Система Orphus

Religious Vocabulary
TEXT BANK 2018
texts by students (2)

(Part 1 is here)



Условные обозначения:
  • CAPITALS: active vocabulary words and collocations students have used
  • Underline: elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Underline and Delete: superfluous erroneous elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Italics: where appropriate, elements which explain the corrected mistakes
  • Dotted underline: elements not graded for various reasons (e.g. dubious or erroneous statements, vague in meaning).
  • [numbers in brackets]: grades students have accumulated by the time of this post (include grades for word tests)
  • [(number in parenthesis inside the brackets)]: grades the student has received for this particular post
  • [underlined numbers in brackets]: mid-term grades (include grades for word tests, class attendance, posts, as well as deductions in fines)
  • [numbers in brackets in bold type]: total number of grades students have accumulated throughout the semester (continuous assessment) by the end of semester


4th year of study: Autumn 2017

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(101)

People can not know what is going to happen to them in the future, so they are always afraid of it. But true believers know that God protects His flock and wishes to save every human being. That is why instead of being depressed because of worrying about the future we should entrust ourselves to God and understand that everything He lets happen to us is for our own good. We should do our best to live a righteous life and God will always help us. Only in this way, by forgetting about fear, we can concentrate on getting rid of that sinfullness in us. Because if we have no fear about the future God will provide for us, we then are not afraid of God Himself and we are willing to be saved by Him.

С.Ф. [(5) 15]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(102)

I agree with St. Markus of Optina that we see the world from the point of view of our souls. None of us sets the standard view on the state of the world, we see it in the way we want to. God commanded not to judge, but as sinful people we cannot fully fulfill His will and we always try to assess and define everything around us. And there is a bit of pride in every person, which makes him think that his opinion is the only right one. So by taming this pride we become humble, and the more humble we get, the less we see ourselves as the only perfect creatures. Humility helps us to understand our personal unworthiness to jugde and our personal imperfection.
What is "the evil" in the world? Is it the feature of some people's souls or of our attitude to them? According to a person's approach to life and the world it is conventional to divide people into optimists and pessimists. Optimists think that people are good, and that their deeds do not define who they are. Everyone can be wrong simetimes, we are all imperfect, we all make mistakes. A pure soul is not the sinless one, but the most humble. A humble person accepts his own imperfection and sinfullness, and thinks of himself as of the greatest sinner. That is why he will never think of others worse than he thinks of himself. That is why by becoming closer to God he sees other people becoming closer to Him too.

С.Ф. [(5) 10]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(103)

To my opinion, being silent at the moments when one wants to speak the most is very useful sometimes. If quarreling with a friend or anyone else, this silence will stop the argument which has nothing beneficial for anyone. Also, in cases when you see that your opponent does not want to understand or accept your point of view, it is better to stop argueing in order not to continue the empty and silly dispute. And not feeling this need to prove yourself right will make you feel more free and joyful. One will learn then, that "enlightening" someone is less important that being in good relationships with that person. Because there is no such thing as complete rightfullness, and everyone has the right to think the way he does. Only God is perfect, only He can pass judgement and guide us, only His will we should fulfill. So, I agree that the person who keeps silence when it is not neccessary to express his opponion "has received the enlightment which dispels darkness".

С.Ф. [(5) 5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(104)

Man's attitude to prayer reflects their attitude to God. Prayer is communication with God. Every day we should pray at least in the morning and in the evening. But there exists some distortions about prayer. People begin to say prayers formally, without thinking about the meaning of them. Others pray only when something is asked of God. In such way they show their consumer's attitude towards Him. To learn how to pray properly, it is necessary to do it regularly and pray with humility.

В.К. [(5) 14]


1. The SPOON is used to give communion to the communicants. It is a golden spoon with the image of the Cross on it.
2. The CHALICE is and important vessel that contains the bread and wine during the Eucharist. It is an ornamented chalice or goblet.
3. An ANTIMINS is a cloth that is located on the Altar and has a relic of a saint sewn into it. It is used during the Liturgy.

А.C. [(1,5) 20,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(103)

St. Maximos the Confessor’s opinion is that an enlightened person is the one who is silent for a good end and thus has good relationships with others and is overall a happy person.
The main subject of this phrase is “silence”. There are many references to it in Orthodoxy, and I agree with St. Maximos’ views on its beneficial influence on us. However, the subject itself is not so easy to understand, for it can be interpreted in various ways.
If we understand this quote literally then we shall perceive silence as not speaking. If so, then we can surmise that what the author of the quote means is being spiritually enlightened enough not to offend others or say unnecessary things. Religion teaches us to be kind to others or, as Matthew puts it, “love your neighbour as yourself” (Matthew 22:39). One might want to criticize a friend or say something hurtful because they think that it’s in some way justified. But here we see that you do not make thing better by putting others down. By keeping this social tact we do not alienate others and lead a happier life.
Another interpretation of silence is the spiritual silence. This is the kind of silence that many great theologians talked about. This is something not easily attainable as it requires prayer and concentration. The action is not as mechanical as it sounds – a “silent” person doesn’t simply possess calmness of mind during prayer (as Kallistos Ware appropriately compares loose thoughts with monkeys jumping from branch to branch) but a calmness throughout their life. These people are more sound of mind and spirit, and it shows through their interactions with others. This is why a person who is spiritually silent is a happy person too.

А.C. [(5) 19]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(102)

Our passions close our spiritual vision. They do not allow us to see the world the way God created it. In our head we can have thoughts of several types: 1) from devils 2) from our own mind 3) from God. Based on these thoughts we assess other people. Thoughts from demons make us judge others, think about them very badly. But often we condemn through our own fault - because of the passion of pride. One day I asked my spiritual father what virtue I should exercise in first. He said that it`s better to exercise in the good thoughts about all people. When a saint came to the cell to his brother and saw that he had a clean tidy room, he thought that his brother was neat and diligent. When the same saint came to another brother and saw his dirty and messy cell then he thought: «I'm far from this brother. He despises earthly things for God's sake, he probably prays very much». And we should always seek such purity of thoughts.

В.К. [(4) 9]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(102)

St. Macarius of Optina states that, if our thoughts are pure, they will see everyone in a positive light.
I can’t say that I agree completely. It is true that faith changes your outlook on life, but it doesn’t mean that you will see everything positively. While I support the idea that every person has at least a bit of good in them, that won’t change the fact that some of them may become complete monsters, like Hitler and his closest followers. In fact, the closer you are to God, and the more vices we see in people – and in ourselves.
Sure enough, there are different ways of thinking that somebody is a fool. One may think that way about another to establish themselves as superior, while others will do so with compassion, knowing that that person is plagued by sin. As Jesus said: "Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing." [Luke 23:34] I think that there’s nothing wrong with seeing wrong in people. Even Jesus reproached sinners, as did great saints.
That is not to say that we shouldn’t try to see people in a better light. We just have to know that people are flawed.

А.C. [(4) 14]


1. A PATEN, or DISKOS, is a large plate on which the lamb is placed during the liturgy.
2. The ASTERISK, or STAR-COVER, is a star-shaped top placed on top of the diskos, mainly to prevent the Aër from touching the bread. It symbolizes the Star of Bethlehem.
3. The SPEAR is a diamond-shaped knife used to cut the liturgical bread. Its size may vary according to its uses.

А.C. [(5) 10]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(101)

Many people who deny the existence of God, explain this with the fact that God has forgotten people and allows a lot of grief. They believe that if He existed this would not have happened. In fact, everything happens because of God's love for people. If you give a man everything he wants, make him happy, then he will get his reward here on earth and will never remember God. Everything God permits, both joy and sorrow, is to change us, to make us better. We think primitively. But if we saw God's Providence, we would realize that our life is a picture, and every situation in life is a puzzle. Now we see only the puzzles, and after death we will see the whole picture of how God cared for us. We should be grateful for his love and care for us, despite our weakness and sins.

В.К. [(5) 5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(101)

«But even the very hairs of your head are all numbered» (Luke 12:7) – said the Lord in the Gospel. We should remember that, first, God is our Father, as we pray, and we are His spoiled but loved children. We are not able to survive without His help and support. These are very common words, nevertheless they are true.
God does not create evil but He can turn it out into good for our salvation. If we do not trust God that means we do not believe that He is really Almighty. All of us remember the psalm 91 (according to the Masoretic text): «He shall cover thee with his feathers, and under his wings shalt thou trust: his truth [shall be thy] shield and buckler» (Ps.91:4). Not only in this psalm but in a number of others David shows us the protection of God. Moreover, in another place the Lord said, «If a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a father, will he give him a stone? or if [he ask] a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent? Or if he shall ask an egg, will he offer him a scorpion? If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children: how much more shall [your] heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him?» (Luke 11:11-13). The Lord notes that even people being evil can do good thing, all the more He Who is sinless can do it.
We also have many examples of such help in history, even in our personal life. So we should not despond and afraid, but rather remember about all things the Lord has already done for us earlier and love Him in response.

А.Щ. [(5) 5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(101)

I completely agree with this statement. I am absolutely positive that God loves all people, even if some of us are “bad”. If a person is in peril, they should always pray and believe that God will hear them, and He will. It is also good to pray for others, as I think that a true Christian should spread God’s love, as it is commonly said.
Evidence of God’s love to us humans is shown all over in the four Gospels. Jesus taught people without using threats or physical punishment, but calmly and with patience to those who opposed Him. He only scolded the Jews and the Pharisees for their misjudgments. The new teachings of the Gospel are different from those of the Old Testament: our conformity to the Ten Commandments was based on strict rules and fear of God’s wrath, something akin to listening to a very strict parent. If the Jews didn’t follow them, they were punished. Now we follow God’s Word out of mutual love. Though it doesn’t mean that we should forget about our fear of God – everyone will be judged in the end. I also think that “Father” is a key figure in understanding God’s love – He is like a real father to us who loves and judges us accordingly. In fact, as Nilus of Sinai says, “God is love”.
We should always remember to pray during difficult times, although it is easy to forget (I myself am guilty of this). Many miracles happened to people thanks to God’s kindness and love. Of course, this is not something that can be abused – it’s not just a case of asking and receiving. If God sees that you are misguided, what you’re asking for is very unlikely to happen. In this way God shelters you from a dangerous mistake or from something that you want but are not ready for, like money, even if you are not from a well-off family.

А.C. [(5) 5]


1. In Orthodoxy Roman Catholicism a CIBORIUM is a special container where the host is stored for special purposes such as performing the Eucharist outside of the church.
2. A TABERNACLE is a special vessel in which the bread and wine for the liturgy are stored. It is located in the altar.
3. A SION or a JERUSALEM is a variant of the tabernacle which stores an extra reserve of bread and wine. It is shaped like a church.



А.C. [(0) 0]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(101)

This quote expresses an idea, which is the fundamental one for Christianity. It is about the boundless and merciful love of God. Very often people forget that God is always near them because of disbelief and faint-heartedness. Many problems and difficulties appear because of the fact that God does not hear our prayers, but it is not so. He sends adversities from above to make us better and enlighten our souls and hearts. And it is really important to understand that everything in this world and in our life is sent by Him with the only aim – to save our souls and make us worthy to inherit the Kingdom of Heaven. He is like a caring father, who does anything to give us mercy.

А.М. [(5) 5]




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3rd year of study: Spring 2017

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(98)

True Christians are those who live and work for God's sake. However, it often happens that in the same society or even in the same family we meet unbelievers. But that's not surprising. God said: "Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against her mother in law" (Matt. 10:34-35). But this does not mean that God wants us to be indifferent to their error. Instead, we should pray for them. We must not relax, not to take their example because it`s said in the Book of Psalms: "For the Lord knoweth the way of the righteous: but the way of the ungodly shall parish" (Ps. 1:6). We must give them the example of our behavior, and preach to them in deed and word. But if they don`t listen to us, we shouldn`t bother them anymore, but pray secretly for their change. The rest is in the hands of God.

В.К. [(5) 38,5]


1. THE LITTLE ENTRANCE is the final moment of the initial part of the Liturgy.
2. The DEACON is a clergyman of the Orthodox Church, and this post signifies the first degree of the priesthood.
3. The GREAT ENTRANCE reminds the Christian of the procession of Jesus Christ to suffering and death.
4. The CREED consists of twelve parts, and each of them contains a special truth, or, as they are usually called, the dogma of our Orthodox faith.
5. Many priests claim that it is better to be BAPTISED in childhood.
6. The GODPARENTS should teach the godchildren how to be members of the church.
7. BAPTISMAL CROSS must be consecrated in the Orthodox Church.
8. In Orthodox theology, because of the use of identical terms, the concept of CONFESSION, as a church sacrament, is often combined with repentance.
9. Before the flight he ASKED THE PRIEST FOR A BLESSING, because he was afraid to fly the airplane.
10. The SACRAMENT OF MARRIAGE is very important therefore it is necessary to choose the husband in a careful way.
11. The establishment of the Sacrament of CONFIRMATION dates back to the apostolic times.
12. CHRISM is a special mixture of vegetable oils, fragrant herbs and fragrant pitches; it is a symbol of HEALING.
13. The Russian Orthodox Church as a part of the Universal Church has the same DEGREES OF PRIESTHOOD as appeared at the dawn of Christianity.
14. Her brother WAS ORDAINED a priest against the will of parents.
15. In the first two centuries of the history of the Christian Church there were no PARISHES in the modern sense of the word.
16. A STOLE is a long ribbon, enveloping the neck and descending to the chest by the both ends.
17. A GIRDLE is a part of the liturgical vestments of the priest and the bishop.
18. This book tells us about VESTMENTS such as: the PANAGIA, the STOLE, the EPIGONATION, CUFFS, the SAKKOS, the MITRE, the PALITSA and the ALB, the OMOPHORION.
19. BAPTISMAL ROBES are an indispensable element of the Sacrament.
20. THE PRAYERS OF ABSOLUTION is a prayer which the priest utters at the end of the sacrament of confession.
21. In ancient times those who were married wore CROWNS for seven days.
22. According to the teachings of historical churches, the grace of the Holy Spirit is shared by APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION.
23. The priest's VESTMENTS may indicate his position in the Orthodox Church.

А.М. [(15,5) 54]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(100)

The struggle against the passions - is the task of every Christian. All people are students, and our life is a spiritual university. Like in any institute, there are those who succeed more than others. In the spiritual life we call them elders. Therefore it`s better to follow their experience of struggle against evil habits. The elder Abba Dorotheus advises to analyze how you have spent the day every evening, and every morning to analyze how you have spent the night and repent before God for what you have sinned. "Not those, who once got angry, are called the irascible, and not the one who gave alms once, is called merciful. Our soul obtains the skill of doing good or bad things." (Abba Dorotheus) So we should do good deeds not to let evil habits take root within us, and also we must constantly analyze ourselves.

В.К. [(3,5) 33,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(99)

At the first sight it seems uncertain how to trust God fully. It seems to us that if we cease to care about a lot of stuff our life will stop, we will become poor and will have no food and clothes. But of course we shouldn`t think in such extremes. The task of any Christian is to do all that stuff, but not to give ourselves to it, not to give it our heart, but give it to God. In practice, it is easy to do it. Any work should start with prayer. Before starting anything, think if you really need it or not. Every little care needs to be commited to God. And we must always remember that He is watching us right now. If we keep this way of life, then gradually we will learn how to sincerely understand the meaning of the words «Thy will be done».

В.К. [(3,5) 30]


1) The communists DEFILED a huge number of shrines and churches, but fortunately it ended.
2) Man sees the world in a distorted way because his nature is CORRUPTED.
3) Every Christian perceives Jerusalem as HALLOWED ground.
4) Boris and Gleb were ones the first PASSION BEARERS in Russian history.
5) Today, the HOLY DOORS are an integral part of the iconostasis.
6) CONDEMNATION is the most difficult sin to struggle against.
7) It is necessary to accept people as they are, despite of their TRANSGRESSIONS.
8) A queue of COMMUNICANTS lined up in front of the priest.
9) H.P. Lovecraft wrote about GUILISH things.
10) One of the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch illustrates THE DREAD JUDGEMENT OF CHRIST.
11) Christians should look for THE AGE TO COME.
12) A huge number of Russian temples were DEFILED under Soviet power.
13) Holy relics are usually not CORRUPTED.
14) The members of the Imperial Family who were murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1918 are notable PASSION BEARERS.
15) Unfortunately, many people don’t think about PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS of Gospel in their lives.
16) Don’t be afraid to rely on him – I have known him for a long time, so I can figure out he is rather FAITHFUL.
17) Materialism and an irresistible desire to acquire new things can lead you to a LATENT IDOLATRY.
18) As the tradition says, the Icon of the Virgin of Iveron was saved from THE ICONOCLASTS by a devout and righteous widow.
19) THE DISGRACE OF THE DEMONS is described in one of the books of the Old Testament.
20) I’ve never seen a film called «BEGOTTEN», because according to the reviews it’s atmosphere is sinister.
21) In the MUSLEM tradition God is able to make a person believe and love Him, despite of one’s will.
22) THE MONOPHELITE HERESY was rejected at the sixth Ecumenical Council, so it was false.
23) He led THE SOLITARY LIFE, that’s why his colleagues had no idea about his traits.
24) THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY is rejected by the sect called Jehovah's Witnesses.
25) SAINT CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA was a brilliant commentator of the Bible and in his interpretations followed the allegorical method.
26) A lot of Old Believers DEVIATED INTO ERROR AND HERESY after the Russian Orthodox Church split into two parts.
27) The Slavs had sculptural images of deities - idols - at the time of PAGANISM.
28) We can notice some features of PAGAN RITES in our modern culture.
29) She was famous for her great CHARITABLE WORK and suppport for the poor.
30) The contemporaries of Lermontov said, that at first sight he was rather ACRIMONIOUS.
31) He did not get on well with the team, so he was extremely INTEMPERATE.
32) The Feast of Orthodoxy, also known as THE TRIUMPH OF ORTHODOXY is celebrated on the first Sunday of Great Lent.
33) Aristotle wrote about MATTER and existence.

А.М. [(15) 38,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(97)

It is important to understand what is a cross in a person's life. The cross has a symbolic meaning. To carry it signifies to follow Christ, to believe in Him and strive to live by His commandments. When we lose all these things our life becomes tepid, which is very terrible. Such a person will not move in the direction of light or darkness. His life is not cold, when he rejects God, and is not warm, when he tries to intertwine his life with God. Tepidness is a kind of indifference, when one does not care about God and belief. It means spiritual death. That's why it's important to carry the cross and not to lose it.

А.М. [(3) 23,5]


"Orthodox Quote of the Week"
(94)

I agree with this statement. If a person is convinced that he is telling the truth, is it right to try to prove something? The real truth does not need any evidence.
Sometimes when we prove our opinion, we want to rise above the interlocutor, to point out his wrongness, because we have pride in us, and we will not miss the opportunity to show off. Such situations can lead people to a dispute and quarrel. And sooner or later the interlocutor will understand that he was wrong. Only humility, patience and love help other people correct themselves.

А.М. [(4,5) 20,5]












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