy is unmarried.
2. The Greeks used LEAVENED BREAD in the Eucharist.
3. He can't accustom himself to strict CHURCH DISCIPLINE.
4. The Greeks assigned to the Pope a PRIMACY OF HONOR.
5. I never claimed to be INFALLIBLE.

А.Д. [(2,5) 70]


1 The Seven Councils mostly dealt with doctrines which were THEOLOGICALLY UNTRUE.
2 In the Orthodox Church priests can get married but the Catholic Church insists on PRIESTLY CELIBACY.
3 One can hear the TRISAGION during the Divine Liturgy.


С.Г. [(1,5) 75]


1. Khomiakov claims that the west, in arbitrarily altering the Creed without discussion with the еast is guilty of MORAL FRATRICIDE.
2. Besides the issues of the Papacy and the filioque, there were some lesser matters of CHURCH WORSHIP AND DISCIPLINE, which caused some troubles.
3. For instance, the Latins insisted on PRIESTLY CELIBACY, but the Greeks permitted married clergy.
4. They also had a slightly different form of Eucharist because the Latins used UNLEAVENED BREAD or "AZYMES" and the Greeks LEAVENED BREAD.


А.Ж. [(3,5) 89]


1 – This special belief in the IMMEDIATE POWER OF JURISDICTION is typical for the Western Church because of its political situation in THE DARK AGES when the only one AUTOCRAT was the Pope.
2 – The other result of that time was A SHARP DIVISION BETWEEN CLERGY AND LAITY which made impossible the existence of such a concept as a "LAY THEOLOGIAN" in the west.
3 – Meanwhile the Eastern Church didn’t recognize THE UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY of THE PAPACY.
4 – Moreover it was only one factor in an increasing ESTRANGEMENT of what once had represented THE FULLNESS OF CATHOLIC TRADITION.
5 – The division in TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY concerned not only the filioque but also a range of other matters that the East considered to be THEOLOGICALLY UNTRUE.
6 – All this led to the end of UNIFORMITY in Christian faith and WORSHIP.

Е.Ш. [(6,5) 61]


1. Patriarch Photius was the "LAY THEOLOGIAN" before his appointment to the Patriarchate.
2. When thinking about THE CRUCIFIXION, Latins thought of Christ the Victim and talked more of REDEMPTION.
3. Greeks were thinking of Christ the Victor and they talked more of DEIFICATION. The Greek approach to THE CHRISTIAN MYSTERY was more SPECULATIVE.
4. Theological misunderstandings were often made worse by mistranslation that could be even DELIBERATE AND MALICIOUS MISTRANSLATION.

1. There were DIFFERENT DOCTRINAL APPROACHES in east and west.
2. Greek and Latin approaches served to supplement the other, and each had its place in THE FULLNESS OF CATHOLIC TRADITION.
3. The Pope wanted to extend his IMMEDIATE POWER OF JURISDICTION to the east as well as to the west.
4. The Greeks did not assign to the Pope THE UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY.

А.Ж. [(6,5) 67,5]


1. No bishop in the Orthodox church holds a UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY.
2. THE ROMAN PONTIFFS were often found seeking to press their PAPAL CLAIMS and expand their power.
3. THE OLD RITUALISTS hold slightly different services from the mainline Orthodox.
4. THE IMMEDIATE POWER OF JURISDICTION of the Russian Orthodox Church extends over the Orthodox on the territory of Russia and some other Eastern European countries.

С.З. [(2,5) 39]


1 Even in the EARLY CHURCH there were diffrerent approaches to the CHRISTIAN MYSTERY but they didn't contradict each other.
2 For example, Latins talked more of REDEMPTION and Greeks of DEIFICATION.
3 And these two approaches, Latin and Greek, had their place in the FULLNESS OF CATHOLIC TRADITION.

С.Г. [(3,5) 53,5]


1. It is written in the book called “Orthodox Mysteries” that for a Christian, death is birth into a new life and through continuing prayers and love the dead may be helped to enter into a place where “THERE IS NO SIGHING, SORROW NOR PAIN, BUT LIFE EVERLASTING”.
2. There will be a MEMORIAL SERVICE on March 20 in my church.
3. A FUNERAL SERVICE was held in our church yesterday.
4. THE DECEASED lay in an open COFFIN in the middle of the church during the whole liturgy and then the priest performed THE FINERAL SERVICE.
5. The phrase “THE SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS” appears in Malachi 4:2: “But for you who revere my name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings. And you will go out and leap like calves released from the stall."

1. As we all know St. Ephraim is commemorated before the beginning of GREAT LENT, he is more particularly remembered during this time in connection with the well-known prayer he composed: "O Lord and Master of my life..." which is recited repeatedly in THE DAILY LENTEN CYCLE OF SERVICES.
2. It is customary to PROSTRATE ONESELF during this prayer: one crosses oneself saying the prayer and then TOUCHES THE GROUND WITH THEIR FOREHEAD.
3. The Church year consists of a CYCLE OF FEASTS AND FASTS and it is important to understand that feasting and fasting go together and the first one loses its significance without the other.
4. After the fasts which come before celebrations of the major feasts such as EASTER, CHRISTMAS, SPIRUTUAL JOY SPILLS OVER INTO A BODILY FEAST.
5. There are many feasts of the Mother of God commemorating the events of her life in our Orthodox Church but the most significant and SOLEMN FEAST is the DORMITION OF THE MOTHER OF GOD and her BODILY ASSUMPTION commemorated on August 15(28).

1. In the service book we find the information about the LITURGICAL YEAR which begins in September and moves through the TWELVE GREAT FEASTS.
2. The feast of the EXALTATION OF THE HOLY CROSS celebrates the finding of the TRUE HOLY CROSS by my patron Saint Helena.
3. The life of an Orthodox Christian may seem to be just the RECURRING RHYTHMS OF THE YEAR but it means much more than simply a PASSAGE OF TIME.
4. In every LITURGICAL EVENT we have an opportunity TO ENCOUNTER Christ and to experience anew all the liturgical events in their entirety.
5. THE SERVICE OF VESPERS AND other services consist of fixed and variable parts, but they do not make sense without a deep spiritual AWARENESS of the meaning of them.

1. The prophets and the PROPHETESSES are messengers of God and their vocation is to teach and enlighten people.
2. For EASTER my sisters and I prepared a lot of wonderful PASCHAL DISHES and PAINTED THE BOILED EGGS.
3. After the service on PALM SUNDAY I bring home some BRANCHES OF PUSSY-WILLOW and put them in the icon corner.
4. When my friend moved house, she asked the priest to come and SPRINKLE THE NEW HOUSE WITH HOLY WATER.
5. At Easter we bring to church some food for blessing with which we BREAK OUR FAST and celebrate CHRIST'S RESURRECTION after the liturgy.

1. In our services we often appeal to our holy and GOD-BEARING FATHERS with prayers and requests.
2. THE LITURGICAL and DEVOTIONAL BOOKS have been carefully CHERISHED and used by OLD BELIEVERS for centuries.
3. The word of God is the VEHICLE OF SALVATION.

1. According to Orthodox teaching, THE UNITY OF THE CHURCH is men’s free unity in the truth and love of God.
2. The Church is an INVINCIBLE and INDESTRUCTIBLE gift from God.
3. In the text that we have read it was ITALICIZED that Church is the PILLAR and BULWARK OF THE TRUTH.

1. The priest wrote a book of interpretation of the gospel where he made INTERPOLATIONS FOR THE SAKE OF CLARITY.
2. Orthodox monastic life is CONTEMPLATIVE and the major CONTRIBUTION of monasticism to the Church is the prayer.
3. The DESERT FATHERS by their DETACHMENT FROM THE CARES OF THE WORLD and UNCEASING PRAYER provide a living example to the faithful.

1. Bible is PRECIOUS HERITAGE for every Christian.
2. A DEVOTIONAL PRAYER is usually a personal daily prayer that we do outside of our parish.
3. For me, UNIFORMITY is when we all believe in the same thing and we are uniform in our beliefs and behaviors.

Е.Т. [(26,5) 57]


1. THE PAPACY's seat of power is located in the Vatican.
2. THE DARK AGES is a term often frowned upon by the modern scholars of the medieval world.
3. Some dangerous sects mislead people through DELIBERATE AND MALICIOUS MISTRANSLATION of the Holy Bible.
4. The CRUCIFIXION is a crucial image in the WORSHIP of any and all Christians.

С.З. [(2,5) 26]


1 Many LITURGICAL and DEVOTIONAL BOOKS have been handed down to us by our GOD-BEARING FATHERS.
2 OLD RITUALISTS, also known as OLD BELIEVERS, are called so because they maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Orthodox Church as they were before the reforms of Patriarch Nikon.
3 Clive Lewis was a Christian LAY THEOLOGIAN.

С.Г. [(3) 50]


1. Her mother is a woman of VIRTUE.
2. He goes to the church to spend time in CONTEMPLATION of God.
3. CHARLEMAGNE lived centuries ago. He was respected as a just ruler.
4. It may be that the LATTER-DAY CHRISTIANS will have to reject all civil laws.

1. I started reading PRAYER BOOK when I was 5.
2. OLD RITUALISTS are supporters of the old Christian rite.
3. The author wrote with such CLARITY and precision.
4. ORTHODOX TRADITION is the foundation of the Orthodox Church.

А.Д. [(3,5) 49,5]


1) 1) The Emperor of Byzantium was regarded as VICEGERENT OF GOD, and even though he couldn’t CELEBRATE THE EUCHARIST, he RECEIVED COMMUNION as a priest and could PREACH SERMONS and CENSE THE ALTAR on some feasts.
2) And even if Church and State formed a single organism, it is not just to accuse Byzantium of CAESARO-PAPISM because there still was a distinct line between THE PRIESTHOOD and THE IMPERIAL POWER.
3) And even though the Emperor could SUMMON COUNCILS, he couldn’t interfere in ECCLESIASTICAL MATTERS and decide what the true faith was.

1) Cardinal Humbert was the one who placed A BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION of the Patriarch of Constantinople on the altar in the Church of the Holy Wisdom, by which the Great Schism started.
2) And, of course, the formal reason for that was disagreement concerning MATTERS OF DOCTRINE, in particular – FILIOQUE, but the refusal of many Christians to accept THE PAPAL CLAIMS played a decisive role as well.
3) The west was more centralized because THE PAPACY became a center of unity, but at the same time the Pope became AN AUTOCRAT.

1) During THE DARK AGES there was a SHARP DIVISION BETWEEN CLERGY AND LAITY in the west, because most of lay people couldn’t even read, and only Church provided good education.
2) Greeks had their own approach to THE CHRISTIAN MYSTERY, it was more SPECULATIVE than the Latin one, and their approach to THE CRUCIFIXION was a bit different as well: they regarded Christ as the Victor, rather than the Victim.
3) Before the Great Schism these somewhat DIFFERENT DOCTRINAL APPROACHES existed together in THE FULLNESS OF CATHOLIC TRADITION, but later they become more and more separate.

Д.Н. [(14,5) 69,5]


1) A deacon is a ‘servant’ of the clergy and the people; he doesn’t PERFORM THE SACRAMENTS, but he HAS A MINISTRY to the people of the parish. 2) He wears a STOLE called ORARION, tunic and CUFFS which symbolise obedience. 3) A priest is the one who looks after the parish, celebrates the Liturgy and performs the sacraments; he wears cuffs, a stole, an ALB – the symbol of purity and joy, a CHASUBLE – a robe of truth of Christ’s servant, a GIRDLE and the EPIGONATION. 4) But the highest DEGREE OF THE PRIESTHOOD is to be a bishop, a shepherd of priests and people of a diocese; a bishop can only be ordained by at least two other bishops and he shares in the APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION. 5) Apart from all items mentioned above, a bishop wears an OMOPHORION – a long scarf which symbolises the lost sheep being carried by the shepherd, a PALITSA – a ‘sword of the spirit’, a MITRE, a STAFF – a sign of his duty to shepherd his flock, and an image of the Theotokos and Christ called ‘PANAGIA’.
1) The Christians have been making PILGRIMAGES to MOUNT SINAI from the ancient times, but since the tenth century ATHOS has become the center of monasticism for the Orthodox.
2) Orthodox monasticism has no ORDERS, while in the west there are plenty of them, such as CARTHUSIANS or CISTERCIANS.
3) THE ELDER whom other monks consider their spiritual guide, is not given any appointment to the work of ELDERSHIP, but is guided by THE DIRECT INSPIRATION OF THE SPIRIT.

Д.Н. [(12) 55]


1) Even though the Byzantine Emperor played an active part in Church affairs, IT IS NOT JUST to accuse Byzantium of CAESARO-PAPISM.
2) Church and State formed a single organism, within which THE PRIESTHOOD and THE IMPERIAL POWER worked in close cooperation and harmony.
3) The Emperor’s was able TO SUMMON COUNCILS and to carry their decrees into effect, but he wasn't able to dictate the content of those decrees.
4) When the Emperor interfered unwarrantably in ECCLESIASTICAL MATTERS the authorities of the Church could show that they had a will of their own.

1)In the year 1054 Cardinal Humbert and two other LEGATES OF THE POPE came in the Church of the Holy Wisdom, made their way up to THE SANCTUARY and placed A BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION upon THE ALTAR.
2) The schism was conditioned by many different factors, but its' fundamental cause were two matters: THE PAPAL CLAIMS and the FILIOQUE.
3) Increasing ESTRANGEMENT appeared long before formal schism between east and west.
4) A PRAYER BOOK is a book containing prayers and perhaps devotional readings.
5) Books containing mainly orders of religious services, or readings for them are termed "LITURGICAL BOOKS".

А.Ж. [(7,5) 61]


1 – The Great Schism had started long before two LEGATES OF the POPE placed A BULL OF EXCOMMUNICATION in one SANCTUARY in Constantinople in 1054 and was generally connected with the Pope of Rome and THE PAPAL CLAIMS.
2 – The other MATTER OF DOCTRINE well-known as the FILIOQUE only supplemented the list of the reasons but still increased the ESTRANGEMENT of Orthodoxy and Catholicism.
3 – The other factor that accelerated the spiritual division was THE RISE OF ISLAM through the geographical separation of THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD.

1 – Since that time both the Western Church and Eastern Church have been making A CHARGE OF HERESY AGAINST each other.
2 – And the LATTER-DAY CHRISTIANS face far more sophisticated division.
3 – However, all Christians still celebrate Holy PASCHA, the main feast for all believers.

Е.Ш. [(6,5) 38,5]


1) One of the FOUR MAJOR FASTS - The GREAT FAST leading up to EASTER has just ended.
2) In our Church we have THE LITURGICAL YEAR and there we have 12 GREAT FEASTS.
3) My favourite feasts during the year are CHRISTMAS,THE ANNUNCIATION and PASCHA.

Д.Ж. [(4) 31]


1) I’ve never attended FUNERAL SERVICES but my mom told me that the priest there wears white VESTMENTS to SIGNIFY THE JOY OF RESURRECTION.
2) During each FUNERALS a written PRAYER OF ABSOLUTION is placed in the hand of the DEPARTED.
3) After the Service my mom crossed herself, BOWED DOWN, kissed the icon in the COFFIN and KISSED the deceased ON THE FOREHEAD.

Д.Ж. [(4) 27]


1 Most of LATTER-DAY CHRISTIANS are far from participating in the UNCEASING DOXOLOGIES of our God.
2 I regard a life of CONTEMPLATION as a VIRTUE in itself.
3 THE SAYINGS OF THE DESERT FATHERS can teach us how to be better Christians.

С.Г. [(3) 47]


1. They came in during my MORNING PRAYERS.
2. He was kneeling in front of the SANCTUARY and praying.
3. At times, even the closest people have long periods of ESTRANGEMENT.
4. - Did you like his HOMILY ON COMMUNION?

А.Д. [(2) 46]


1. Every day, in the morning and in the evening, all Orthodox read the MORNING PRAYERS and the EVENING PRAYERS.
2. For most of the year, THE DIVINE LITURGY OF ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM is served.
3. The LEGATES OF THE POPE are personal representatives of the Pope to foreign nations.
4. THE MEDITERRANIAN WORLD is composed of all of the diverse countries surrounding the Mediterranean.

С.З. [(3) 23,5]


1 I know a few cases of exceptional PIETY among our PARISHIONERS.
2 One should not go to confession without true REPENTANCE in one's heart.
3 The FILIOQUE is the DOCTRINE concerning the Holy Spirit.

С.Г. [(2,5) 44]


1- Even simple Orthodox laymen are people of SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT compared to non-Orthodox people.
2- Some hermits who decide to lead a solitude life don’t choose a LIFE OF STRICT ENCLOSURE and are fine with receiving visitors.
3- In the Middle Ages kings, emperors and other rulers were regarded as VICEGERENTS OF GOD.
4- But it didn’t mean that they had all THE IMPERIAL POWER and THE PRIESTHOOD in their own hands.
5- It could be about it and is called CAESARO-PAPISM.
6- But IT IS NOT JUST for the State but also for the Church it was possible to tip the scales on its side, so there existed also the so-called “PAPO-CAESARISM”.

Е.Ш. [(3,5) 32]


1. During the persecution of early Christians, people who were locked up in cells were often baptised through SPRINKLING WITH HOLY WATER.
2. The Vulgate was considered to have been translated with THE DIRECT INSPIRATION OF THE SPIRIT.
3. Emperor JUSTINIAN had many SUCCESSORS but few matched his greatness.
4. Monks become closer to God through the WITHDRAWAL FROM SOCIETY, a LIFE OF STRICT ENCLOSURE and AUSTERITY.

С.З. [(3,5) 20,5]


1. After the service my siblings came TO ASK FOR A PRIEST`S BLESSING.
2. By crucifixion Christ REDEEMED all the sins of men.
3. TO SUMMON COUNCILS is one of the Emperor’s tasks.
4. Richard Aldington was an EXPONENT of imagism.

А.Д. [(2) 44]


1 After the Easter midnight Liturgy many Orthodox Christians will BREAK THEIR FAST.
2 When Orthodox Christians ASK FOR A PRIEST'S BLESSING, they cup right hand over left.
3 Although in the west monks belong to different ORDERS, in Orthodox monasticism there is no such thing as an Order.

С.Г. [(1,5) 41,5]


1. А monk in the west belongs to some ORDER, for example to THE CARTHUSIAN or THE CISTERCIAN.
2. The elder is a monk of SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT and wisdom, whom others adopt as their spiritual director.
3. The elder is often a LAY MONK who is guided to the work of ELDERSHIP by THE DIRECT INSPIRATION OF THE SPIRIT.
4. The Emperor of Byzantium could not CELEBRATE THE EUCHARIST, but he RECEIVED COMMUNION "AS PRIESTS DO".
5. Also the Emperor CENSED THE ALTAR on certain feasts and PREACHED SERMONS.

А.Ж. [(6) 53,5]


1) Throughout the Church’s year there is a CYCLE OF FEASTING AND FASTING.
2) When we celebrate the major feasts such as Easter or Christmas SPIRITUAL JOY SPILLS INTO A BODILY FEAST.
3) THE EXALTATION OF THE CROSS, THE DORMITION OF THE MOTHER OF GOD AND MEETING OF THE LORD are included in the number of TWELVE GREAT FEASTS.
4) Orthodox people also celebrate MINOR FEASTS and SAINTS' DAYS.

А.Ж. [(4) 47,5]


1. He was a PIONEER in the field of chemistry.
2. If you're looking to DYE Easter EGGS, I know several methods to try.
3. After the service the priest SPRINKLED us with holy water.
4. Before the service we picked a lot of PUSSY WILLOW branches.

А.Д. [(2) 42]


1) Before becoming man, the INCORPOREAL and UNCIRCUMSCRIBED God couldn’t be depicted. 2) Yet after He had proven that MATTER CAN BE REDEEMED by taking a material body and making it “SPIRIT-BEARING”, people were able to make an image of the God who can be seen. 3) But we worship not matter, but the Creator of it, who DEIGNED to dwell in it to make flesh A VEHICLE OF THE SPIRIT.
1) MONASTICISM played a crucial role in the Christianity and it remains a vital part of Orthodox SPIRITUALITY to this day. 2) When the martyrdom of blood existed no more, monks became new martyrs through their AUSTERITIES and WITHDRAWAL FROM SOCIETY. 3) Monasticism is usually divided into three groups, judging by what life the monks lead: EREMITIC, SEMI-EREMITIC, or COMMUNITY. 4) The monks of the first group LEAD THE SOLITARY LIFE in wilderness or caves. 5) People who lead the semi-eremitic life live in a group of small settlements UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF AN ELDER, and the monks of the last group usually live together in RELIGIOUS HOUSES under A COMMON RULE.

Д.Н. [(10,5) 43]


1- Although MONASTICISM is thought to be the best way to penetrate ORTHODOX SPIRITUALITY, some monks go further and lead their life in more austere way.
2- But the AUSTERITY of each of them also differs.
3- Some FULFILL A PROPHETIC AND ESCHATOLOGICAL MINISTRY by their WITHDRAWAL FROM SOCIETY but people still are able to visit them.
4- The seclusion of others is more about LEADING THE absolutely SOLITARY LIFE.
5- And the third group have THE SEMI-EREMITIC LIFE which is intermediate between the previous ones.
6- Those live in small groups UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF AN ELDER, being remote from the other world.

Е.Ш. [(5,5) 28,5]


1 At the end of the GREAT FAST Orthodox celebrate PALM SUNDAY, one of TWELVE GREAT FEASTS.
2 In the LITURGICAL YEAR there are not only twelve great feasts but also MINOR FEASTS and SAINTS' DAYS.
3 On Saturday before EASTER a priest BLESSES one's Easter bread and eggs by saying prayers and SPRINKLING the holy water.

С.Г. [(4,5) 40]


1. The principle of ALMSGIVING is to care for the poor and to foster empathy in the community of believers.
2. MONASTICISM was one of the most powerful religious movements in the world.
3. He lived through years of AUSTERITY after the war.
4. The HERMITS are men leading the SOLITARY LIFE in huts or caves.
5. The four PILLARS bear the arch.

А.Д. [(3) 40]


1) P. Evdokimov says that one can penetrate ORTHODOX SPIRITUALITY through MONASTICISM.
2) The monks reminded Christians that the kingdom of God is not of this world by their WITHDRAWAL FROM SOCIETY into the desert.
3) There are three chief forms of monasticism: hermits (they are LEADING THE SOLITARY LIFE), THE COMMUNITY LIFE, where monks dwell together under a common rule, and THE SEMI-EREMITIC LIFE, "a middle way".
4) In the fourth century travellers to Jerusalem often included THE ASCETIC HOUSES of the Nile to their PILGRIMAGE.
5) JOHN OF DAMASCUS defended the veneration of icons during the period of iconoclasm.

А.Ж. [(4) 43,5]


1 In Orthodoxy MONASTICISM holds a prominent place.
2 One of my father's friends is a MONK who used to lead the SEMI-EREMITIC life but now he's a HERMIT.
3 Last summer my father went on a PILGRIMAGE to the HOLY MOUNT ATHOS.

С.Г. [(3) 35,5]


1. TWELVE GREAT FEASTS are the twelve most important feasts after the LENT and Easter.
2. There is a tradition not to PROSTRATE on Sundays and during the period from Easter to PENTECOST and from Christmas to THEOPHANY.
3. The family went on a PILGRIMAGE to Holy places.
4. The MOUNT SINAI is one of the most important sacred places in the Jewish, Christian and Islamic religions.
5. JOHN THE FORERUNNER was already filled with the Holy spirit from his mother's WOMB.

А.Д. [(4,5) 37]


1- As he had huge family troubles and had no one to get support so he prayed and INVOKED THE TRINITY.
2- By his nature he was INTEMPERATE so that he could not control himself and often was rude to other people.
3- During Christ’s Ministry many unhealthy and whacky people came to him and asked to BESTOW UPON them a cure.
1- Turning from God set a mark of DISGRACE on all the demons.
2- Being FAITHFUL means to control yourself, your thoughts and your wishes.
3- In England of the sixth century Saint David of Wales practiced frequent PROSTRATIONS.

Е.Ш. [(2,5) 23]


1. The mayor said he would not be provoked into INTEMPERATE action.
2. The meeting ended in an ACRIMONIOUS dispute.
3. He's very active in his church, does a lot of CHARITABLE WORK.

А.Д. [(1,5) 32,5]


1 In our UNTHEOLOGICAL age most of the LAITY is not interested in religious questions.
2 CHARITABLE WORK is an important aspect of being a good Christian.
3 Some SAINTS beheld the CELESTIAL GLORY during their lifetime.

С.Г. [(2) 32,5]


1) God proved that MATTER CAN BE REDEEMED by taking a material body.
2) Wood and paint can became A VEHICLE OF THE SPIRIT but in their own way.
3) The Seven Councils are the concern not only of scholars and CLERGY, but of all the FAITHFUL.
4) The artistic perfection of an icon reflected the CELESTIAL GLORY.
5) The icon is an enduring monument to the DISGRACE of the demons.

А.Ж. [(3) 39,5]


1. THE FUNERAL SERVICE can mark some of the most tragic events in the life of any Christian.
2. In every church there prominently stands a MEMORIAL TABLE with many candles burning on it.
3. The Gnostics didn't believe that MATTER CAN BE REDEEMED.
4. All church art attempts to reflect THE CELESTIAL GLORY of God.

С.З. [(2) 17]


1) Iconoclasts accused those who venerate icons of IDOLATRY.
2) Orthodox people consider that the icons are just symbols and so REVERENCE or VENERATE them, but do not WORSHIP.
3) Icons are a part of Holy Tradition and they can help people to see and understand ALL THE MYSTERIES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.
4) PANIKHIDA is a Church service for THE DECEASED on the day of the funeral itself, as well as on the third, ninth, or fortieth day after the death, or on the anniversary of his death or birth.

А.Ж. [(3,5) 36,5]


1. The priest gave a moving speech at the MEMORIAL SERVICE.
2. Cain was forced to leave in DISGRACE from his family.
3. CLERGY is the term used to describe the priesthood of the Christian religion.
4. He remained FAITHFUL to his religion to the last.
5. IDOLATRY is a worship of a statue or a person in place of God.

А.Д. [(2,5) 31]


1 The FUNERAL SERVICE is the last time when people can say goodbye to the DECEASED.
2 After the burying, MEMORIAL SERVICES may be sung and candles can be lit on a MEMORIAL TABLE.
3 The Iconoclasts condemned icons as they saw in them A LATENT IDOLATRY but Orthodox do not WORSHIP icons, they VENERATE them.

С.Г. [(3,5) 30,5]


1) In the eighth and ninth centuries there was a great rivalry between the new heretics, ICONOCLASTS, who demanded the destruction of icons, and THE ICONODULES, who defended the holy images. 2) Some people thought that it was Jewish and MOSLEM influence that pushed people to fight against icons, but there have always been people among Christians who condemned icons and considered veneration of them A LATENT IDOLATRY. 3) There were two phases of this controversy: the first period was opened by Leo III and ended when THE EMPRESS IRENE SUSPENDED THE PERSECUTION; the second attack on icons was started by Leo V and finally ended in 843, when the iconoclasts were permanently stopped by Empress Theodora. 4) This victory is now known as “THE TRIUMPH OF ORTHODOXY” and is COMMEMORATED IN A SPECIAL SERVICE CELEBRATED ON “ORTHODOXY SUNDAY”.

1) In a church there is THE ICONOSTASIS, which is entirely covered with icons; other icons are placed in special SHRINES around the church. 2) Icons are CENSED by a priest and carried in PROCESSION, and though people kiss them and PROSTRATE THEMSELVES before them it can’t be regarded as idolatry. 3) The point is that Orthodox people don’t WORSHIP ICONS, BUT REVERENCE OR VENERATE them, as they are only symbols.

Д.Н. [(9) 32,5]


1) Five great sees that CLAIMED APOSTOLIC FOUNDATION established ORDER OF PRECEDENCE among them and by that formed what we now call THE PENTARCHY. 2) All bishops had the same SACRAMENTAL POWER since they all SHARED EQUALLY IN THE APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION and the differences between the great sees lay mostly in the ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATION. 3) Which meant that every DIOCESAN BISHOP had the right to attend A GREAT COUNCIL and vote there among others.

1) Although The Orthodox Church does not accept PAPAL AUTHORITY, we do not deny THE PRIMACY OF HONOUR of the See of Rome. 2) Although many people like Arians formed no LASTING SCHISM because they were reconciled, some people who FELL INTO HERESY were extremely hard to BRING BACK INTO COMMUNION with the Byzantine Church and they exist even now, for instance, NESTORIANS or MONOPHYSITES. 3) Because of the sudden MOHAMMEDAN EXPANSION and the following invasion of Arabs, which was called “A CENTRIFUGAL EXPLOSION”, three of the five Patriarchates found themselves under INFIDEL control.

Д.Н. [(9,5) 23,5]


1- In common parlance the terms «THE FUNERAL SERVICE» and «THE MEMORIAL SERVICE» get often confused whereas the memorial service unlike the funeral one is served several times for the same person.
2- THE MEMORIAL TABLE is a square table with a marble or metal board on which the cells for memorial candles are located.
3- After THE KISSING A DEPARTED ON THE FOREHEAD, the body is committed to the ground.

Е.Ш. [(2) 20,5]


1. My friend could not understand the meaning of the word BETROTHAL and I have explained that it is like a promise that a MARRIAGE will take place.
2. The JESUS PRAYER is a prayer of about 10 words but if it is said with deep faith and love for the SAVIOUR then it is not VAIN REPETITION.
3. The SCRIPTURAL BASIS can help us to find answers to our RELIGIOUS QUESTIONS.

1. After saying the prayer I feel STILLNESS.
2. Before CONFESSION, it is necessary to RECONCILE with everyone.
3. Yesterday I learned that the COUPLES who hold CROWNS are WITNESSES.

1. Last week I learnt that in English since about the 19th century the term "CONVENT" almost invariably refers to a community of women while "MONASTERY" and "FRIARY" are used for a community of men.
2. As a child I was interested to know why priests change the colors of VESTMENTS depending on the CHURCH FEASTS but then I realized all these colors symbolize the SPIRITUAL SIGNIFICANCE of the CHURCH FEASTS in honor of saints and SACRED EVENTS.
3. St. Nicodemus in the introduction to THE PHILOKALIA says the Jesus Prayer is a prayer for all Christians and it can be used in our daily life in the world.

1. A bridge is formed between God and man by THE INCARNATE CHRIST who is both.
2. We Orthodox Christians WORSHIP, VENERATE and KEEP HOLY ICONS.
3. THE ICONODULES unlike THE ICONOCLASTS defend the place of icons in the life of the Church.

1. THE TRIUMPH OF ORTHODOXY took place on March 3, 843, the first Sunday of LENT, when Queen Theodora gathered the HIERARCHS of the Church and CONFESSORS OF the period of ICONOCLASM, deposed the ICONOCLASTIC Patriarch and restored the decisions of the VII ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, which determined to HONOR the Holy icons.
2. A true Distinctive Feature Of Orthodoxy is the place which it assigns to icons.
3. Entering the church, we can notice that some icons are put on the ICONOSTASIS, while other icons are placed in special SHRINES around the church and perhaps we can also see ICONS ON THE WALLS in FRESCO or MOSAIC.

Е.Т. [(16,5) 30,5]


1. She renounced the world and entered a CONVENT.
2. MONASTICISM is one of the religious ways of life by which you can enter the Kingdom of heaven.
3. SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT is calling on the Holy Spirit to lead or give direction on a matter.
4. The nuns keep STRICT ENCLOSURE, and lead the CONTEMPLATIVE life.

А.Д. [(2,5) 28,5]


1. In the Russian tradition, THE CHASUBLE is richly decorated with embroidery and has a high, hard collar.
2. The Iconoclasts, unlike THE ICONODULES, thought that the Orthodox were GUILTY OF IDOLATRY not making the distinction between worship and REVERENCE OR VENERATION.
3. True Christians MAKE OBEISANCE to Jesus Christ and all the saints.
4. ALL THE MYSTERIES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION are of utmost DOCTRINAL importance.

С.З. [(4) 15]


1) Each priest CELEBRATES THE LITURGY and LOOKS AFTER A PARISH.
2) As we know, a priest wears: AN ALB (which represents JOY and PURITY), A STOLE (and he cannot CELEBRATE any OFFICE without it), sleeveless robe (A CHASUBLE) symbolising the ROBE OF TRUTH of Christ’s servant, A GIRDLE and EPIGONATION.
3) MONASTICISM is a way of life where people give up life in the world DEVOTING their LIVES TO GOD, praying and FASTING.

Д.Ж. [(2) 23]


1 A priest is ORDAINED and a bishop, who oversees the affairs of the DIOCESE, is CONSECRATED.
2 Among other vestments a bishop wears an OMOPHORION without which he cannot PERFORM OFFICES of a bishop.
3 The dispute between the ICONOCLASTS and the ICONODULES was resolved in 843 when the ICONS were reinstated.

С.Г. [(3,5) 27]


1. SAINT JOHN OF DAMASCUS and SAINT THEODORE OF STUDIUM were THE CHIEF CHAMPIONS OF THE ICONS during the Iconoclast controversy, which lasted some 120 years.
2. The final victory of THE HOLY IMAGES at the Council of Constantinople in 843 is called THE "TRIUMPH OF ORTHODOXY".
3. On "ORTHODOXY SUNDAY," the first Sunday in Lent, this day IS COMMEMORATED IN A SPECIAL SERVICE during which THE TRUE FAITH - ORTHODOXY - IS PROCLAIMED, ITS DEFENDERS ARE HONORED, AND ANATHEMAS PRONOUNCED ON ALL WHO ATTACK the Seven General Councils or THE HOLY ICONS.
4. Now when you enter any Orthodox Church, you can see several special images of Jesus Christ, the Theotokos, and other Holy icons and Orthodox people PROSTRATE THEMSELVES before these icons, they kisses them and burn candles in front of them; they are CENSED by the priest and carried in PROCESSION.

А.Ж. [(8) 33]


1- THE PRIEST’S HAND CROSS is ordinarily kept in the altar of a church.
2- THE PRAYER OF ABSOLUTION is to be said, according to the sequence of the sacrament, after a couple confesses their sins, gets a penance and says the formal prayer as the act of contrition.
3- Thus the prayer of absolution is also known as the sacrament of RECONCILIATION.
1- Only one bishop may be CONSECRATED to this rank at the same liturgy.
2- In Orthodoxy the STAFF signifies the spiritual authority of an Archbishop, Archimandrite or Hegumen in a monastery.
3- In pre-revolutionary times, there was created semi-MONASTIC Martha and Maria CONVENT by Elizaveta Feodorovna in Moscow.

Е.Ш. [(3,5) 18,5]


1) As we know, THE DEACON is one of the HIGHEST DEGREES OF PRIESTHOOD who acts as a go-between but doesn’t PERFOM THE SACRAMENTS independently.
2) VESTMENTS of a deacon include lots of items such as: LONG NARROW STOLE, a TUNIC (it can be gold or silver) and CUFFS which signify strengthening and OBEDIENCE.
3) A PRIEST is also one of the highest degrees of priesthood but he is CELEBRATES THE LITURGY and other SACRAMENTS and he has his own vestments as well: AN ALB which signifies PURITY, A CHASUBLE, A GIRDLE (symbolises the divine strength) and THE EPIGONATION which is made of BROCADE and is worn on the hip.

Д.Ж. [(7,5) 21]


1. ICONOCLASTS, led by a local resident, entered the church in mid-sermon.
2. SAINT JOHN OF DAMASCUS was a Byzantine monk and priest.
3. ORDINATION TO THE PRIESTHOOD can only be performed during the divine Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom or Saint Basil the Great.
4. The priest`s VESTMENTS consist of a STOLE, TUNIC, CUFFS, ALB, and a GIRDLE.

А.Д. [(4,5) 26]


1 When my father was a DEACON, he did not PERFORM THE SACRAMENTS independently.
2 A priest's VESTMENTS differ from a deacon's vestments.
3 For example, a priest's STOLE, without which he cannot CELEBRATE any OFFICE, is sewn together.

С.Г. [(3,5) 27]


1. APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION is a God-established method of preserving and transmitting hierarchical service in the Church from the Holy apostles through the ORDINATION TO THE PRIESTHOOD.
2. A deacon can't PERFORM THE SACRAMENTS independently, but he HAS A MINISTRY to the people of the parish, especially to the elderly and the sick.
3. Priests usually wear CUFFS, AN ALB, A CHASUBLE, A GIRDLE, THE EPIGONATION.

А.Ж. [(4,5) 25]


1) A formal state of engagement to be married is called THE BETROTHAL.
2) The minister pronounces a bridal couple as MAN AND WIFE.
3) It is said that THE SACRAMENT OF MARRIGE cannot be regarded as a formal one if there weren’t any WITNESSES.

1) One of the main features of the MINISTRY is to ACT AS A GO-BETWEEN BETWEEN people and God.
2) In the Canterbury tales the priest cared more about his FLOCK than about THE DEGREE OF HIS PRIESTHOOD and the place of his ministry.
3) The presence of THE APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION allows bishops to be able to PERFORM THE SACRAMENTS.

Е.Ш. [(5) 15]


1. Weddind rings, MARRIAGE CROWNS, and WEDDING CANDLES are usually used in the sacrament of MARRIAGE.
2. Usually when two people really love each other, they decide to get ENGAGED, because their BETROTHAL shows their desire to be together not only on Earth, but also in Heaven.
3. When two people ARE CROWNED they should take each other AS MAN AND WIFE.

А.Ж. [(3,5) 20,5]


1. When a MAN AND WIFE ARE CROWNED, WITNESSES hold the MARRIAGE CROWNS over their heads.
2. ISLAM originated in the seventh century AD on the Arabian Peninsula. The birth of Islam is associated with MUHAMMAD.
3. PALESTINE is the ancient homeland of the Jews, where the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob lived.
4. MONOTHELITISM is a HERESY of Orthodoxy.

А.Д. [(4) 21,5]


1 Not all Orthodox know that the main purpose of anointing with oil is RECONCILIATION with God.
2 The sacrament of healing ends with a PRAYER OF ABSOLUTION.
3 Though the Orthodox Church does not accept the doctrine of PAPAL AUTHORITY, it does not deny to the SEE of Rome a PRIMACY OF HONOR.

С.Г. [(2,5) 23,5]


1) A man and a woman after the SACRAMENT OF MARRIAGE BECOME ONE FLESH.
2) During the BETROTHAL rings are placed on the RING FINGER and this action symbolises ETERNAL PROMISE and UNION.
3) On the MARRIAGE TABLE you can find MARRIAGE CROWNS which show that man and wife are TO BE WITNESSes to Christ.
4) At the end of the sacrament they are led to a place in front of the SOLEA.

Д.Ж. [(4,5) 13,5]


1. The couple's period of BETROTHAL lasted four years.
2. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA was the Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444.
3. He's one of the most important MODERN SCHOLARS in his field.

А.Д. [(1,5) 17,5]


1 The sacrament of MARRIAGE starts with the BETROTHAL or ENGAGEMENT during which rings are put on.
2 In the fifth century two GENERAL COUNCILS were held.
3 The council of Ephesus condemned the teachings of Nestorius who argued that the VIRGIN MARY cannot be called THEOTOKOS which is the core of the DOCTRINE of the INCARNATION.

С.Г. [(4) 21]




Ал.Д. [6]




В.Л. [14]


2nd year of study: Autumn 2019

1) First CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES were scattered by THE PERSECUTIONS.
2) The priest reads the Gospel at THE AMBO - a part of THE SOLEA where deacons RECITE LITANIES.
3) He explained that this divine fragrance comes from the INCENSE which burns in a CENSER by means of a PIECE OF BURNING CHARCOAL at the bottom.

Д.Ж. [(4) 85]


1) After a baby is BAPTISED and immersed three times in the holy water in the FONT it is dried with a towel and dressed in the BAPTISMAL ROBE.
2) People who were already baptised may become Orthodox via CONFESSION and CHRISMATION.
3) Usually a boy has a GODFATHER and a girl has a GODMOTHER, but there is no need for anyone to have both.

1) During the preparation wine and water are mixed in the CHALICE, it will be given later to COMMUNICANTS. 2) THE SPOON with which the people are given COMMUNION is placed on the TABLE OF OBLATION. 3) THE SPEAR which symbolizes the spear which pierced Christ’s side is used to remove parts from the ALTAR LOAVES and is placed alongside the spoon.

Д.Н. [(8) 98]


1. Each LOCAL BODY prepares an annual action plan to include the works to be undertaken under the scheme.
2. The repertoire includes traditional chants and much four-part harmony, written by composers within the ORTHODOX TRADITIONS.
3. For decades they had SUFFERED PERSECUTIONS, discrimination, ethnic cleansing and denial of their national identity.

1. The Christian holy DAY OF PENTECOST, which is celebrated fifty days after Easter Sunday, commemorates THE DESCENT OF THE HOLY SPIRIT UPON THE APOSTLES and other followers of Jesus Christ while they were in Jerusalem celebrating the Feast of Weeks, as described in the Acts of the Apostles.
2. He was brought to a knowledge of the gospel through the instrumentality of Paul, and held a prominent place in the CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY for his piety and beneficence.
3. He had to show that he had a well-founded fear of PERSECUTION on religious or political grounds to qualify as a refugee.

1. Some believes are irreconcilable with the Church's DOCTRINE of salvation.
2. The race of mankind would PERISH did they cease to aid each other.
3. Man is a hopeless enigma to himself, until he sees himself in the light of being a human with HUMAN FAILINGS.

В.Л. [(4,5) 61]


1) SACRAMENTS are important part of church, they keep Orthodox people in COMMUNION with Christ.
2) As there was a crowd of people in the church, some of them had to stay in the NARTHEX or even outside the church.
3) A SERVER has to load a CHARCOAL into a CENSER to prepare it.

1) Nobody excluding a priest can touch THE HOLY TABLE and THE TABLE OF OBLATION.
2) In Orthodox tradition women aren`t allowed to enter THE SANCTUARY.
3) Only priest or DEACON can enter THE HOLY DOORS.

1) We should VENERATE icons but not to WORSHIP them, they should be treated with REVERENCE.
2) An ICONOGRAPHER shouldn`t paint an Icon without a FERVENT prayer.
3) A priest may be ORDAINED during a liturgy, but not at VESPERS.

1) One of the servers always lights a SEVEN-BRANCHED CANDLESTICK before the priest starts THE SERVICE OF PREPARATION.
2) Some icons have RELICS fixed on them.
3) We can COMMEMORATE the dead not only at a memorial service but also at home during our mourning on evening prayer.

1) When CONSECRATION OF THE GIFTS goes on the Bread and Vine are turning into THE PRECIOUS BODY AND THE PRECIOUS BLOOD OF CHRIST.
2) PARTAKING IN THE MYSTERY of communion THE COMMUNICANT receives God`s grace.
3) THE LAMB is being cut with THE SPEAR by a priest.


1) THE DISCIPLES were chosen by Christ to spread his DOCTRINE all over the world.
2) If a somebody wants to take to Communion they should come to church before THE CHOIR starts to sing THE CHERUBIC HYMN.
3) According to the words of Met. Kallistos, if you were baptized in the name of THE LIVE-GIVING TRINITY and with use of water, you`ve got the true baptism.

1) There are three entrances when servers should go during the liturgy: THE LITTLE ENTRANCE, THE EPISTLE AND GOSPEL and THE GREAT ENTRANCE.
2) Before receiving the Communion a person should prepare and go to CONFESSION.
3) The sacrament of the MARRIAGE is ministered by God and no human can cancel it.

1) When it`s time for a baby to be baptized its GODFATHER or GODMOTHER has to RENOUNCE THE EVIL ONE AND TURN TO CHRIST on behalf of the baby.
2) After the service everybody kisses the PRIEST’S HAND CROSS.
3) My BAPTISMAL ROBE and CROSS OF THE NEWLY BAPTISED are still kept by my parents.

Ал.Д. [(22,5) 36]


1) The heads of four ancient Patriarchates - CONSTANTINOPLE, ALEXANDRIA, ANTIOCH and JERUSALEM - BEAR THE TITLE “PATRIARCH”.
2) When we MAKE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS we do a GESTURE OF BLESSING and it means that we are BEING ONE WITH CHRIST.
3) The cross has become A SYMBOL OF LIFE through Christ’s DEATH ON THE CROSS and RESURRECTION.

Д.Ж. [(5,5) 64]


1. POPULAR DEVOTION is a powerful and authentic expression of the prayer life of the Church. 2. The fourth book explains the DIVINITY of the Scriptures, and deduces rules for their interpretation.
3. THE DOCTRINE OF TRINITY is considered to be one of the central Christian affirmations about God.
4. Godparent, formally sponsor, masculine GODFATHER, feminine GODMOTHER, in Christianity, one who stands surety for another in the rite of BAPTISM.

1. As God is the Saviour, and the chief end of the revelation is REDEMPTION, it is fitting that the miracles should be acts of divine deliverance from physical evil.
2. Christ as the second of the Triune God possessed THE DIVINE GLORY from eternity past.
3. The INCARNATION of the Son of God was the beginning of the new covenant, and the first stage of the divine victory over the weak human body.

1. Precious woods burned in the ritual bowl, filling the temple with a pleasant FRAGRANCE.
2. There was also a suggestion to DEDICATE an entire session for an in-depth consideration of the means of implementation.
3. The ICONOSTASIS of the new Uspensky temple has been taken from Pokrovsky annex of the church of the Martyrs; the icons from the archbishop's cross church were also transferred there.

1. There was a remarkable UNANIMITY of spirit and commitment that many today remember with fondness, despite the many hardships we endured.
2. The COUNCIL consisted of 4 people, its members were elected by open vote at the parish meeting and participated in solving current issues of parish life.
3. The first GENTILE CONVERT was the Ethiopian eunuch.

В.Л. [(6,5) 38,25]


1) Many HERESIES were dismissed during the formulation of THE DOCTRINE OF THE INCARNATION. 2) For example, MONOPHYSITISM and MONOTHELITISM which tried to make Christ not fully man or ARIANISM which made Christ less than God. 3) Fortunately, they all were wiped out and up to the present time we recognize Christ in the fullness of His HUMANITY and DIVINITY.

1) The greatest THEOLOGIANS of the fourth century significantly influenced the formation of TRINITARIAN DOCTRINE. 2) For example, Saint Athanasius of Alexandria highlighted the CONSUBSTANTIALITY of THE HOLY TRINITY. 3) And the three CAPPADOCIAN Fathers emphasized God's THREENESS while maintaining a subtle balance between ONENESS and threeness of God.

Д.Н. [(8,5) 71,75]


1. Three years ago I became the GODMOTHER of my younger sister.
2. I RENOUNCED THE EVIL ONE AND TURNED TO CHRIST on her behalf.
3. After the PRAYERS OF NAME-GIVING the priest took her and TONSURED, then IMMERSED HER THREE TIMES in the FONT, CHRISMATED and after that he put a BAPTISMAL CROSS on her.
4. VLADIKO came to our church on PATRONAL FESTIVAL, the HOLY DOORS were opened during the liturgy and there were a lot of COMMUNICANTS.
5. When I go on a journey I always TAKE THE BLESSING of my priest and ask him to give me a PARTING WORD.

Е.Т. [(7) 55]


1. If the baby is in mortal danger and the BAPTISM has to be short, the PRAYERS OF NAME-GIVING can be left out.
2. In Orthodoxy, you can only have one godparent: a girl should have a GODMOTHER and a boy should have a GODFATHER.
3. By tradition, the BAPTISMAL BOX should be bought by the child's mother.

С.З. [(2) 64]


1) Most of COMMUNICANTS have stayed for the SERMON.
2) The episode of Christ’s BAPTISM was the first moment when GOD’S THREENESS was revealed before a human.
3) Many saints led an AUSTERE way of life.

1) It is said that St. Augustine was consecrated as Archbishop either by Archbishop Etherius of Arles or by his SUCCESSOR St. Virgilius of Arles.
2) One of the most debatable points of the New Testament is THE FULLNESS OF CHRIST’S MANHOOD and his HUMANITY and DIVINITY.
3) St. John the Baptist simply IMMERSED people and let them confess their sins, which wasn’t the baptism we know these days.

Е.Ш. [(4,5) 59]


1) During my BAPTISM and CHRISMATION I was dressed in the BAPTISMAL ROBE which my GODMOTHER presented to me.
2) I saw a photo where the priest IMMERSED me in the FONT with the blessed water.
3) During Chrismation the priest ANOINTED my forehead, eyes, nostrils, lips, ears, breast, hands and feet WITH OIL using the BRUSH.

Д.Ж. [(4) 58,5]


1 In Christianity the Holy Spirit is believed to be present in SACRED ACTS, TRANSFIGURING the material world.
2 When I was a child I received BAPTISM and CHRISMATION in our church.
3 Every Sunday I go to CONFESSION and after that I receive COMMUNION.
4 Every year I PARTAKE in one more MYSTERY and receive ANOINTING WITH OIL during HOLY WEEK.
5 Such Evangelists as MATTHEW, MARK and LUKE write how Communion was established by Christ in the UPPER ROOM with his DISCIPLES.

1 At the Christmas Eve service there are many COMMUNICANTS in our church.
2 After the GREAT ENTRANCE the CHOIR and the people present in church sing the CREED and then the 'OUR FATHER'.
3 During the PROSKOMIDIA one part of the LAMB is divided between the CLERGY.
4 It is usual to deliver a SERMON at the end of the service.
5 After the LITTLE ENTRANCE the priest or deacon reads a section from one of the letters or BOOK OF ACTS OF THE APOSTLES.

1 I was baptised as a baby and my GODMOTHER and GODFATHER answered for me when I was asked to RENOUNCE EVIL and TURN TO CHRIST. 2 After the water in the FONT was blessed, I was ANOINTED WITH OIL and IMMERSED three times in the water. 3 Then I was dressed in the BAPTISMAL ROBE and a cross was put around my neck.
4 During Chrismation the CHRISM is used to anoint different parts of the body which is regarded as a personal sacramental PENTECOST.
5 The Priest uses the BAPTISMAL BOX that among other items contains scissors with which a small tuft of hair is cut as a SIGN OF DEDICATION TO GOD.

С.Г. [(19,5) 103]


1. JOHN, called the "golden-mouth" (CHRYSOSTOM), was known for eloquence as a preacher and rhetorician.
2. Father`s friend is my GODFATHER and father`s relative is my GODMOTHER.
3. Ukrainian AUTOCEPHALOUS Orthodox CHURCH Canonical is an independent Orthodox Church.
4. At BAPTISM the priest three times IMMERSES the child in water and says the PRAYER OF NAME-GIVING.
5. The BAPTISMAL white ROBE symbolizes the grace and purity of the newly washed soul.

А.Д. [(2,5) 79]


1) My parents chose my father's friend to be my brother's GODFATHER and he agreed and gave him a beautiful BAPTISMAL BOX. 2) There was the BAPTISMAL CROSS, the BAPTISMAL ROBE and other needed things. 3) My mother was in a pleasant excitement when the priest IMMERSED my brother in the FONT and even more during CHRISMATION. 4) Because this sacrament is very important, it is called our PERSONAL SACRAMENTAL PENTECOST, "THE SEAL OF THE GIFT OF THE HOLY SPIRIT". 5)Then there was a hair-TONSURING - the tradition of dedication the NEWLY BAPTISED to the will of God.

А.Ж. [(6,5) 78]


1. BAPTISM and CHRISMATION are the firsts SACRAMENTS in people’s lives.
2. There is a CANON to have only one godparent, either a GODFATHER or a GODMOTHER, according to the baptised person’s sex. But only in Serbia people are not allowed to have two godparents and others are permitted to have both.
3. There are some occasions when a person or a baby can't be BAPTISED in the church by priest, in this case any person can baptise by IMMERSING a person three times in the water and saying special formula of baptism. It means that a baby can be baptised even in a bath, not in a FONT necessarily, but then they have to be chrismated.
4. Baptism is also a very beautiful mystery with IMMERSING in the water, dressing in the BAPTISMAL ROBE, putting the CROSS on the baptised, ANOINTING with the CHRISM, TONSURING HAIR.

В.П. [(5) 82]


1. Almost every Orthodox Christian has been a COMMUNICANT at one point or the other.
2. THE ANTIPHONS are sung by two choirs taking turns during singing.
3. In most churches, ANTIDORON is given to those people who have been present but haven't received COMMUNION.

С.З. [(2) 45,5]


1. The REVELATION of JOHN the Evangelist is the last book of The New Testament in the Bible.
2. The Lord has shown us the way to ATTAIN full SALVATION and enter into the Heavenly Kingdom. Firstly we have to ACHIEVE UNION WITH GOD.
3. Christ is CONSUBSTANTIAL with the Father.
4. Apostle PAUL was a preacher of PAGANISM before the appearance of Christ to him.
5. In Christianity, THE INCARNATION is the belief that Jesus Christ is the second person of the TRINITY.

А.Д. [(3) 61,75]


1) JOHN CHRYSOSTOM is the Archbishop of Constantinople, a THEOLOGIAN, in a number of Christian churches is revered as a Saint. 2) He led a strict and ASCETIC LIFE and always felt compassion for the poor and had a BURNING ZEAL FOR SOCIAL RIGHTEOUSNESS. 3) But once the FLUENT AND ELOQUENT PREACHER was drawn into а conflict with the Imperial court. In March 404, a Council decided to expel John Chrysostom.

А.Ж. [(3,5) 56,25]


The VISIBLE ORGANISATION OF THE CHURCH is a human organization that supports Christians in their varied expressions of belief, trust, in Christ.
It is easy enough to find modern THEOLOGIANS whose work exhibits this same tendency of thought.
Discovering the Mystery of THE UNITY OF GOD provides an eye-opening exploration of the triune nature of God from the pages of the Old and New Covenants.
TRINITARIAN DOCTRINE touches on virtually every aspect of Christian faith, theology, and piety.
He became A FLUENT AND ELOQUENT PREACHER for the Methodist cause and his SERMONS must often have lasted for an hour or more.

В.Л. [(3) 31,75]


1. THE COMMUNICANT came up to the CHALICE, said his name and later the server WIPED his mouth with a CLOTH.
2. There is THE LITTLE ENTRANCE before THE EPISTLE and GOSPEL, then THE GREAT ENTRANCE follows THE CHERUBIC HYMN and then goes the most important part of the Liturgy, the Eucharistic canon, during which people are kneeling and praying fervently, and the priest is reading special prayers for the Carnification.
3. After THE COMMUNION there is a special grace and gladness reigns in the church, people congratulate each other, take ANTIDORON, communicants listen to THE THANKSGIVING prayers.

В.П. [(5) 52,75]


1) Last week I made a PILGRIMAGE to the Saint Sergius' Trinity Lavra, VENERATED the Holy RELICS of Saint Sergius of Radonezh and wrote notes FOR THE DEPARTED and FOR THE LIVING.
2) Constantine, the son of my PATRON Saint Queen Helena, was the first Roman Emperor who ACCEPTED THE CHRISTIAN FAITH.
3) Everyone who reads the life of St. Elizabeth will FACE A LIVING EXAMPLE of HOLINESS, PIETY and virtue. All her life she PREACHED CHRIST, and was FAITHFUL TO HIM TO THE END. She UNDERWENT MARTYRDOM OF BLOOD. COMMEMORATION of Holy Grand Duchess Elizabeth is on July 5.

Е.Т. [(7) 33,75]


1) *once at the examination*
-In what year did Constantine SUMMON THE FIRST GENERAL OR ECUMENICAL COUNCIL OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH AT NICAEA?
- It was in the year 325.
2) Well, the next question. What thing did EUSEBIUS, BISHOP OF CAESAREA express about the Emperor?
- Actually, I don't remember such details.
3) -It's bad for you, actually. But I'll give you a chance. Please, name 3 events, which mark the Church’s coming of age.
- These are THE EDICT OF MILAN, the foundation of Constantinople, and the COUNCIL OF NICAEA.
- Right.


А.Ж. [(3) 52,75]


1) THE CENTRAL MESSAGE OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH is the message of REDEMPTION, of breaking the wall between man and God, which was created by man's SINFULNESS. 2) THE INCARNATION of Christ is that very thing which breaks this wall, because only Christ who is both FULLY MAN and FULLY GOD can save people and help them to ATTAIN SALVATION. 3) However, it took a long time to formulate this doctrine and put aside all HERESIES which tried to diminish either THE MANHOOD or THE GODHEAD of Christ.

Д.Н. [(6) 63,25]


1) THE OFFICIAL TOLERATION OF CHRISTIAN FAITH was the first step in consolidation of Christianity and was proclaimed in THE EDICT OF MILAN in 313 by Emperor Licinius. 2) The next great step came in 330 with the inauguration of a new capital of Roman Empire - Constantinople, where all PAGAN RITES were officially banned by Emperor Constantine. 3) Then, during many ages between the first and the last General Council were clarified the positions of five great PATRIARCHATES and, to prevent men from DEVIATING INTO ERROR AND HERESY, were defined the most vital doctrines of the Christian faith - THE TRINITY and THE INCARNATION.

Д.Н. [(4,5) 57,25]


1. Medieval alchemists were searching for a way to TRANSFIGURE lead into gold.
2. No one except the priest is allowed to go through THE GREAT ENTRANCE.
3. In medieval Europe, the family's seamstress would usually work in THE UPPER ROOM, often at the expense of her eyesight.

С.З. [(1) 43,5]


1. The EPISTLES OF JAMES, JUDAS, two EPISTLES OF PETER and three EPISTLES OF JOHN are called conciliar Epistles because they are addressed not to specific communities and people, but to a wide circle of Christians.
2. The CONGREGATION sang hymns and spirituals near the SANCTUARY.
3. Dedicated DISCIPLES wrote down everything the prophet said.

А.Д. [(3,5) 58,75]


1) All COMMUNICANTS LINE UP and the priest gives COMMUNION to each person and then WIPES their mouth with a cloth.
2) During THE GREAT ENTRANCE the CHOIR sings the TRICE HOLY HYMN to the LIFE-GIVING TRINITY.
3) Every LITURGY begins with a LITANY and continues with THE LITTLE ENTRANCE.

Д.Ж. [(4,5) 54,5]


1) The church is divided into three parts: THE NARTHEX, THE NAVE and THE ALTAR or SANCTUARY.
2) In front of the ICON OF MOTHER OF GOD I LIT a CANDLE and started to pray.
3) Church buildings have different styles like BASILICA, CROSS and CIRCLE or OCTAGON.

Д.Ж. [(3) 50]


1) If you look at the THREE-BAR-CROSS you will see 3 bars where we can find the inscription “INRI” (which means JESUS OF NAZARETH, KING OF THE JEWS), CROSS PIECE and the FOOT REST.
2) I didn’t actually know that MAKING THE SIGN OF THE CROSS is a way of praying with the body.
3) Often you can see a SKULL that is placed at the foot of the Jesus which means that He TRAMPLED DOWN DEATH BY DEATH.

Д.Ж. [(2,5) 47]


1) In our house we have an ICON CORNER with icons surrounded by a DECORATIVE TOWEL where we GATHER for prayer.
2) It’s really important to remember that icons are MEDIUMS OF PRAYER and we should VENERATE them and not to WORSHIP.
3) In a TRYPTICH ICON you can find three holy persons DEPICTED.

Д.Ж. [(3,5) 44,5]


1) All Christians TAKE PART IN THE MYSTERIES or SACRAMENTS like BAPTISM, CHRISMATION, COMMUNION and CONFESSION.
2) During the HOLY WEEK we PARTAKE in the mysteries.
3) In every church you can buy PROSPHORAS at the CANDLE DESK and bring them to the SANCTUARY.
4) The high point of the Liturgy is the GOSPEL READING.

Д.Ж. [(5,5) 41]


1) The newly BAPTIZED wear their white clothes and do not wash their parts anointed during a CHRISMATION for a period of time.
2) EDICT OF MILAN is a proclamation that permanently established religious TOLERATION FOR CHRISTIANITY within the Roman Empire.
3) In the first century there were a few ECUMENICAL COUNCILS aimed at preventing Christians from DEVIATING INTO ERROR AND HERESY.

Е.Ш. [(2,5) 39]


1. Many martyrs were executed by STONING during the PERSECUTION.
2. There were many PRESBYTERS CELEBRATING THE EUCHARIST in our church at THE FEAST OF PENTECOST.
3. She decided to receive THE EUCHARIST on her deathbed.

В.П. [(3) 47,75]


1. Leaving home, people should MAKE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS, asking God to BLESS our THOUGHTS AND DEEDS.
2. THE GESTURE OF THE SIGN OF THE CROSS symbolises the Holy TRINITY — the FATHER, the SON AND THE HOLY SPIRIT and the two natures of the Christ — HUMAN AND DIVINE.
3. There are some days, especially during the Lent, when with the sigh of the cross people also should BOW AND TOUCH THE GROUND.
4. THE SEPTUAGINT is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament.
5. Through THE SACRAMENTS people can receive an IMMORTALITY for theirs souls and an eternal life in Paradise.

В.П. [(4,5) 44,75]


1. The church was filled with A SPIRITUAL FRAGRANCE because the DEACON was going through the church and CENSING it and the SERVER put A FEW GRAINS OF INCENSE to keep it burning and PERFUMING SMOKE INTO THE AIR.
2. The deacon RECITES LITANIES standing on THE SOLEA, to be exact, on THE AMBO, in front of THE ICONOSTASIS.
3. The archbishop was sitting on THE BISOP’S THRONE in front of THE HOLY TABLE.

В.П. [(6) 40,25]


1. THE VULGATE is Latin translation of the Bible, which was written in about the fourth century.
2. THE MONASTIC LIFE is a great feat and the idea of THE ASCETIC LIFE had a central place in it.
3. THE SPIRITUAL OUTLOOK OF THE EARLY CHRISTIANS was reflected mostly in THE IDEA OF MARTYRDOM because of THE PERSECUTIONS.

В.П. [(2,5) 34,25]


1. The icon has A RELIC OF A SAINT.
2. The deacon raises CHALICE and DISCOS with THE LOAF for communion.
3. During THE SERVICE OF PREPARATION the priest takes pieces from THE LOAVES FOR THE LIVING and IN MEMORY OF THE DEPARTED.

В.П. [(3,5) 31,75]


1. Usually Christians RECEIVE ANOINTING WITH OIL, which is A SACRAMENT OF HEALING, during Lent every year.
2. Apostle Paul said that those who don’t PARTAKE IN THE MYSTERY OF COMMUNION more than three weeks without any reasons, renounces God.
3. THE PROSKOMIDIA is performed AT THE TABLE OF OBLATION.

В.П. [(1,5) 28,25]


1. THE VULGATE is an essential part of the Catholic CHRISTIAN WORSHIP.
2. The SACRAMENTAL LIFE of the monks from Mount Athos can teach us a lot about PENANCE and REPENTANCE.
3. ABEL was the first person TO UNDERGO MARTYRDOM OF BLOOD.

1. PAGAN RITES were widely practiced in the Roman Empire at the time of the EDICT OF MILAN.
2. MATTHEW 28:19 is one of the first passages mentioning the nature of the TRINITY.
3. During the reign of Emperor NERO there was no OFFICIAL TOLERATION OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH.

С.З. [(6) 42,5]


1) The mixture of bread, WINE and WATER is administered to people with the SPOON during communion.
2) The Deacon holds the DISKOS above the holy CHALICE and recites hymns of the Resurrection.
3) The priest takes THE FIRST LOAF and blesses it three times, making the sign of the cross over it with the SPEAR and than REMOVES A PARTICLE (THE LAMB).

Д.Ж. [(3,5) 35,5]


1. We have a very active and energetic person in our DIOCESE who conducts MISSIONARY WORK in all its parishes.
2. I really like to read THE PHILOKALIA which is "a collection of texts written between the 4th and 15th centuries by spiritual masters" because it teaches me and brings peace to my suffering heart.
3. I believe that the GRACE given to me through the SACRAMENTS will help me lead a good life in this world and help save me for the KINGDOM of HEAVEN.
4. The Church of Russia DECLARED INDEPENDENCE from the Church of Constantinople in 1448 and in 1589 styled its PRIMATE as patriarch.
5. As we all know the EASTERN ORTHODOX THEOLOGY is based on the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed (known simply as the NICENE CREED).

Е.Т. [(4) 26,75]


1 PAGAN RITES, I guess, used to be normal before the baptism of the Kievan Rus.
2 THE GATHERING of philologists of our university happens rarely.
3 Is is always announced when A RELIC OF A SAINT arrives to the local church of my town.
4 It is now hard to imagine, but there were times when PAGANISM was a common thing among Slavic people.
5 An example of THE OFFICIAL TOLERATION OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH was EDICT OF MILAN.

К.Ж. [(2,5) 34]


1 In the sanctuary there is the holy table, which one can see through the holy doors, and on which some important items are kept, such as the GOSPEL BOOK, the CROSS, a SEVEN-BRANCHED CANDLESTICK, the TABERNACLE and the ANTIMINS.
2 Nowadays the ANTIMENSION shows the BURIAL OF CHRIST but it used to show only a cross.
3 To the left of the holy table there is the table of oblation where the PROSKOMIDIA takes place, during which the priest takes PARTICLES from five ALTAR LOAVES and puts them into the CHALICE.

С.Г. [(6) 63,5]


1. The narratives of the earthly Ministry of Jesus Christ exist in the form of four canonical books: the Gospels of the evangelists MATTHEW, MARK, LUKE, and JOHN.
2. THE BURIAL OF Jesus CHRIST refers to the burial of the body of Jesus after crucifixion, described in THE NEW TESTAMENT.
3. On the Holy Table there are several sacred objects: THE ANTIMINS, The Gospel, THE SEVEN-BRANCHED CANDLESTICK, THE TABERNACLE.
4. DISKOS is a round dish with a wide bottom and on a stand, on which lie the Holy LAMB and the particles taken out of the ALTAR LOAVES.

А.Ж. [(6) 49,75]


1. 1 CORINTHIANS, 2 CORINTHIANS, GALATIANS, EPHESIANS and PHILIPPIANS were written by the Apostle Paul.
2. The author of THE ACTS is according to tradition the Apostle LUKE.
3. There are 5 LOAVES on THE TABLE OF OFFERING: THE FIRST, THE SECOND, THE THIRD, THE FOURTH, THE FIFTH. Next to the loaves there is a SPEAR that helps to REMOVE PARTICLES from loaves in THE SERVICE OF PREPARATION.
4. Coming to the temple, people can write notes FOR THE LIVING and FOR THE DEPARTED.
5. October the 29th is the day of Longinus the CENTURION, who PIERCED the ribs of the crucified Christ with a SPEAR.

А.Д. [(7) 55,25]


1) THE AMBO is a projection coming out from the SOLEAS and it is situated directly in front of the Holy Doors.
2) Due to the hospitality of King Ethelbert to Saint Augustine, people of Canterbury and he himself were able to EMBRACE THE CHRISTIAN FAITH.
3) Saint Augustine was also instrumental in founding many SEES and convents and one of them WAS DEDICATED TO him.

1) Often a church which is named after a saint enshrines THE RELICS of that saint.
2) Previously mentioned King Ethelbert was originally a PAGAN but didn’t PERSECUTE Christians as his wife was one of them.
3) REDEMPTION and purification of the soul from SINFULNESS lead to THE SALVATION OF A MAN.

Е.Ш. [(4) 36,5]


1) Early Christians preached to Jews as well as to GENTILES and for that they were SUFFERING PERSECUTIONS from the non-Christian Empire, which determined their SPIRITUAL OUTLOOK.
2) One doesn’t have to sacrifice his life to become a martyr, for example, one may undergo green martyrdom via FASTING and through suffering toil in PENANCE and REPENTANCE.
3) There are pieces of CHARCOAL and a GUM perfumed with a FRAGRANCE of different plants and trees used in the CENSER to create a sweet smoke during the liturgy.

Д.Н. [(5) 52,75]


1. DEUTEROCANONICAL books are a number of books of the Old Testament, they were included in the SEPTUAGINT.
2. Saint ELIJAH lived in the wilderness, spending his time in fasting, prayer, and piety.
3. JUDAS ISCARIOT is generally remembered for one thing: his betrayal of Jesus.
4. The name ELISHA in Hebrew language means "SALVATION".
5. The APOCRYPHA of the New and Old Testaments are forbidden to be read in the Church.

А.Д. [(3,5) 48,25]


1 USSR was a state FOUNDED UPON BLOOD, also the Orthodox people were SUFFERED PERSECUTIONS in it.
2 Only few of us would have enough power and will to led THE ASCETIC LIFE.
3 It is normal for a child to receive instruction from both teachers and parents.
4 Some of my friends have no toleration TOWARDS homosexuals.
5 We would be considered atheists in THE SPIRITUAL OUTLOOK OF THE EARLY CHRISTIANS.

К.Ж. [(1,5) 23,5]


1 Early Christians saw their Church as FOUNDED UPON BLOOD as before the Church became ESTABLISHED Christians had been SUFFERING PERSECUTION.
2 I have read about many Christian saints who ABANDONED EVERYTHING they loved FOR GOD'S SAKE and even UNDERWENT MARTYRDOM OF BLOOD.
3 A COUNCIL has an important place in the life of the Church; in a council Christians discuss their common problems and achieve a COMMON MIND.

С.Г. [(3,5) 57,5]


1. The north and south doors of the ICONOSTASIS were lit SOLELY by sunlight and candlelight. 2. The local priest SWUNG the censer. 3. The GUM inside it exuded a faint fragrance that gave peace. 4. Very soon the priest RECITED THE LITANY. 5. My little sister was waiting impatiently for us to go home. She likes to be at VESPERS much more.

А.Ж. [(3,5) 43,75]


1) THE COUNCIL OF JERUSALEM, or, in other words, the APOSTOLIC COUNCIL took place around 49 AD and was the only one claiming to speak in the name of the whole Christian Church. 2) Other LOCAL COUNCILS were held around the Empire, but there was not such a crucial council as THE COUNCIL OF NICAEA, which is considered the first Ecumenical council in the history of Christianity. 3) It was gathered by Emperor Constantine — the first Roman Emperor to EMBRACE THE CHRISTIAN FAITH; many vital questions were solved there and a COMMON MIND about them was reached, which was essential for achieving of UNANIMITY among all Christians.

Д.Н. [(4,5) 47,75]


1) The TABLE OF OBLATION is located behind the ICONOSTASIS.
2) According to one tradition the Holy HIERARCH David of Wales when he was young was CONSECRATED Bishop by the Patriarch of Jerusalem.
3) A CENSER is a vessel made for burning INCENSE or PERFUME in some solid form.

Е.Ш. [(3) 32,5]


1. In the ancient times, CENSERS had a handle that the priest held onto during CENSING instead of chains.
2. In some Greek churches, the SOLEA extends really far into the nave.
3. No GENTILE has ever been to the HOLY OF HOLIES in the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.

С.З. [(2,5) 36,5]


1. INCENSE is an aromatic GUM. In the temple, the CHARCOAL for the CENSER is kindled under the hood.
2. In the Altar there is a HOLY TABLE, a TABLE OF OBLATION and a BISHOP`S THRONE.
3. At Easter, one prayer is said for the CONSECRATION of SOLELY Easter food, the other is said for the CONSECRATION of meat, cheese and eggs.
4. The first WORSHIP of the daily circle is VESPERS. It is DEDICATED to the events of the Lord's earthly life.

А.Д. [(5) 44,75]


1 There is a CHAPEL in the territory of our University, but it is not possible to CELEBRATE THE LITURGY there.
2 According to the ORTHODOX TRADITION, when Easter comes, people say – “CHRIST IS RISEN”, and the answer must be – “Truly risen”.
3 In the modern history of Russia, there can be seen THE TRADITIONAL ALLIANCE BETWEEN STATE AND THE CHURCH.
4 When was I child, I was eager to know what was burning in an INCENSE and I was pretty amused to know that it was a CHARCOAL.
5 There was no TOLERATION towards Orthodox people during the USSR period, nothing but THE PERSECUTIONS.

К.Ж. [(2) 22]


1 Before the LITURGY, and at certain points in all major SERVICES my father CENSES the church.
2 Right before my father censes the church, a SERVER gives him a CENSER; in the bottom of the censer there is a piece of burning CHARCOAL and on top of this a few grains of INCENSE are placed.
3 The SANCTUARY is the most holy part of the church and represents the KINGDOM, where the THRONE OF GOD is.
4 The sanctuary is separated from the NAVE by ICONOSTASIS before which one can see the SOLEA and the AMBO from which deacons recite LITANIES.
5 In the sanctuary there are the HOLY TABLE, the TABLE OF OBLATION on which the HOLY GIFTS are prepared for the Liturgy, and the BISHOP'S THRONE.

С.Г. [(9,5) 54]


1) CAIN and ABEL are the first two sons of Adam and Eve.
2) God told Moses to refer to Him as the God of ABRAHAM, ISAAC and JACOB.
3) ELIJAH had the power of God and ELISHA had followed him for many years.
4) During the WORSHIP you could smell the FRAGRANCE of burning INCENSE.

Д.Ж. [(5) 32]


1. A CENSER is a metal vessel in which INCENSE is burned on burning CHARCOAL.
2. When the priest CENSES during the service, it is pleasant to me to smell PERFUMED FRAGNANCE of incense.
3. It is pleasant to observe when young SERVERS diligently serve during the CHRISTIAN WORSHIP.
4. The AMBO is an elevated ledge, semicircular and extended deep into the temple in the middle of the SOLEA.
5. The HOLY TABLE is used as the place of OFFERING in the celebration of the Eucharist.

А.Ж. [(5) 40,25]


1) The formation of the first CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY is described in The Acts of the Apostles, along with THE DESCENT OF THE HOLY SPIRIT ON THE APOSTLES, which happened during THE PENTECOST.
2) We must venerate the books of THE PENTATEUCH, because they have laid the foundation of THE TRADITION OF THE CHURCH, became pillars of THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH, and even foresaw the CHRIST’S CRUCIFIXION.
3) It is believed that ISAAC, who himself carried the wood for the fire when ABRAHAM was going to sacrifice him, symbolizes Jesus Christ, who himself TOOK UP HIS CROSS and went to Golgotha.

Д.Н. [(5) 43,25]


1. Many INDEPENDENT LOCAL CHURCHES around the world are in FULL SACRAMENTAL COMMUNION with one another, sharing much of the DOCTRINE.
2. The THREE-BAR CROSS serves as powerful symbol that represents THE ORTHODOX TRADITION in the contemporary world.
3. During an Orthodox PONTIFICAL LITURGY the priest MAKES THE SIGN OF THE CROSS over the altar during the opening blessing.

С.З. [(3,5) 34]


1. "WISDOM" is one of the books of the Old Testament in Orthodoxy and Catholicism.
2. It is among so-called Teaching books in "THE SEPTUAGINT".
3. "EPISTLE OF JEREMIAH" is another Old Testament Bible book in Orthodoxy.
4. In Catholicism it is the last sixth Chapter of "BARUCH".

А.Ж. [(3) 35,25]


1. The SKULL on ICONS (usually under the Crucifixion) means the dead head of Adam. The blood of Christ shed on the CROSS for men, on the bones and skull of Adam.
2. The cross is an integral element of all Christian celebration and acts of WORSHIP, including EASTER. It is a symbol of the victory of life over DEATH.
3. 1 ESDRAS is the book that was included in the SEPTUAGINT, in an appendix to the VULGATE.
4. The PENTATEUCH is the first five books of the BIBLE that were mostly written by Moses.
5. CAIN was cursed by God. Due to his envy he killed his brother ABEL.


А.Д. [(5) 39,75]


1) The word PATRIARCH occurs in THE SEPTUAGINT for the chiefs of the tribes, and in the New Testament it is applied to ABRAHAM as a version of his title "father of many nations".
2) St. Augustine UNDERTOOK MISSIONARY WORK of evangelizing British Isles in the sixth century.
3) In its historical sense, the term CHRISTENDOM usually refers to the Middle Ages during which the Christian world represented a geopolitical power that was opposed to both the pagan and the Muslim world.
4) According to Christian tradition, the period from Jesus's death, RESURRECTION, and the Great Commission is distinguished as the APOSTOLIC TIMES.

Е.Ш. [(3,5) 29,5]


1) The image of the crucified Lord on THE THREE-BAR CROSS reminds us that Christ died for us, and that He rose from the dead giving us Salvation.
2) A human ENTITY is the whole human being with a body and a soul, thus it has not only physical but also spiritual needs.
3) HUMAN FAILINGS are inevitable for people with their corrupted nature.
4) FULL SACRAMENTAL COMMUNION is one of goals for which we pray and strive.

Е.Ш. [(2) 26]


1 Today's DOCTRINE differs greatly from what was counted to be a doctrine of the first century church, because some of the opinions of that old church are now counted to be false.
2 Karl Barth was the man who criticized the concept of NATIONAL CHURCH for nationalizing Christian God.
3 William James once said that the biggest HUMAN FAILING is the lack of faith in ourselves.
4 Each national church considers their church to be THE CHURCH OF CHRIST ON EARTH.
5 Although my father now fully belongs to THE ORTHODOX COMMUNION, he used to be a Catholic in the past.

К.Ж. [(2,5) 20]


1.From the course on exegesis of the Old Testament, I really liked the lessons about ABRAHAM and his life.
2.When people try to be better, love each other and follow the commandments it is a SIGN of their commitment to seek God WITH their WHOLE BEING.
3. This Easter everyone was very happy while singing together: "Christ is risen from the dead, TRAMPLING DOWN DEATH BY DEATH, And upon those in the tombs Bestowing life!"

А.Ж. [(2) 32,25]


There is lack of will in all Orthodox Christians TO UNDERTAKE MISSIONARY WORK, like it was (the will) in SAINT METHODIUS, THE APOSTLES OF THE SLAVS.
In THE PRESENT FRAGMENTATION OF CHRISTENDOM, different types of churches can be named, MONOPHYSITE, SELF-GOVERNING and other kinds.
Most people who take part in student’s Council, have NOMINAL rather than ACTIVE MEMBERSHIP.

К.Ж. [(2,5) 17,5]


1. People usually MAKE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS before venerating an icon.
2. After the sermon people came to the priest to kiss that small THREE-BAR CROSS.
3. Venerating the THREE-BAR CROSS people honour Christ’s death and His RESURRECTION.

В.П. [(1) 26,75]


The term «THE GREEK EAST and THE LATIN WEST» is used in scholarship to denote the Greko-Roman world, such separation played its role in forming CHRISTENDOM in the way we know nowadays.
Due to the lack of personal contact, even in the nineteenth century it was normal that THE PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE might have not known THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, and to meet each other, one of them had to travel through THE LEVANT, which significantly lowered the chances of their meeting.
Crimea is SELF-GOVERNING in most respects part of Russia, but still it (Crimea) is not independent, in this case, a term «AUTONOMOUS» is used.

К.Ж. [(3) 5,5]


1 In our church there is a THREE-BAR CROSS which is regarded by the Orthodoxy as the SIGN OF SALVATION and some people associate the three bars with the three persons of TRINITY.
2 To use in prayer the whole body and not the mind alone, we MAKE THE SIGH OF THE CROSS, as we believe that a human being, body and soul, is a single ENTITY.
3 Making the sigh of the cross we should remember that three fingers symbolise the THREE PERSONS OF THE TRINITY – FATHER, SON and HOLY SPIRIT, and two fingers symbolise the TWO NATURES OF CHRIST – HUMAN and DIVINE.

С.Г. [(4,5) 44,5]


1.The THREE-BAR CROSS is the symbol of ORTHODOXY. The CROSS reminds us of the torments and EXECUTIONS that the Lord endured for us.
2.The RESURRECTION of the Lord took place on the 3rd day after the CRUCIFIXION.
3. ABRAHAM had two important sons: Ishmael and ISAAC.

А.Д. [(2,5) 34,75]


1) Because of the historical division into THE GREEK EAST and THE LATIN WEST, CHRISTENDOM gradually lost its unity.
2) AUTOCEPHALOUS Orthodox churches mustn't be confused with AUTONOMOUS ones, because autonomous are not completely independent, while autocephalous are fully self-sufficient but held together by the bond of UNITY IN THE FAITH AND COMMUNION IN THE SACRAMENTS.
3) Variety of INDEPENDENT LOCAL CHURCHES, many of which are NATIONAL CHURCHES as well, helps to make the life of the Church more adaptable to different conditions.

Д.Н. [(4,5) 38,25]


1. One can find some MONOPHYSITE PARISHES on farther frontiers of CHRISTENDOM such as in North Africa.
2. SAINT CYRIL AND SAINT METHODIUS have created the Glagolitic script for UNDERTAKING MISSIONARY WORK, as tasked by the PATRIARCHATE OF CONSTANTINOPLE.
3. Icons placed in the ICON CORNER are often surrounded by a DECORATIVE TOWEL.

С.З. [(4) 30,5]


1. At our home we have an ICON CORNER.
2. My close friend has TRYPTICH ICONS in his car.
3. I didn't know about existence of the ORTHODOX CHURCH IN JAPAN.

А.Ж. [(1,5) 12]


1. We had an opportunity to come and VENERATE this miracle-working ICON last week.
2. This TRYPTICH ICON consists of the icons of Seraphim of Sarov , the Theotokos and saint Nicholas the Miracle-Worker.
3. THE FLAME OF OIL LAMP is shining bright in front of our family’s ICON CONER.

В.П. [(2) 8]


1. In ancient Russia the ICON CORNER was in every house.
2. The ICONOGRAPHER who depicted The Holy Trinity is called Andrey Rublev.
3. The LAMPS are always LIT at my home.

А.Д. [(1,5) 6,5]


1- Now the head of the ECUMENICAL PATRIARCHATE is the ARCHBISHOP of Constantinople, New Rome and Co-Head of State of MOUNT ATHOS, Bartholomew I.
2- VENERATION or veneration of saints is the act of honoring a saint usually by means of ICONS DEPICTING them.
3- The ICON CORNER is also known as red corner has the analogous concept in Western Christianity which names it the home altar. But in the West they don’t have any DECORATIVE TOWELS, only LIGHTED CANDLES are the same.

Е.Ш. [(3,5) 24]


In my house there is an ICON CORNER with a TRYPTICH ICON amongst others and LIT LAMPS where my family GATHERS FOR PRAYER.
In Orthodoxy there is a tradition of not WORSHIPPING but VENERATING icons which are always INSCRIBED with the name of the saint or event but do not usually show the ICONOGRAPHER's name and can be surrounded by a DECORATIVE TOWEL.
In the Orthodox Church there are such concepts as ETERNITY and INVISIBLE DIMENSION.

С.Г. [(5,5) 16,5]


1. Rarely the ICON SCREEN which divides the NAVE from the SANCTUARY can be rather low and have fewer LAMPS.
2. It can be difficult to orient oneself towards the ALTAR in a church that is built in the OCTAGON shape.
3. Some parts of CHRISTENDOM might believe some other Christian faithful to be CRYPTO-PAPISTS and APOSTATES, a rather controversial point of view.

С.З. [(4,5) 8,5]


My family and I go to the church in Moscow which belongs to the CHURCH OF ANTIOCH. The rector of this parish church is HIS HOLINESS METROPOLITAN Niphon of Filipopolis, the curate of HIS BEATITUDE PATRIARCH OF ANTIOCH THE GREAT AND THE ALL EAST.
There is a great mural in the NAVE of this church.
The CROSS-SHAPE CHURCH is the most common type of church in Russia.

В.П. [(2,5) 6]


1. BASILICA is a type of rectangular structure, which consists of an odd number of NAVES different in height.
2. When I come into THE CHURCH and go ahead I see THE ICON SCREEN.
3. Usually, when I KISS AN ICON I feel better and calmer.

А.Ж. [(2) 3,5]


1. When I come to the CHURCH I usually stand near the ALTAR. 2. When I am going to KISS an ICON, I often MAKE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS twice. 3. The PSALTER of the Holy PROPHET and king David is one of the sacred books of the OLD TESTAMENT.

А.Д. [(3) 5]


1) There were five Ancient Churches: CHURCH OF JERUSALEM, which was the first one to appear, CHURCH OF ANTIOCH, CHURCH OF ALEXANDRIA, ROMAN CHURCH, and, finally, CHURCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE.
2) Every Church had its PATRIARCH, but only Roman Church claimed its superiority among others and declared Pope a Head of all PENTARCHY.
3) After the GREAT SCHISM Roman Church became separated from the rest, but four other AUTOCEPHALOUS CHURCHES are recognized up to the present day by other Orthodox Churches.

Д.Н. [(5,5) 6,5]


The Orthodox church building consists of three parts: the NARTHEX, the NAVE where most of ORTHODOX CONGREGATIONS pray, and the ALTAR where the HOLY TABLE is.
Between the nave and the altar stands the ICON SCREEN and in the middle of it you can see the HOLY DOORS.
During the service you can LIGHT CANDLES which can be bought at the CANDLE DESK, and VENERATE different icons.

С.Г. [(6) 11]


(1) There are three doors in the ICON SCREEN which lead to the ALTAR.
(2) Standing before it you see the HOLY DOORS in the middle, The North door at the left hand and the South door at the right.
(3) Two latter doors are often called Deacons' Doors because the DEACONS use them frequently.

Е.Ш. [(1,5) 5,5]


When he heard of THE LEVANT he was confused because he didn’t know that it was a general name of the Eastern Mediterranean countries: Syria, Palestine and Lebanon if to be precise.
Orthodox Christians tend to think that MAKING THE SIGN OF THE CROSS is an easy thing, but not all people do even this thing in the right way.
You can find various kinds of candles and icons at the CANDLE DESK.

К.Ж. [(1,5) 2,5]


1) In my church the priest smokes with INCENSE in front of the ALTAR before the GREAT ENTRANCE.
2) Altar wardens often travel with BISHOP to help him with PREPARING FOR THE LITURGY.
3) CONFESSION is an important and responsible MYSTERY, without doing it no person can receive COMMUNION.

Ал.Д. [(3) 6]


1. During the SACRAMENT of ANOINTING WITH OIL, one of the things that THE PRIESTS must do is read THE EPISTLE AND GOSPEL.
2. The first appearance of the word DEACON in Christian literature seems to be either in PHILIPPIANS 1:1 or in 1 TIMOTHY 3:8.

С.З. [(4) 4]


1) Last year we read a book by Chekhov. The story was about an ARCHPRIEST.
2) We must learn the Titles of the Books of the Bible, namely from “GENESIS” to “2 CHRONICLES”.

Д.Ж. [(1,5) 27]


1. First of all, every REVEREND FATHER taught himself abstinence, vigil, prayer, labour, humility.
2. A person who can be ORDAINED PRIEST must be either a BISHOP, a PRIEST or a DEACON.

В.Л. [(0,5) 28,75]


1. There was a wonderful smell of INCENSE during the all-night vigil when the DEACON was censing the church. 2. ''VERY REVEREND FATHER’’ — said the PROTODEACON to the ARCHIMANDRITE during the Divine Liturgy. ''VLADIKO’’ — a man addressed the BISHOP and asked him for a blessing. 3. In 1921 at the age of 44 Valentine (saint Luka of Crimea) was ORDAINED A PRIEST.

В.П. [(3,5) 3,5]


1 A great deal of work has been done to analyse GENESIS.
2 HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA paid a visit to our university last year.
3 I know myself a HIEROMONK from Sretensky monastery in Moscow.

К.Ж. [(1) 1]


1) The Creation of the World is depicted in THE BOOK OF GENESIS, which is the first book of Torah.
2) INCENSE was used as one of eleven fragrances in the Solomon’s Temple.

Д.Н. [(1) 1]


You can ask VLADIKO if you don’t understand something about MYSTERIES but don’t bother him now, during the service.
Soon he’ll be ORDAINED so he’s rereading the books of the Bible. Now he’s covered the books of GENESIS, EXODUS AND LEVITICUS.
Is INCENSE used in ANOINTING WITH OIL? No, and you can understand it from the name of the mystery.

Е.Ш. [(4) 4]


1. A PROTODEACON has precedence when serving with other DEACONS.
2. The Book of GENESIS is the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament. It tells us about of the creation of the world and the origins of the Jewish people.
3. METROPOLITAN Anthony of Sourozh once said that death is the touchstone of our attitude to life and people who are afraid of death are afraid of life.

А.Д. [(2) 2]


1. CHRISMATION and ANOINTING WITH OIL are two of the seven SACRAMENTS Of the Orthodox Church, in which the grace of the Holy spirit invisibly descends on a person and acts in his body and soul.
2. INCENSE was given to the newborn Jesus Christ as a reminder of death.

А.Д. [(2) 2]


1. HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA is the author of several books and more than 500 publications.
2. СONFESSION is one of the sacraments, which is officially called the sacrament of REPENTANCE.

А.Ж. [(1,5) 1,5]


Father said: “BETROTHAL is a FEASTING for those who are in love”.
ARCHDEACON is the eldest of the deacons in the monastic clergy.
The Book of JOSHUA is the Sixth Book of the Old Testament and the Whole Bible.

Н.Б. [(2) 6]


My father who was ORDAINED PRIEST in his youth, now HAS PASTORAL CHARGE of a small parish where he performs holy SACRAMENTS such as BAPTISM and CHRISMATION. In his church, as in all Russian Orthodox CHURCH, there is a tradition to commemorate the name of HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA and the name of the local METROPOLITAN during THE GREAT ENTRANCE.

С.Г. [(5) 5]




Е.Т. [(0) 22,75]




Т.А. [(0) 2]












Hosted by uCoz