Система Orphus

Religious Vocabulary
TEXT BANK 2019
texts by students



Условные обозначения:
  • CAPITALS: active vocabulary words and collocations students have used
  • Underline: elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Underline and Delete: superfluous erroneous elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Italics: where appropriate, elements which explain the corrected mistakes
  • Dotted underline: elements not graded for various reasons (e.g. dubious or erroneous statements, vague in meaning).
  • [numbers in brackets]: grades students have accumulated by the time of this post (include grades for word tests)
  • [(number in parenthesis inside the brackets)]: grades the student has received for this particular post
  • [underlined numbers in brackets]: mid-term grades (include grades for word tests, class attendance, posts, as well as deductions in fines)
  • [numbers in brackets in bold type]: total number of grades students have accumulated throughout the semester (continuous assessment)


2nd year of study: Spring 2017

In our UNTHEOLOGICAL AGE it`s quite hard to find someone who knows at least something about CONSTANCE, TRENT or any of the ECUMENICAL COUNCILS.
THEOTOKOS is derived from the Greek words "theos" meaning God and "tokos" meaning childbirth.
When I was a child I wanted to become a nun, because the idea of MONASTICISM appealed to me. Living in AUSTERE conditions and LEADING SOLITARY LIFE seemed to be better than to live among the SINFULNESS of modern world.
I don`t know who`s my GODFATHER. My siblings are luckier, because their GODMOTHER is our family friend.
I haven`t seen some of the MYSTERIES OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION. For instance, I`ve never been to the FUNERAL and MEMORIAL SERVICES. Maybe it`s for the best.
Many of my parents` friends went on a PILGRIMAGE to ATHOS.
It`s nice to think that there is still place for LOVING-KINDNESS and CHARITABLE WORK in our world.
People DEVIATE INTO ERROR sometimes. In such way such heresies as ARIANISM, MONOPHYSITISM and MONOTHELITISM appeared. Heresies are dangerous because all of them IMPAIR THE TEACHING OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, making the SALVATION OF MAN impossible.
For my INFIDEL friends the DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY and the DOCTRINE OF THE INCARNATION are quite hard to understand.
SAINT ATHANASIUS and the CAPPADOCIAN FATHERS were engaged in polemics with Arianism.
The CHERUBIC HYMN is my sister`s favourite hymn.
Not everyone in my family knows the whole CYCLE OF FEASTS AND FASTS.

К.Е. [(15) 47]


1) The atmosphere of that place was so SOLEMN.
2) They come here every month to COMMEMORATE their perished brother.
3) He came to us in his bright and magnificent GARMENT.
4) I think I should do my best for our RECONCILIATION.
5) OBEDIENCE is the best way to raise your inner humility.
6) He used to be a very well-known person but then he chose an ASCETIC LIFE.
7) We know this period as a time of great empire but we must always remember about terrible PERSECUTIONS during those years.
8) I stopped my car near an old little wooden CHAPEL and got out.
9) Our team considered this scheme to be EXPEDIENT enough.
10) I had a DEEP CONVICTION in what I was doing.
11) He couldn’t ANTICIPATE this situation.
12) This discussion is DEDICATED to the problem that should be solved as quickly as it is possible.
13) This suggestion concerns a very NOMINAL solution.
14) This town is famous for its CHARCOAL supplies.
15) In this AUTONOMOUS system there is nothing to be broken.
16) The LAYOUT of our planet is perfect for living creatures.
17) The whole MEDITERRANEAN suffered from a terrible hurricane.
18) This whole country was possessed by pagan tribes in early times.
19) We were listening to the priest’s HOMILY and were trying to grip the main idea of his speech.
20) It’s a real challenge for him to keep the FAST on Fridays and Wednesdays.

Д.Х. [(9) 55]


Some PENITENTS come to CONFESS and they don't regret about their SINS and there are others who really mourn.
A TONSURE is a sign of religious devotion.
Our guest Fr. Mark Tyson told us about his PARISHIONERS. There are about 50 people in his PARISH.
MAN AND WIFE should CONFESS before MARRIAGE.
A priest usually puts his STOLE on your head after CONFESSION.
In my parish people call THE MEMORIAL TABLE "a parental table", I think it is connected with parental Saturday.
In the Soviet period some people had AN ICON CORNER but they had to hide it.
My father always gives us an advice how to break our fast in the right way.

Е.Л. [(6,5) 74]


1.1 There were seven General COUNCILS IN THE CHURCH’S HISTORY.
1.2 THE COUNCIL OF JERUSALEM took place in 346.
1.3 I like hearing moving heartfelt SERMONS.
1.4 My two brothers sing in our CHURCH’S CHOIR.
1.5 I have known THE CREED by heart since I was seven.
2.1 This year PENTECOST is celebrated on June 4.
2.2 My GOD-PARENTS are the best friends of my parents.
2.3 My brother has had very small BAPTISMAL CROSS since his BAPTISM.
2.4 In our church we have two FONTS - the big one is for adults and the small one is for children.
2.5 Sometimes sponge is used to wipe off THE CHRISM during CHRISMATION.
3.1 It is usual TO CONFESS since seven years of age.
3.2 To ask FOR THE PRIEST’S BLESSING you need to put your right hand on the left.
3.3 THE REPENTANCE is the main goal at THE SACRAMENT OF CONFESSION.
3.4 My father is a PARISHIONER since 1995.
3.5 THE PRIEST places his STOLE over the person’s head during the confession.
4.1 THE WEDDING CANDLES are always beautifully decorated with flowers.
4.2 THE MARRIAGE CROWNS show that man and woman are the king and the queen of their own family.
4.3 Sometimes, the couple have THE BETROTHAL a few months before the wedding.
4.4 RINGS are placed on the ring finger of the right hand.
4.5 The couple drink thrice from A COMMON CUP.
5.1 I have had THE ANOINTING WITH OIL five times in my life.
5.2 I have never been at THE ORDINATION TO THE PRISTHOOD.
5.3 THE VESTMENTS often have fancy gold embroidery.
5.4 THE GOOD SHEPHERD is one of the symbols of LORD JESUS CHRIST.
5.5 THE DEACON cannot PERFORM THE SACRAMENTS independently.
6.1 The priest CELEBRATES THE LITURGY.
6.2 THE EPIGONATION is a piece of brocade, which hangs on the priest’s hip.
6.3 Greek and Georgian priests wear A CHASUBLE without a collar.
6.4 AN ALB is a white garment which the priest wears under the chasuble.
6.5 THE STOLE is very important for CELEBRATING any OFFICE.
7.1 It is very important for THE BISHOP TO OVERSEE THE AFFAIRS OF THE DIOCESE.
7.2 Without THE OMOPHORION the bishop is not able TO PERFORM THE OFFICE.
7.3 THE STAFF is a symbol of the bishop’s duty to lead his flock.
7.4 Last weekend I was at the Feast of the White Flower in THE CONVENT of Marfa and Maria.
7.5 A chasuble with wide sleeves for the bishop is called A SAKKOS.
8.1 We often stay in the church for THE MEMORIAL SERVICE after the LITURGY.
8.2 It is not very pleasant and hard for me to see A DECEASED.
8.3 CHRIST is the ‘SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS’.
8.4 People often ask me to light their candles at THE MEMORIAL TABLE.
8.5 After THE MEMORIAL SERVICE, we can be given A MIXTURE OF BOILED WHEAT, CURRENTS AND HONEY.
9.1 It is not very hard for me not to eat meat during THE GREAT FAST.
9.2 During THE PRAYER OF EPHREM OF SYRIA, we PROSTRATE OURSELVES.
9.3 My SAINT's DAY is on September 30.
9.4 THE PROPHETESS ANNA met the young child Jesus in THE TEMPLE.
9.5 Sometimes it is hard for me to attend THE SERVICES OF VESPERS when we study on Saturdays.
10.1 At THE TRANSFIGURATION day, people always bring many fruits for CONSECRATION.
10.2 On PALM SUNDAY we consecrate pussy willow.
10.3 ORTHODOX celebrate PASCHA with eggs as the symbol of the new life.
10.4 Last week we celebrated THE ASCENSION.
10.5 THE DORMITION is the falling asleep of the MOTHER OF GOD.
11.1 When I was in Bulgaria I saw A BRUNCHES OF BOX instead of pussy willow on the day of THE ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM.
11.2 My mom embroidered the towel for THE ICON CORNER by herself.
11.3 God always shows us His LOVINGKINDNESS.
11.4 If I want to travel somewhere, I ASK FOR THE PRIEST’S BLESSING.
11.5 After EASTER SERVICE we BREAK OUR FAST.
12.1 In my school we were trying to do A CHARITABLE WORK.
12.2 MONASTICISM is very popular in Russia.
12.3 MONASTERIES have always been the keepers of ORTHODOX SPIRITUALITY.
12.4 Some MONKS lived among the branches of the trees or on the tops of PILLARS.
12.5 For ORTHODOX one of the most important thing in life is THE COMMUNITY LIFE.
13.1 THE ICONS are CENSED by the priest.
13.2 The icons are placed in special SHRINES around the church.
13.3 The icons are DOCTRINALLY important for THE CHURCH.
13.4 THE LIFE-GIVING CROSS consists of four BEAMS.
13.5 We DON’T WORSHIP the icons, we REVERENCE OR VENERATE them.

С.Ф. [76]


1) The procession into the body of the church with the GOSPEL is called THE LITTLE ENTRANCE.
2) Usually the DEACON reads the GOSPEL, but when the PRIEST serves without him, he reads it.
3) During the GREAT ENTRANCE the CHOIR always sings the CHERUBIC HYMN.
4) I learnt the CREED when I was eleven years old, and it wasn’t difficult to me.

1) I was BAPTISED in August 1994, when I was one year old.
2) I have a GODMOTHER, but I haven’t seen her for ages.
3) I always wear my BAPTISMAL CROSS, and I never take it off.
4) When I was thirteen years old, I attended the BAPTISM of my younger brother.

1) The sacrament of repentance (a change of heart leading to forgiveness and healing) is outwardly expressed in CONFESSION.
2) I think that every person should ASK THE PRIEST FOR A BLESSING if he wants to make an important step in his life.
3) A PENITENT is the person who comes to the PRIEST to CONFESS.

1) This summer my friend will have a SACRAMENT OF MARRIAGE, and she invited me to it.
2) I have some photos of my parents’ MARRIAGE, and on them the BEST MEN are holding the MARRIAGE CROWNS above their heads.
3) The RINGS are placed on the ring finger of the right hand, and symbolize ETERNAL PROMISE and UNION.

1) This year I went to ANOINTING WITH OIL on the second week of the LENT.
2) OIL is a symbol of HEALING and RECONCILIATION.
3) The BISHOP is the highest DEGREE OF PRIESTHOOD, while the DEACON is the lowest.
4) The PRIEST or DEACON cannot celebrate an ORDINATION; it’s performed only by a BISHOP.

1) The PRIEST is ORDAINED to look after the PARISH.
2) The PRIEST cannot celebrate without his STOLE.
3) A GIRDLE is a symbol of DIVINE STRENGTH.

1) The BISHOP oversees the affairs of the DIOCESE and is the SHEPHERD of its PRIESTS and people.
2) VESTMENTS of the BISHOP are: the ALB, the STOLE, the EPIGONATION, CUFFS, the SAKKOS, the OMOPHORION, the MITRE, the PALITSA and the PANAGIA.
3) MONKS are the people who give up their life in the world and devote their lives completely to God.

1) I was present at the FUNERAL SERVICE only once in my life.
2) When I was at the OBEDIENCE in the church, I was asked to clean the MEMORIAL TABLE.
3) The MEMORIAL SERVICES are very important for the DEPARTED, so we must PRAY for them.

1) It was very hard for me to OBSERVE the LENT this year because I wasn’t strong enough and had a lack of energy.
2) We always DYE EGGS in red colour before the GREAT FEAST of PASCHA.
3) The LITURGICAL YEAR starts from the NATIVITY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD.

1) On PALM SUNDAY I always buy a PUSSY WILLOW and bring it home.
2) I couldn’t go to the midnight service on EASTER this year, so I BROKE MY FAST alone at home.
3) The DORMITION OF THE MOTHER OF GOD is the last great FEAST of the LITURGICAL YEAR.

1) We always GIVE THANKS for our food and BLESS it.
2) Long ago our flat was BLESSED BY THE PRIEST, but I cannot remember when it was.
3) BLESSINGS can be done with HOLY WATER, PRAYERS, INCENSE and with the SIGN OF THE CROSS.

1) Recently we started to read and study an OLD ORTHODOX PRAYER BOOK.
2) I’ve never met people who attend the OLD RITE church.

О.Н. [70]


One of the ideas of MONASTICISM is to move away from the concerns of society and to pray to God.
There are differences between WESTERN MONASTICISM and EASTERN MONASTICISM in inner and outer contemplation.

Е.Л. [(1) 62,5]


I always felt very strange every time I saw people MAKING THE SIGN OF THE CROSS in the OLD RITE manner.
I have always known almost all the PARISHIONERS in our CHURCH.
The FORGIVENESS SUNDAY is a special day when the ORDER OF THE FORGIVENESS is SERVED, it's the day when you should say sorry to everybody, because sometimes we can't notice hurting other people's feelings.
It's important for people to listen to the HOMILIES because PRIESTS sometimes can bring an old information in a new way and draw our attention to things which we didn't acknowledge to be important.

А.К. [(3) 86]


1. Icons are symbols of REVERENCE and VENERATION.
2. Protestant WORSHIP was forbidden some years ago.

Е.Л. [(1) 40]


1. My family usually BREAK THEIR FAST at Easter night after the night service.
2. I think it is impolite TO ASK FOR A PRIEST'S BLESSING while the priest is going through the church.
3. On PALM SUNDAY my father always brings a large bouquet of PUSSY WILLOW.

В.Г. [(2) 86]


I think that the problem of our generation is MOURNING without a serious reasons.
I am always happy when the priest presents me a PROSPHORA after the LITURGY.
When I was a child I didn't believe that the RELICS of SAINTS are real.
The CATECHUMEN always went out to the NARTHEX in the middle of the LITURGY during the CATECHUMEN LITANY.
Acoustics depends on the height of the NAVE.

А.К. [(4,5) 61]


PUSSY WILLOW is a symbol of PALM SUNDAY.
I like very much BREAKING THE FAST on EASTER, when it is 5 o'clock in the morning, the sun is rising, and there is a lovely food around.
THE ICON CORNER is usually decorated with white diaper.
The PRIEST always SPRINKLEs everything around during the HOUSE BLESSING.
It's important to RECEIVE THE BLESSING from the priest before making some important steps in your life.

А.К. [(3,5) 56,5]


During the SERVICE KONTAKIONS are always sung after TROPARIONS.
There are always very long queues to venerate SAINTS' RELICS.
AN ICON CORNER is normally oriented to face east.
THEOPHANY refers to the appearance of a deity to a human.

Е.Л. [(2,5) 39]


The ADVENT is a difficult period in my life, because days become shorter, darker and colder, every day you are hungry and live just in expectation of Christmas.
The SERVICES OF VESPERS before major feasts are always especial, because they are full of mystery and the joy of expecting the great FEAST.
This year we had a faculty LITURGY on the MEETING OF THE LORD.
It took long time for the people of New Testament to acknowledge Jesus Christ as a MESSIAH.
It is a good and rather fine tradition TO DYE AND DECORATE EGGS before the great FEAST of PASCHA.
PENTECOST is a SOLEMN FEAST which brings us back to THE REVELATION OF the TRINITARIAN GOD.

А.К. [(6) 53]


ADVENT isn't so strict as LENT.
It is said that spring comes only after EASTER.
My mother's GODSON was named in honor of JOHN THE FORERUNNER.
We usually carry PUSSY-WILLOW instead of PALMS on THE PALM SUNDAY.
In my town we have a CATHEDRAL OF THE TRANSFIGURATION and we named our club for Orthodox young people and teenagers as TABOR in honor of the mountain where CHRIST was transfigured.

Е.Л. [(5) 36,5]


1. My elder brother WAS BAPTIZED in honor of the PROPHET ELIJAH.
2. My little brother asked me what was the difference between PASCHA and EASTER.

В.Г. [(2) 49]


This year it is very hard for me to OBSERVE the FAST because of my health and the lack of energy.
LUKE is one of the EVANGELISTs.
People celebrate the DORMITION on the 28th of August.
My grandfather has his birthday on the day of THE NATIVITY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD.
In my childhood I made a mistake during the LITURGY, I didn't know that it is not appropriate TO PROSTRATE on Sunday.

Е.Л. [(3,5) 31,5]


1. In the CYCLE OF FEASTS AND FASTS there are TWELVE GREAT FEASTS: THE NATIVITY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD, THE EXALTATION OF THE CROSS, THE ENTRY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD INTO THE TEMPLE, THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST/CHRISTMAS, the Baptism of Christ, The Meeting of Our Lord Jesus Christ in the Temple, The Annunciation to the Most Holy Theotokos, The Transfiguration of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, THE DORMITION OF THE MOTHER OF GOD, The Entrance of the Lord into Jerusalem, The Ascension of Our Lord Jesus Christ, THE PENTECOST/The Descent of the Holy Spirit.
2. When my brother was about four years old he wanted to be a PRIEST in order to CENSE in the church.
3. It is very important to know and to understand that we VENERATE saints and icons but THE WORSHIP must be DUE TO GOD ALONE.
4. The idea of REDEMPTION is the key notion in Orthodoxy.
5. All THE ORTHODOX FAITHFUL recognize the importance of the VENERATION of icons and saints.

В.Г. [(8) 47]


The disposition on the whole LENT depends on how you spent the first week of it.
The LENT represents God's suffering in the WILDERNESS.
During the first week of the LENT Orthodox people PROSTRATE THEMSELVES many times.
EXALTATION OF THE CROSS is a great FEAST in the church where I go and it is also called in honour of this FEAST.
All the TWELVE GREAT FEASTS are signed on a special book, which helps to CELEBRATE THE SERVICE truly.

А.К. [(2) 47]


APOSTLE Paul wrote two EPISTLES to THESSALONIANS.
I usually stayed after the LITURGY to sing the FUNERAL SERVICE.
I'm IN ANTICIPATION of the approaching EASTER.

Е.Л. [(3,5) 28]


I felt very sick during the FUNERAL SERVICE of my close relative.
All that we can do for the DEPARTED is a PRAYER.
In the troparion of Christmas, Christ is called THE SUN of RIGHTEOUSNESS.
The MEMORIAL SERVICES are very important for THE DECEASED, because their souls need a prayer.
THE MEMORIAL TABLE is a special place where candles for the DEPARTED are put.

А.К. [(3) 45]


1. Every Sunday there is a MEMORIAL SERVICE in the churches of my hometown although none of the priests except the rector like it.
2. Only once or twice, if I’m not mistaken, I was present at a FUNERAL SIRVICE.
3. When I helped to tidy up the church in my hometown I was often asked to clean the MEMORIAL TABLE.
4. I heard an interesting opinion that now we cannot hold an ECUMENICAL COUNCIL because there is no Emperor to SUMMON it.
5. It’s still a question for me why the paper strip with the PRAYER OF ABSOLUTION on it is to be put on the forehead of THE DECEASED.

М.З. [(2,5) 69,5]


1. I was once at the BAPTISM of my younger brother, when I was eight years old, and now we meet with his GODFATHER and GODMOTHER often in our church.
2. I don’t remember it, but my mother told me that during my baptism I didn’t cry loudly when the priest IMMERSED me three times into the holy water.
3. My mother keeps the BAPTISMAL ROBES and TONSURED HAIR of all her children.
4. Two weeks ago, my youngest brother turned seven years old and had his first CONFESSION, he was a PENITENT.
5. My father, who is a priest, never asks names of the penitents during THE PRAYERS OF ABSOLUTION, because he knows almost all his parishioners, but a few of them ASK FOR HIS BLESSING after the confession.
6. I often help my parents in the church singing in the choir and sometimes some couples come for THE SACRAMENT OF MARRIAGE, and traditionally THE BETROTHAL and the marriage are celebrated on the same day.
7. I once had held THE CROWN for a bride during the sacrament and it was hard, because the crown was heavy.
8. Last Sunday there was an ANOINTING WITH OIL in our church and I was told just before it that oil is a symbol of healing and RECONCILIATION, but I knew it.
9. This SACRAMENT OF HEALING traditionally takes place in our church twice a year.

Е.К. [(8) 35,5]


1) When my great grandmother died, the grandfather was in a deep MOURNING.
2) I don't know what prompted my relative to enter the MINISTRY.
3) I was living in a CONVENT last summer.
4) The bishop is the HIGHEST DEGREE OF PRIESTHOOD.
5) A PRESBYTER can PERFORM ALL SACRAMENTS except the ordination to the PRIESTHOOD.

Е.Л. [(3,5) 24,5]


BISHOPS wear MITRES which are always greatly decorated.
OMOPHORIANS are also worn by bishops but it's also mentioned as the cover of Theotokos, which protects people from the disasters.
A PANAGIA is usually decorated with precious stones.
In my childhood I thought that it's much simpler to live and save your soul if you embraced MONASTICISM, but now I have realised that it's a really hard deed.
The BISHOP has never worshipped in our church.

А.К. [(2) 42]


1. One day ON "ORTHODOXY SUNDAY" when I was about eleven years old I asked my mother why this day was called "THE TRIUMPH OF ORTHODOXY". She explained.
2. She told me a lot of interesting things as well. She would tell about Christian people and countries UNDER INFIDEL CONTROL, about MUSLIMS and their religion, about PERSECUTIONS, ICONOCLASM and people who ATTACKED THE HOLY ICONS.
3. A MITRE is a symbol of bishop's authority. Only bishops can wear this piece of VESTMENTS.

В.Г. [(4) 39]


From the source which I don’t remember I learnt one very beautiful and inspirational interpretation of A PRIEST’S VESTMENTS. It was based on the thought that a priest was a warrior of Christ. So, the CHASUBLE was considered to be a chain armour, CUFFS were chain oversleeves and the ALB was a shirt which was put on under the armour. In the same way the EPIGONATION, the STOLE and the GIRDLE had some military interpretation, too.

М.З. [(4) 37]


On the 30th of March in our Church CELEBRATES THE LITURGY in the memory of Saint Alexis, the Man of God.
The priests wear the ALB under the chasuble.
The CHASUBLE is often decorated with the embroidery.
The GIRDLE and the EPIGONATION are given to the priest as an award.

А.К. [(2,5) 21]


There was an awesome priest in our church some years ago. He had very loud and beautiful voice and a gift of speech. And I think that he was an ELOQUENT PREACHER. All people in our church listened to his SERMONS breathlessly. He was an AUSTERE priest as well. After the CONFESSION he put his hand on your head with force. But it was not painful, you just felt something like strength in him and you started to feel ashamed, but there was a peace in my heart. He knew how to encourage people to REPENTANCE. Unfortunately he was transferred to another PARISH.

В.Г. [(4) 12]


1) During the night EASTER SERVICE the CLERGY changes their VESTMENTS, goes out to the SOLEA with the words "Christ is risen" and the congregation answers "Truly risen"!
2) Every year after the CONFESSION I take part in the SACRAMENT OF HEALING.
3) In my church and also in my university I have different kinds of OBEDIENCES.
4) I remember the moment when my brother was given his first TUNIC because he received a blessing to be a SACRISTAN.

Е.Л. [(4) 11]


Sick men who believe in God are asking him for a HEALING.
Orthodox Church is built on the APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION.
During the CONFESSION the priest is a mediator between the person and God.
The clergy live for the MINISTRY to Christ.
The priests change their VESTMENTS according to the feasts and each of them has its own colour.

А.К. [(2,5) 18,5]


1. When I heard about the Coptic Church for the first time (it was rather long ago) I asked one priest in my parish to tell me what was wrong with this Church. He thought for a moment and said: “Copts…they had some problems with the Fourth ECUMENICAL COUNCIL” meaning the COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON.
2. One good friend of mine has visited the Holy Athos for several times and he told me that the Greek shape of the sacrament of ANOINTING WITH OIL is rather different from the Russian one.
3. I have seen how the sacrament of ORDINATION TO THE PRIESTHOOD IS PERFORMED for several times already.

М.З. [(2) 7]


1. My family usually have ANOINTING WITH OIL at home.
2. My father uses RICE instead of WHEAT for this SACRAMENT.
3. Every day we learn about new MARTYRS of the Soviet period.
4. Honestly, I was amazed to learn about my friend's ENGAGEMENT.
5. I believe, the most difficult task of the best man and the bridesmaid is to hold THE MARRIAGE CROWNS above MAN AND WIFE's heads.

В.Г. [(3,5) 8]


1. I’ve been a PARISHIONER of the PARISH of the Donskoy monastery for about a year and a half already.
2. Once it happened that after the confession it occurred to me that the priest had PLACED THE STOLE over my head and said my name in the PRAYERS OF ABSOLUTION without asking my name.
3. I always try to ASK FOR A PRIEST’S BLESSING before setting off for any important trip.
4. The changing of the SACRAMENT OF CONFESSION through the centuries is a very interesting topic for me.
5. There are special PRAYERS OF NAME-GIVING for those who were BAPTISED as babies and there is nobody left who remembers their name.
6. The CHRISM for the sacrament of CHRISMATION is prepared once in two years in the Small Cathedral of the Donskoy monastery.

М.З. [(5) 5]


Last summer a sister of mine had a sacrament of MARRIAGE.
I always ASK THE PRIEST FOR A BLESSING after CONFESSION.
I don't kneel when the priest puts the STOLE on my head, I only bend it.
On the day of PENTECOST we don't study in my university.
My sister announced an ENGAGEMENT at Christmas.
Moscow LITANY is very famous with people who sing in a CHOIR like me.
In 2011 our BISHOP WAS ORDAINED METROPOLITAN for the Tver DIOCESE.

Е.Л. [(5) 7]


Nowadays BETROTHAL and MARRIAGE usually happen on the same day.
I think putting on MARRIAGE CROWNS is better than when they are held by the BEST MAN.
WEDDING CANDLES really make photos very beautiful.
THE COMMON CUP OF WINE symbolizes that the couple share each other's lives with all its ups and downs.
The SACRAMENT OF MARRIAGE lasts throughout all the life of wife and husband, and the RINGS represent the ETERNITY of the union.

А.К. [(4) 16]


1. Once at the exam I was talking about the sacrament of CONFESSION and forgot the word "A STOLE".
2. The PARISHIONERS of my Church are a pretty friendly people.

В.Г. [(1,5) 4,5]


CONFESSION is very important SACRAMENT in every Orthodox person's life.
Jesus Christ has twelve DISCIPLES.
A PENITENT comes to the priest to confess and TO BE RELEASED FROM SINS.
Every PARISHIONER does much in little things to the church.
It's important TO ASK THE PRIEST FOR THE BLESSING before making a difficult or important step in your life.

А.К. [(2,5) 12]


My sister wasn't baptised in the FONT in the church, but at home, because she was seriously ill.
I have only a GODMOTHER who answered for me to RENOUNCE FROM EVIL AND TURN TO GOD when I was asked, but couldn't answer because I was a baby.
During the BAPTISM the baby is ANOINTED WITH OIL AND IMMERSED THREE TIMES.
The Russian Orthodox church became AUTOCEPHALOUS when the first patriarch was elected.
THE BAPTISMAL BOX contains the ROBE, the BRUSH, an OIL, a CHRISM, the SCISSORS FOR TONSURING HAIR.

А.К. [(5,5) 9,5]


1. Despite tradition, I have both the GODMOTHER and the GODFATHER.
2. My father is a PRIEST, so I WAS BAPTISED at home, but within a FONT.
3. About four years ago I lost my BAPTISMAL CROSS in the river in the village. I'm very sorry about that.

В.Г. [(3) 3]


I've never been to funeral RITES because I haven't lost anybody among my relatives and friends.
I always IMMERSED three times in the Volga at EPIPHANY.
I learnt the CREED when I was in an Orthodox camp at the age of seven.

Е.Л. [(2) 2]


There are a lot of LITANIES during the service.
A procession with the GOSPEL BOOK into the body of the church is called The LITTLE ENTRANCE.
I sing in the CHOIR in the church every Sunday.
The CHERUBIC HYMN lasts long because there is only one priest in our church and he has to do all the duties himself.
In the CHERIBIC HYMN there are words which refer to LIFE-GIVING TRINITY, to the KING OF ALL who is invisibly accompanied by the RANKS OF ANGELS.

А.К. [(4) 4]




К.Е. [28]




С.Ф. [33]




О.Н. [31]




Д.Х. [42]




А.Г. [3]


2nd year of study: Autumn 2016

1. According to what we've studied during our English History classes, Augustine of Canterbury was the first ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.
2. Unfortunately, not all members of my family understand that icons should be VENERATED, NOT WORSHIPPED, that they're a MEDIUM OF PRAYER.
3. My aunt is a FERVENT believer.
4. I love watching the OIL LAMP burning and lighting our ICON CORNER with faint light. In such moments I can really feel that the icons are WINDOWS ONTO ETERNITY.
5. I love the FRAGRANCE of INCENSE.
6. We know a little about heresies that arose from the issue about the NATURES OF CHRIST and number of PERSONS OF THE TRINITY from our dogmatics course.

К.Е. [(6) 45]


Sometimes I'm asked to read the book "APOSTLE" during the LITURGY.
I have great GODPARENTS who take part in my church life regularly.
During the BAPTISM my GODDAUGHTER was crying because she was afraid of the PRIEST when he ANOINTED her WITH OIL and IMMERSED three times in the water.
When I was swimming in the sea I lost my BAPTISMAL CROSS and I bought another.

Е.Л. [(4,5) 32,5]


My mother always carries THE GOSPEL BOOK with her in a bag.
My grandfather MAKES THE SIGN OF THE CROSS over us before our leaving.
I already have a GOD-DAUGHTER and my important aim is that she receives COMMUNION regularly in the church.
Sometimes I am asked to work at THE CANDLE DESK instead of singing in the choir.
I think that any CONTRIBUTION which you make with love will be appreciated by God.

Е.Л. [(3) 28]


1. At the class of "Introduction to the liturgical tradition" we were explained the historical origin of THE GREAT and THE LITTLE ENTRANCES.
2. My brother as a child wanted to CENSE. He took a thing and thought it was CENSER.
3. I think many children forget which hand should be on top while LINING UP FOR COMMUNION WITH THEIR ARMS CROSSED OVER THEIR CHESTS.

В.Г. [(2,5) 48,5]


There are seven Mysteries in the Orthodox Church: BAPTISM, CHRISMATION, ANOINTING WITH OIL, COMMUNION, CONFESSION, ORDINATION, MARRIAGE.
It's important for Christians to PARTAKE IN THE MYSTERIES.
If you have a DEEP CONVICTION in your faith, you will not turn into THE HETERODOX people's beliefs.

А.К. [(5) 51]


After the COMMUNION people kiss the CHALICE.
People always kiss THE GOSPEL BOOK after the CONFESSION.
I always buy ALTAR LOAFS when I'm at the LITURGY.
If you write the names of the DEPARTED people in the COMMEMORATION BOOKS, it will be bought to the ALTAR during the WORSHIP and then the PRIEST will pray for these people.
The FOUNDERS OF THE CHURCH are always COMMEMORATED during the WORSHIP.

А.К. [(6) 37]


1. My brothers used to be SERVERS in our church.
2. After iconometry lessons I'm interested in how ICONOSTASIS in different churches looks.
3. The SPEAR has seemed to me the most mysterious and symbolic object in the ALTAR since my childhood.
4. When I was asked why I like going to the church, I always thought of ALTAR LOAVES and FRAGRANCE of OIL LAMPS.
5. My mother, younger brother and I have gone to Diveevo to THE RELICS OF SAINT Seraphim for four or five times.

В.Г. [(3,7) 26]


1) Once my father, who is a priest, let me go into THE SANCTUARY or ALTAR to clean up before the Easter worship.
2) Some years ago I went on a trip to some holy places and our group had to sleep in a church, someone slept on THE SOLEA and I slept on THE AMBO.

Е.К. [(2) 44]


Unfortunately, the CHAPEL in my home-town was damaged by the fire when I was 12 years old.
We always hear the deep note of the bell ringing for VESPERS.
When the ORTHODOXY started to rise again after the difficult communist period, our townspeople collected money to restore an ICONOSTASIS.
Sometimes our priests unites LITANIES and recites them during the religious procession.
I try to keep fast days in memory of CHRIST'S CRUCIFIXION.

Е.Л. [(2,5) 20]


My two younger brothers are SERVERS in our church.
In some churches which I attended it was forbidden for women to pass or walk on the SOLEA or AMBO.
From our lessons of the NEW TESTAMENT I learned that the APOSTLE LUKE had been a doctor or healer.

С.Ф. [(2) 41]


1. The TABLE OF OBLATION is in the INNERMOST PART OF THE TEMPLE.
2. We have always CONSECRATED our Easter cakes before eating.
3. There are three SERVERS in our church.
4. The LAYOUT under the icons is always in the colour of the FEAST.

А.К. [(3) 31]


One of my friends can't stay in a church filled with the smell of INCENSE because she is an asthmatic.
After MAKING THE SIGN OF THE CROSS my mother begins to speak in softer and more moderate tones.

Е.Л. [(1) 17,5]


1. When I first came to St. Catherine’s church to attend the Divine Liturgy in English, I got a bit lost because in one building there is a usual big church where they celebrate in Church Slavonic, and there is also a place called “CHAPEL”. I wonder why they call it in this way because it is a usual church with the altar, only a very small one.
2. Once a funny story happened with a good friend of mine. He went to Mount Athos and among other things he brought back a small beautiful box of something with a sweet smell which was considered to be Greek INCENSE made of a special Greek GUM. But there were inscriptions in Greek only, so it was impossible to check whether it was INCENSE or not, since no one knew Greek. He gifted this box with an air of reverence to the church and it was taken into the altar.
Once the priest decided to use it. A part of it was put into the CENSER, and the CHARCOAL underneath was burnt. But instead of giving out the sweet smell it began to bubble and flowed down smoking in a very strange way. So, it was a great confusion because the CENSER was spoiled and they needed another one because that one needed cleaning and it was the very time to begin a worship.
After the worship the priest decided that at any price he would find out what it was. And, in the end, he discovered that it was a piece of Greek soap…

М.З. [(3,5) 39]


1. I am really fond of Hollywood actor ELIJAH Wood and I was pleasantly surprised when I realize that he has a name of one of the OLD TESTAMENT’S prophet.
2. My granny was in the Holy Land and she brought me a terrific box of INCENSE which was made from some FRAGRANT GUM.
3. The DEACON in our church CENSES a lot during the EASTER VESPERS.
4. ABEL and CAIN were the first brothers, but Cain committed an enormous sin.

С.Ф. [(5) 21,2]


1. The priest swings the CENSER before the worship to spread THE SWEET SPIRITUAL FRAGRANCE.
2. There is a great AROMATIC SMELL during the services in our church because of good INCENSE.
3. CENSING is always started with the HOLY TABLE.

А.К. [(2,5) 28]


1. The books of the New Testament are telling us about the existence of God.
2. The priest always makes a GESTURE OF BLESSING after the Confession.
3. After the death we will be judged for our THOUGHTS AND DEEDS.
4. Christians believe that there are TWO NATURES in Christ: the human and the divine one.
5. Andrei Rublev is a great iconographer who created the icon which shows TREE PERSONS OF the TRINITY.

А.К. [(2) 25,3]


1. It had been a great question for me who was that mysterious HABAKKUK whom we sang about in the Easter canon. But then I knew that he was prophet HABAKKUK from the book of HABAKKUK.
2. Not long ago I attended the church of St. Nicolas in Klenniki and I saw there two large icons of SAINT CYRIL and SAINT METHODIUS, THE APOSTOLES OF SLAVS, on the right and on the left walls when you walk along the corridor to the holy relics of St. Alexey (Mechov).
3. It was very interesting to know that in correct Russian translation Barack Obama would be “BARUCH” Obama.
4. I like to try to read INSCRIPTIONS on old icons.
5. There is an ICON CORNER in every room in the dormitory where I live.

М.З. [(3,5) 24,5]


1) I wear a big silver BYZANTINE THREE-BAR CROSS around my neck.
2) I knew that among Christians the cross is believed to be the SIGN OF SALVATION and life.
3) When I was a child, my father told me that with THE SIGN OF THE CROSS we ask God to bless all our thoughts and deeds.
4) I've never seen the EPISTLE OF JEREMIAH in the list of THE BOOKS CALLED APOCRYPHA before these classes.

Е.К. [(3) 24,5]


1. In my childhood my mother taught me that I can BOW after MAKING THE SIGN OF THE CROSS.
2. It is difficult for the human mind to understand that God is three PERSONS.
3. Jesus Christ said that we should TAKE UP OUR CROSS AND FOLLOW HIM to be saved.
4. I believe that we can learn more about our faith if we are friends with people of different COMMUNIONS.
5. The RESURRECTION of Christ is one of the best known FEASTS in the world.

В.Г. [(3,5) 22,3]


1) We have a TRYPTICH ICON in our family car.
2) There is an ICON CORNER in my dormitory room and an OIL LAMP made of red glass.

Е.К. [(1,5) 21,5]


Once my priest blessed me to enter THE ALTAR to clean it before Easter.
When I come to my church late, I have to stay at THE NARTHEX because the church is full of people.
Last year THE ICON SCREEN was destroyed by hooligans in one of the local churches.
When I go to the church I try to put on proper and clean clothes because it's GOD'S HOUSE.
Every year in our town AN ICON is brought for religious procession.
My mother always gives me TRYPTICH ICONS where THE MOTHER OF GOD, and two APOSTLES are depicted when I'm going to journeys.
Every day I get a short message with a quotation from THE GOSPEL.
An ICON CORNER is a favorite place for my parents and me.
This year my friend has started the studying in our university because she wants to be an ICONOGRAPHER.

Е.Л. [(5) 16,5]


We have an ICON CORNER at our home.
I have an ICON of the Holy Trinity, which was painted by the ICONOGRAPHER Andrei Rublev.
When we go travelling, we always take a TRYPTICH ICONS with us.

О.Н. [(1,5) 39]


My friend is studying at Moscow THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE.
A dying man was relived by A MEDIUM OF PRAYER.
In Orthodox church people can VENERATE AN ICON, but only God is WORSHIPED.
In every Orthodox person's house there is AN ICON CORNER.
A lot of people, young and old, prayed FERVENTLY AS a FLAME.

А.К. [(3) 23,3]


In every church there is a CANDLE DESK where people can buy a candle.
On entering the church I MAKE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS three times.
All people are VENERATING AN ICON before ANOINTING WITH OIL.
When the HOLY DOORS are being opened all people pay homepage.
There is an icon in our church depicting Christ's DESCENT INTO HELL.

А.К. [(3) 20,3]


1) I'd like to know something about HIS HOLINESS THE POPE, BISHOP OF ROME, SUPREME PONTIFF OF THE UNIVERSAL CHURCH, PATRIARCH OF THE WEST.
2) I always MAKE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS as I come into the church.
3) I wrote a research paper about ICONS two years ago.
4) My grandfather works on the wooden carved ICON SCREEN for our church.
5) My brother once said that he had never heard about the ORTHODOX CHURCH IN JAPAN and ARCHBISHOP OF TOKYO, METROPOLITAN OF ALL JAPAN.

Е.К. [(5,5) 20]


1. TO MAKE THE SIGH OF THE CROSS doesn’t mean just a traditional moving of the hand but it is a form of the Orthodox creed for us, I think.
2. The “SONG OF SOLOMON” is one of the most difficult books in the Bible to understand.
3. TO KISS AN ICON is a traditional way TO VENERATE it.

М.З. [(1,5) 21]


1. I haven't read all the books of THE OLD TESTAMENT yet.
2. I was surprised when I was told that in the English Bible we have "1 SAMUEL" and " 2 SAMUEL" books - we don't have these titles in the Russian text.

О.Н. [(1) 20,4]


1. When I come to the CHURCH, I often buy some CANDLES at the CANDLE DESK, and LIGHT THEM before ICONS.
2. There is an ICON of RESURRECTION in the middle of our CHURCH.
3. I make THE SIGN OF THE CROSS before an ICON and KISS IT.
4. There are five ICON SCREENS in different chapels of our CHURCH.

О.Н. [(2,5) 8,8]


In my church there is a five-level ICON SCREEN. The icon of ANNUNCIATION is in the middle of the second row.
My elder brother was baptised in honour of ARCHANGEL MICHAEL.

В.Г. [(1) 18,8]


1. During our religious studies I heard about ECUMENICAL PATRIARCHATE and PATRIARCH quite often as well as about the role of the CHURCH OF ALEXANDRIA and the CHURCH OF ANTIOCH.
2. I always LIGHT CANDLES when I come to the church.

К.Е. [(2,5) 39]


1) I have never heard about the CHURCH OF ALEXANDRIA before this lesson.
2) My younger brother learned to read while/by reading PSALMS with my grandmother.

Е.К. [(1) 7,8]


1. I hope that one day I will take part in a SACRAMENT such as marriage.
2. ICON SCREENS first appeared in the period of Roman catacombs.

Е.Л. [(1) 11,5]


1. Just at the very moment when I was trying to remember the full title of the PATRIARCH OF SERBIA, I mean HIS HOLINESS ARCHBISHOP OF PEC, METROPOLITAN OF BELGRAD AND CARLOVCI, PATRIARCH OF SERBIA, my good friend who studies Serbian in this University came into the room where I was.
2. Once I was standing with a group of children UNDER THE DOME of a small BASILICA in one little known Caucasian monastery telling them about the symbolism of the Orthodox ICON, PARTS OF THE CHURCH and everything we could see inside.

М.З. [(4) 10,8]


1) Few years ago I was lucky to attend the LITURGY which was headed by the HIS HOLINESS ARCHBISHOP OF CONSTANTINOPLE THE NEW ROME AND ECUMENICAL PATRIARCH BARTHOLOMEW I: he was invited to Holy Prince Dmitry’s Church.
2) When I was in Georgia I was told by locals that their PATRIARCH, HIS HOLINESS AND BEATITUDE CATHOLICOS-PATRIARCH OF ALL GEORGIA, ARCHBISHOP OF MTSKHETA AND TBILISI ELIJAH I, personally baptizes every third child in a family to encourage people to give birth to many children.

С.Ф. [(3,5) 16,2]


1. We have a very friendly PARISH in our church, where I can light the ICING LAMP before the service and LIGHT CANDLES during it.
2. The ICON SCREEN in our church is very similar to the one in the St. Isaac Cathedral in St Petersburg.

А.К. [(1,5) 17,3]


1. We study lifestories of British national saints like St. ALBAN, St. CUTHBERT, St. PATRICK, the VENERABLE BEDE and others during our English History classes.
2. Our PARISH gathers in the church built in a shape of BASILICA.

К.Е. [(2,5) 4]


1) Initially, the BISHOP Panteleimon of Orekhovo-Zuevo had been my dad’s CONFESSOR, but when he moved to another DIOCESE, my dad started visiting St. Nicholas Church and became a spiritual son of ARCHPRIEST Vladimir Vorobev.
2) Usually in our church GENESIS was read during the PASCHAL LITURGY in the various languages. But I have never heard that there were read NUMBERS.

С.Ф. [(3,5) 3,5]


1. Recently one of my friends WAS ORDAINED PRIEST and another WAS ORDAINED DEACON.
2. Last Sunday I attended the Divine LITURGY in the Donskoy monastery which was been celebrated by the PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW and many other PRIESTS and HIEROMONKS concelebrated him.

М.З. [(3) 3]


1) Though I was BAPTISED in my childhood, I`ve started to take part in THE SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH about two years ago.
2) Taking COMMUNION for the first time was a true miracle to me.

К.Е. [(1,5) 1,5]


1) I saw HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA a few years ago when HIS HOLINESS came to Tver to bless a church.
2) Our parish has good relationship with the METROPOLITAN because VLADIKA tries to help and communicate with every man of our church.

Е.Л. [(1,5) 1,5]


1) Four PRIESTS and one DEACON serve in our CHURCH.
2) I have seen HIS HOLINESS PATRIARCH OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA Kirill several times.

О.Н. [(2) 6,3]


1. The ARCHPRIEST PRAYED in front of the ICONS and MADE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS in the ALTAR during the FEAST service.
2. A crowd of people comes to this HEGUMENOS seeking his advice.

А.К. [(2,5) 2,5]


Last year during the second semester our group was attending OLD TESTAMENT classes on Fridays. There we were reading such books as GENESIS, EXODUS and JUDGES.

Д.Х. [(2) 39]


My father was ORDAINED ARCHPRIEST when I was about ten years old. I usually help him and my mother during the Divine Liturgy and participate in THE SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH.

Е.К. [(1) 1]


My father WAS ORDAINED PRIEST in 1996 and now he is THE RECTOR OF THE CHURCH.
Every time I am scared of darkness I MAKE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS to overcome my fear.

В.Г. [(1,5) 6,3]




А.Г. [(1,5) 45]












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