Система Orphus

Religious Vocabulary
texts by graduate students

* graduation year

Условные обозначения:
  • CAPITALS: active vocabulary words and collocations students have used
  • Underline: elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Underline and Delete: superfluous erroneous elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Italics: where appropriate, elements which explain the corrected mistakes
  • Dotted underline: elements not graded for various reasons (e.g. dubious or erroneous statements, vague in meaning).
  • [numbers in brackets]: grades students have accumulated by the time of this post (include grades for word tests)
  • [(number in parenthesis inside the brackets)]: grades the student has received for this particular post
  • [underlined numbers in brackets]: mid-term grades (include grades for word tests, class attendance, posts, as well as deductions in fines)
  • [numbers in brackets in bold type]: total number of grades students have accumulated throughout the semester (continuous assessment)

2nd year of study: Autumn 2017

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I see the point of this quote by Elder Porphyrios. It means that everyone has to make an effort to be worthy to be called a Christian. I absolutely agree with this statement because I see that in our modern life it’s hard to find time for going to the church. I enjoy going there but when you are studying or working 6 days a week you have no any strength to get up and go somewhere. I’m looking for a reason and think that I can pray at home, but I understand how wrong the idea is. This statement is completely motivating to follow the rules of Holy Fathers and try to be saved with my diligence and effort.

Я.Б. [(2,5) 32]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

1925. Spring. M.A. Bulgakov just finished his new novel, A Dog’s Heart. Readers were amazed by the character Sharikov who had been transformed from a dog and became a man. Let us say that he was like “created” in the image of a man and Dr. Preobrazhensky expected him to behave as a man does, to be like a man. Because having become a human being you can’t act like a dog anymore: it is abnormal and looks crazy.
A human being is created in the image of God, but each of us is also called to seek the Divine likeness. If a man is a Divine image it means he cannot be but to be like Him.

М.Я. [(4,5) 36,5]

1. THE NICENE-CONSTANTINOPOLITAN CREED, or simply the Creed, is the symbol of Faith that was formulated at the FIRST and SECOND ECUMENICAL COUNCILS in 325 and 381 correspondingly.
2. The ritual of the Church was observed in all its SOLEMNITIES.
3. This collection provides verses for the OFFERTORY CHANTS of the Mass for the Sundays and SOLEMNITIES of the Church Year.
4. According to the Roman Missal WATER and WINE CRUETS, small vessels for containing the wine and water that are required for the HOLY SACRIFICE of the Mass, should be made of glass. However, other materials such as gold, silver and other precious metals are used. But in this case it is recommended to write the letters V on the WINE-CRUET and A on the WATER-CRUET lest they are confused.
5. Have you heard of Katherine Pracht’s new CD The Shakespeare Concerts Series, Vol.6: No Enemy but Winter and Rough Weather? I look forward to listening to the track "The Tempest": BESEECH You Sir, Be Merry.
6. ‘THE CHALICE OF SALVATION’ is a televised one-hour weekly Mass. It is broadcast every Sunday morning at 10 a.m. on NBC. It was produced by the Catholic Communications Corporation of the Diocese of Springfield 60 years ago.
7. When Noah offered his initial sacrifice after the year-long Flood, God SMELLED SWEET SAVOUR. The Lord promised that He would never again curse the earth or destroy any living thing with water.
8. The Americans sincerely consider themselves the God’s ELECT.
9. In Acts 9:31 the King James translation of the plural word "churches" should actually be the singular "church", which describes the UNIVERSAL CHURCH not just local churches.
10. Mary of Egypt, having accepted her WICKEDNESS and VICE, prayed to the Lord FERVENTLY with the CONTRITE HEART. So God VOUCHSAFED her an ABSOLUTION.
11. We all TRAVAIL and are HEAVY-LADEN. Only in God we can find PROPITIATION for our sins.
12. Our Lady Virgin Mary is our main ADVOCATE for all Christians the world over.
13. There is a belief that on CANDLEMAS DAY winter meets spring.
14. There is an interesting fact that in the WESTERN CHURCH Lent starts on Wednesday while in the EASTERN CHURCH – on Monday. For instance, in England the first day of the Lent is ASH WEDNESDAY, but in Russia it is called Clean Monday.
15. WHITSUNDAY had a Vigil much like the Great Vigil of Easter.
16. MAUNDY THURSDAY (Holy Thursday) is the Thursday of Passion Week one day before GOOD FRIDAY. On Maundy Thursday traditionally Patriarch washes his CONCELEBRANTS' feet in memory of Christ’s act of washing His disciples’ feet before establishing the Mystery of EUCHARIST.

М.Я. [(13) 32]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The Orthodox Church venerates the cross due to the suffering of the Savior and His atoning sacrifice. Often personal sorrows, hardships become for the Christian an act of faith capable of plunging to despair or strengthening to trust in God and His will. However how difficult it is to find the right words to help a struggling Christian to perceive their plight. How difficult it is for each of us to understand and accept the pain of soul and body, which sometimes seems intolerable and may obscure as if with a black veil the immensity of God's love.
"Resignation" is an important condition for the discovery of the human inner spiritual strength necessary to carry his cross. It is very important to clearly understand what our cross is.
The Gospel and Church history certainly suggests that the cross, if it is really the cross of God, however overwhelming it can be, may not be ruinous to the person, that each of us will certainly be given from the Lord a supply of inner strength to overcome sufferings.

Я.Б. [(2,5) 29,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Many who hears complaints about life say: "Pray to God. He is good and cares about us". "Yes, thank you for your teaching. Without you we would not know", - one could answer them.
We are ready to obey the commandments. And we expect, naturally, that God can fulfill our desires for this. Well, for example: someone wants to find a job, because for more than a year he or she had not been working. He/she was told: "Take a newspaper advertisement". Funny to listen to!...It was said — pray to God. So a lot of people pray and think today: how many opportunities God has to fulfill their requests!
Is it right or wrong that we are waiting for a miracle from God, but in our mind He is like a magician? People like to bargain with God, moreover, someone even tries to know His will, but for what?
Each person thinks that he knows his destiny better than anyone else, he knows that on Friday he finishes work at 5:00, on Saturday goes shopping and so on, and what about Sunday? Does he wait for a miracle?
In my personal opinion, it’s rather difficult to commit all our problems to God, because it means that we should forget about them for a while. But it’s like riding a bike, firstly, you are afraid of it, then it becomes one of your favourite "activities".

Я.Б. [(2,5) 27]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

If we had only kind and helpful habits, we would be the saints. But it is all because of our tongue. Apostle James said that the tongue is an unruly evil, we can tame every kind of beasts, and can’t tame our own one. So, of course, is one of the bad habits – to speak first, and think later. We must first think, then speak, – think what to say, when to say it and what the consequences will be. Even the Russian proverb teaches: the word is silver, silence is gold.
In general, any distraction in us is our bad habit. The attention is the soul of prayer, it can helps us to get rid of bad habits but we have distraction in prayer too. Where there is no focus, there is no soul in prayer.
Therefore, the Holy fathers advise us not to clatter the text of the prayer, not to rush in private prayer, whether morning, evening, or just some short prayer. It is important to have in mind the words of the prayer. The text of the prayer must be comprehended, you have to understand what you read. If we can't hear ourselves, and don't understand what we are saying, how can we hear God? The Lord surely hears what we say, and sees what is wrong. And we have to fight with bad habits, we only should pray carefully with great diligence.

Я.Б. [(2,5) 24,5]

1. PASSIONTIDE is a very important period in my spiritual life, when I’m trying to overcome the last temptations of the Lent.
2. I try to keep in my mind the Lord’s ATONEMENT for us.
3. Sometimes RETICENCE is much better than an unnecessary dogma (like the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary).

C.C. [(1,5) 35]

The CAHNCEL AREA, which is separated from the nave by the ROOD-SCREEN, is used to protect the blessed sacrament from irrelevant access or abuse.
Most of the people would give a PROFOUND BOW in front of the icon before kissing it.
If a person seeks to spend the EVERLASTING LIFE with God, they need to make sure they don’t have any GRIEVOUS sins on their conscience.
The service of HOLY SATURDAY is full of light, majesty and joyful anticipation of the greatest Feast in Orthodox tradition.
The turning point in the parable of the prodigal son is the moment when the son realized his INIQUITY and decided to return to his father and BESEECH him to PARDON his sins. The Church reminds us of this important parable of our Lord on SEPTUAGESIMA Sunday.
Although PASCHALTIDE is the time when everyone rejoices and glorifies the resurrected Christ, we should not forget that it can also be a time of big temptations. It happens because the CRAFTY enemy of the human race constantly seeks to do harm to people and we should always be prepared for it.
Deacons don’t have a rite to ADMINISTER THE HOLY SACRAMENTS.
We always need to remember that we are called to SUCCOR one another and especially those in need.
In order to perform the ASPERSION the CELEBRANT needs a WATER-CRUET and a SPRINKLER.

Е.Г. [(8,5) 65]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

The point which St. Augustine makes in the given quote has to do with our ability to understand and interpret the Scriptures in the right way. First of all, he believes that we can gain this understanding only through piety and godliness of our life, because the lack of it leads to a misinterpretation and even absolute inability to comprehend the message. A proud and conceited person is bound to miss the point and therefore can never hope to follow Christ. Another idea that we can infer from the quote is that a critical discussion doesn’t seem to be the right approach to the interpretation of the Scriptures. A Christian should research and beseech God to give him the answers to the questions he has, but never criticize and doubt the words of the Bible. Critical thinking in this case seems to be inappropriate, as it is usually a quality of a proud and arrogant person.

Е.Г. [(5) 56,25]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

For a number of years we could hear: “A long skirt isn’t so important for the Orthodox. If you are fasting, eat that you are given coming to your friends. Love is above all! Pray shortly, but attentively. Going pass the church, if you are shy crossing you fingers, pray mentally” and so on. And it’s amazing, because it seems that this advice became popular among people and now it is standardizing. It is rather easy to “practice obedience” when you are said “don’t bother yourself” than in the case when you are required doing the opposite. Meanwhile, freedom is the lot of the committed while we who are weak and sinful, are in need of the law. So, the point is we should follow the laws and advice that we are given by Our Lord. We can see church people who give us the real example, without any doubts and do not listen to anybody with their “easy labour”.

Я.Б. [(3,5) 22]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

As I see it, one of the ideas Father Seraphim is trying to get across in this passage is that nowadays it is extremely hard and challenging to make people burn with the desire to live in the way Christ asks us to live. It is undoubtedly true. It is deeply upsetting but in the age when amassing more and more material possessions and making yourself as comfortable in life as possible becomes the overriding priority, there is no place for the Divine commandments. Father Seraphim believes that the only possible way to change the situation for the better is to encourage people to follow the examples of those who are righteous and pious in their deeds and thoughts. In my view, this is undoubtedly a sensible suggestion. However, we should not overlook the fact that it is becoming harder and harder to make people follow any good examples, especially those which imply and lead to the need to drastically change your attitude and eventually your whole life.

Е.Г. [(4) 51,25]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

To be honest, the notion of humility still remains to be a mysterious and in no way a clear-cut concept for me. Perhaps, it means that there's still a long way to go till I am able to attain it. Thus, it is a bit difficult for me to comment on this quote, although I do believe that the author makes a very important point in it. From my personal experience, I remember the times when I sincerely believed that there is no need to restrain the heart, since it's so very important to follow your own heart and feelings, why restraining it? But as I got older, I started noticing that our heart and our feelings quite often mislead and deceive us, consequently making us unable to hear the voice of God in our soul. Moreover, our heart frequently tells us to do things which are not right at all, or makes us long for the things which eventually will be very harmful for our soul. Therefore, I am convinced that we need to restrain our destructive wishes and desires, but in order to do this we first need to become humble and meek, and really believe that God knows better what is essential for us.

Е.Г. [(5) 47,25]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree with this statement. When you don’t know what actually you are, all your spiritual life is like a spiritual game. You play an imagined role of a sinner or of a righteous one, but you still know nothing about your true identity. When one bears the mask of a sinner, he displays false piety, humility and obedience, but he hardly believes that he is a great sinner — it’s a sort of playing. It’s a role of a tax collector who thanks God that he is not a Pharisee. The opposite role is also misleading: it’s a role of the Pharisee himself, and this mask also displays false piety, humility and obedience, but in another way. The passion of pride is more recognizable in this case.
It’s so easy to say: ‘don’t bear this mask, just remove it’, but it’s so hard to attain the seeing of one’s soul, even your own soul. The ascetic practice, of course, is not the aim of spiritual life, but one of the most efficient ways to achieve the true goal – the seeing of the soul, of all its hidden movements, desires and moods.
Sometimes I’m afraid of seeing the sinner inside me, but at other moments I clearly understand that there is nothing frightening when I am with God, even the very sinner inside me. In this way I can see a sin inside me and do not panic about it. Maybe in this way I’m becoming little wiser.

C.C. [(4) 33]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree with these words, although it seems there is a great danger of their misinterpretation. Sometimes you could observe an ugly thing: false humility. If true humility means responsibility, the false one is an escape from responsibility — even when it takes humiliation. People with this problem may really believe themselves as the last people in the word, but still not want to take responsibility and to act deliberately. However even the elder can't take the complete burden of others' responsibility. We are called to imitate Christ in His humility and His bearing of humiliation, and He was really responsible person in His humiliation. So, taking responsibility, we can't forget the general purpose of all our actions: salvation, and the greatest fulfillment of them: love. Love is a chief reason of Christ's decision to humiliate Himself in order to redeem mankind, and it should be the main cause of our serving to brothers and even to enemies. It’s the greatest example of humiliation in love. Love is the biggest burden in the world, but this burden is light and this yoke is easy. The groundwork for true humility is love, and only in love we can be partakers of the humiliation of Christ and of all His disciples: the Saints.

C.C. [(5) 16,25]

The life-giving Resurrection of our Saviour Jesus Christ is the highest Feast of the Church, the "SOLEMNITY of Solemnities".
Unlike Roman Catholics, the term CREDENCE is not widespread among the Eastern Orthodox, as the latter use the term the Table of Oblation instead.
Originally OFFERTORY was a part of the Communion service during which the collection of alms was performed, that is why it was essential for it to be either spoken or sung.
I had to obey his instruction and PROFFERED my hand towards the animal, open palm upwards.

Е.Г. [(1,5) 42,25]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

To my mind, these are very wise words and I couldn't agree with them more. However, from my own experince I can say that living up to these words is extremely challenging. At some point in our life I believe we all start noticing that our perception of ourselves quite often stands far from the reality, as we all believe ourselves to be better people than we actually are. In a way it is normal because it's human nature to love and care about oneself and we honestly want to appear and be better. However, it is extremely harmful to always view yourself through rose-coloured spectacles as it leads to self-satisfaction and conceit and, in fact, deprives you of any desire for perfecting yourself. As a result, such person's spiritual state will gradually deteriorate and eventually they can lose the image and likeness of God in themselves. On the other hand, those who try to be honest with themselves and constantly evaluate their state critically are wise people indeed, and they clearly have better chances to succeed in working on themselves, trying to imitate Christ and living by His commandments.

Е.Г. [(4,5) 40,75]

1. Boy, have you got any idea about the difference between A CELEBRANT and A CONCELEBRANT? You know, yesterday I popped in a church where there was a SIMPLE LITURGY or maybe a VOTIVE LITURGY or LITURGY OF THE DEAD or SOLEMN LITURGY, well it doesn’t matter, I’m not really well up in these services. So, and I heard the people nearby discussing, even arguing about the meaning of these two nominations of PRIESTS.
Well, you know, A CELEBRANT is a person who officiates at a religious ceremony, especially a marriage or the EUCHARIST. As for a CONCELEBRANT, I suppose, this is one that concelebrates a Eucharist or MASS. So in fact there is no difference between these two names: any celebrant becomes a concelebrant in a group of celebrants. Clear?
Oh, yeah, the penny dropped, buddy! Thanks.

2. - Well, Watson, what do you make of it?
- I can draw some conclusions from these facts. First, according to the knife wound our victim has been killed by a left-handed person. Second, the murderer might be a clergyman.
- My dear Watson, your first conclusion is quite clear for me and even sounds plausible. But the second one? You’ve perplexed me. How did you know it?
- You, Mr. Holmes, probably haven’t noticed that the population of this village is not numerous, so there is no difficulty in finding left-handers. There is just one left-handed person living here – SUBDEACON Jacob Moriston. Several days ago on SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY I went to church, I came so early that even was present at the PREPARATORY PRAYERS and the INTROIT. When it was about ASPERSION part, the SUBDEACON came up with me holding a SPRINKLER in his hand, the left hand.
- My dear Watson, it’s a hasty judgment. If you had been more careful while examining the victim’s wound you would have noticed that the wound was given roughly. Consequently, the murderer being right-handed deliberately gave an injury with his left hand in order to perplex us and mislead…

М.Я. [(6) 19]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I concur with Elder Basilisk’s statement, for Christ says if you want to be the first in the face of God, be the last and a servant to your fellow. And furthermore, in His preaching He conveys a very significant thought that conforms to Elder Basilisk’ words, The disciple is not above his master: but every one that is perfect shall be as his master (Luke 6:40).

М.Я. [(4) 4]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Firstly, the quote states that people should not give way to despondency in their lives and explains the reasons for it. Since the Adam and Eve's fall we are under God's penance, that is why we cannot be dissatisfied or displeased with something that is happening to us. Nor are we allowed to judge the ways of God. In such a fallen state, which all human being are in, the only thing that can save us is some "bitter medicine", such as various hardships, deprivations and difficulties.
All of this is, of course, very logical and absolutely right. However, the problem is that to accept it and whole-heartedly stick to it during the whole life requires a great degree of humbleness and meekness. We need to literally fight our self-conceit and accept that we are nothing and that we live only because God allows us to do so. And that He knows best what is useful and truly beneficial for us. In this case we'll stop moaning and grumbling about different events in our life, which didn't really happen in the way we wanted them to. And we'll become joyous and grateful to God, and this is the state we all should aspire to.

Е.Г. [(5) 36,25]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree whole-heartedly with the words of St. Paisios and can think of some cases from my own life that prove it. I believe almost in everyone's life there were people who supported and believed in you, which eventually gave you the motivation, determination and confidence in your abilities. As a result, you were able to do something that seemed to be utterly impossible, for instance, you managed to fight some passions of yours, which quite often appears to be a truly impossible feat. Moreover, I would argue that in order to undergo any drastical change in themselves, both in the spiritual and everyday life, people need an understanding, supportive and loving person nearby, because without such support it is a very challenging and demanding task to perform. Indeed, it was commanded to us to "bear one another's burdens", and I believe that if we do so, with God's help, it can help our neighbours to change for the better.

Е.Г. [(5) 31,25]

1) If you are planning to become a choir director, it is essential for you to be able to understand and interpret RUBRICAL NOTES.
2) While in Protestant services HYMNS are in most cases accompanied by an organ, Eastern chant is always a capella.
3) MANIPLE was first used in Rome at the beginning of the 6th century; furthermore, from the letters of Gregory the Great we learn that it was also worn in Ravenna closer to the end of the same century.
4) The word 'SACRISTY' was borrowed from French in the late Middle English period, with its spelling remaining virtually unchanged.
5) APOPHATIC THEOLOGY is used because otherwise it's impossible to describe God's essence which is beyond our human understanding.
6) The word ORDO can be used to denote a religious order in monasticism as well as a book of rubrics.

Е.Г. [(3) 26,25]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Truth be told, I cannot say that I fully understand and support these words of St. Ignatius. In particular I wonder what is meant by a "false understanding of prayer". I may suggest that St. Ignatius is speaking here about the way in which prayer is understood not as a true live converstaion with God, whereas, to my mind this is the right conception of prayer. If a person treats prayer in a kind of magical way instead, i. e. he or she believes that simply pronouncing the words of prayer is enough and any personal relation with God is unnecessary, such an understanding will indeed be hazardous because it distorts the very idea of prayer. However, if you realize that in the very moment of prayer you are speaking to a living God, who is everywhere present and hears everything, such prayer cannot be harmful even if you, for instance, do not know the exact words of the prayer or pronounce something incorrectly. In the first place the Lord looks into our souls, and as long as we come to the prayer with a pure and loving heart, our prayer will be beneficial.

Е.Г. [(5) 15]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Every believer faces the danger of addiction to the words of the prayers and distractions during prayer. To prevent this, people must constantly fight with it, as the Holy Fathers said “guard your mind”, to learn “to enter into the mind in a word of prayer”.
First of all, you can't afford to say the words, when the mind and heart don't answer them. If you started to say the prayer, but in the middle of it, your attention has strayed, return to the place where attention had dissipated and repeat the prayer. If necessary, repeat it three times, five, ten times, but make sure that your entire being responded.

Я.Б. [(4) 15,5]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

After some time of reflection I agreed with this statement, although initially I didn’t want to agree with it. I even tried to imagine the situation, when it could be wrong, but the result was poor: I wasn’t able to invent such situation. But the opposite example, which is completely in agreement with St. Ignatius’s statement, can be easily remembered. Sometimes I can see that even a hearty repetition of prayer without any measure can be fruitless. Primarily it seems normal, but then this prayer could become a sort of routine, and even bothersome routine, and after that, if you don’t change your practice, you could feel loath and hatred to prayer and even to the person about whom the prayer is. The end of this way, of course, can be more lamentable and more harmful than even that.
Of course, the vulgarization and routinization of prayer is not the only false conception of it. The imagination, not controlled and even cultivated sometimes in prayer, usually, if not always, is a great danger.
Maybe it’s possible to say that the lack of actual repentance, the true metanoia, is a first cause of these awful results. You don’t change your mind, and so your prayer begins to be routine. You don’t fight with your imagination, and so there is no room to repentance in your spirit. So the presence of repentance is one of major points in true conception of prayer.

C.C. [(5) 11,25]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

We often have to deal with passive fatalism when people feel unable to confront the circumstances. Then, without any thoughts about meaning of their words, they throw such a phrase like "Lord's will" or even someone likes to say "Lord has many more other things besides me".
Each of these people hardly understands that Our Lord lives everywhere and always in our mind, thoughts, words and actions, but we only should try to love him and keep His commandments and of course we can see Holy protection over us. We just have to believe Him and entrust all into His hands then we will not have to be afraid.

Я.Б. [(4) 6]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

Of course, only saints and ascetics could talk about receiving thoughts from God and the Angels. People who are on the stages of purification are affected by both Angels and evil spirits. We usually do not pay attention, where there is a new idea, whence it originated. And it's so important to understand and define. Is it from the right — from Angels, or left — from the evil spirit. Thoughts from demons are filled with embarrassment and sadness. The thought of God comes with joy.

Я.Б. [(2) 2]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I agree with the quote. A person is able to see in others only the things he experienced in his own life, in his own soul. In this respect, a story with Adam and Eve comes to my mind: until they tried the forbidden fruit, they couldn’t see their nakedness because they knew only the good and no evil. But with this fruit the ability to see bad things appeared in them, their thoughts and frame of mind changed drastically.
A person who is holy in his thoughts and way of life sees the same in others. In the same way, when you yourself have some bad thoughts and passions, you start to suspect that others also do have them, simply because you know that these passions exist and you are probably not alone in having them. This attitude, however, is not the best one to have.

Е.Г. [(5) 10]

"Orthodox Quote of the Week"

I fully agree with the statement and believe that almost everyone of us was given a chance to feel it at some point. God is our Heavenly Father, it was He who created us, gave us different talents and the possibility of achieving Life Eternal. He loves and cares about us, hoping that we’ll be turning to Him for help.
However, it’s sometimes difficult for me to believe that God is with us in each and every moment. How can He be with us when we are so unclean, unworthy and full of sins and transgressions? Indeed, it’s impossible to comprehend it with our limited mind and that is why it’s a matter of faith. And surely, if God is with us, we should have nothing to worry about or be afraid of, as He is all Love and Compassion and will never give us the cross we’ll be unable to carry.

Е.Г. [(5) 5]

И.С. [9]

Hosted by uCoz