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General / Business Vocabulary
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texts by students



Условные обозначения:
  • CAPITALS: active vocabulary words and collocations students have used
  • Underline: elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Underline and Delete: superfluous erroneous elements that have been corrected by the tutor
  • Italics: where appropriate, elements which explain the corrected mistakes
  • [numbers in brackets]: overall number of grades students have accumulated by the time of this post (include grades for word tests)
  • [numbers in brackets in bold type]: total number of grades students have accumulated throughout the semester (continuous assessment)


Group 353: SPRING 2014

EVU Advanced


Unit 51:

My teenage sister loves magazines in which there are FEATURES on singers, actors and fashion. She finds it extremely exciting to read about that. Another thing that attracts her is AGONY COLUMNS which she finds very useful for herself. She even wrote to an AGONY AUNT about her own problem but hasn't got a reply yet.

Unit 58:

Even if you don't follow any particular diet it's very important to eat healthy. For instance, it is vital to keep the level of CHOLESTEROL within the limits of norm. Otherwise if the limits are exceeded it can promote the production of a fatty PLAQUE that can clog the arteries. Cholestrol-rich foods such as eggs, shellfish and OFFAL don't significantly raise cholesterol levels since the cholestrol in them is broken down efficiently and then EXCRETED. But still they should be eaten in moderation.
Apart from healthy eating you should try to do sports at least a little. Running, or swift walking, don't require any special training and are very efficient form of CARDIOVASCULAR exercise. It also helps DIABETICS by improving GLUCOSE tolerance and reducing INSULIN resistance. What is more, it improves your mood as it raises levels of the MOOD ENHANCER, serotonin.

Unit 5:

LOAN WORDS or BORROWINGS are one of the means by which a language extends its LEXICON. It happens due to different historical and cultural events that always have certain LINGUISTIC CONSEQUENCES. Thanks to the borrowed words the WORD STOCK of a language often gets hugely ENRICHED, and sometimes the loan words can even replace the original ones. Nowadays there are a lot of words in different languages which are pronounced and written in almost the same way, E.G. (Unit 1) 'TONIC', 'HARA-KIRI', 'HAMMOCK', 'TURBAN'. These words mean the same things. But there are also words that may look alike but have different meanings. Such words are termed as FALSE FRIENDS and can be an annoying diffulty for translators and interpreters.

Unit 7:

I've been working at my job for a few years already. I know all my WORKMATES and have good WORKING RELATIONSHIPS with them. We socialise but usually try not to TALK SHOP.
It's A NINE-TO-FIVE JOB and the workers have to CLOCK IN and CLOCK OUT. It can be disturbing sometimes in the mornings because of the traffic jams and the boss is usually rather strict about the staff being late.
I have a very heavy WORKLOAD, although the job is not REPETITIVE which makes it LIGHTER. I'm currently thinking about WORKING FLEXI-TIME in another company or even becoming a TELEWORKER so that I could devote more time to my family and self-development. I'm tired of being STUCK BEHIND THE DESK and want to bring some positive changes to my life.

О.К. [76,1]


Units 56, 57:

She gave me a PRESCRIPTION with a long list of different MEDICINES. Since I had only used HERBAL MEDICINE before, I had absolutely no idea of what the correct DOSAGES are and what SIDE EFFECTS can be caused by this MEDICATION. I only knew that I had to ask her to give me a SICK NOTE for my employer as he keeps saying that our SYMPTOMS are not a valid reason for being off work.

Units 51, 52

One cannot deny that E-COMMERCE is a fast-growing part of economies of many different countries throughout the world. Due to the fact that nowadays an increasing number of people prefer SURFING THE WEB to going to all kinds of shops, a number of DOTCOMs has soared in recent years. But since not all people are so well acquainted with this form of doing business, our company provides free BOOKLETS which are PACKED WITH useful tips for organising a business on the Internet, EXPOSING you to some hidden facts concerning this type of business.

Units 58, 81

I suggest that we don`t SKATE AROUND a subject today so let`s get directly to the point. You remember that last time we couldn`t REACH A COMPROMISE ON the most important issue of salaries for our future employees. Nevertheless, all of you CONCURRED that our aim is to provide a LEVEL PLAYING FIELD for everyone interested, that is why we should avoid MOVING THE GOALPOSTS and MAKING any CONCESSIONS must be strictly prohibited.

E.Г. [87,7]


Units 20,23,24

When Paul graduated from the university, he realized that he had to BE PRO-ACTIVE and PUT HIMSELF ABOUT in order to CLIMB THE CAREER LADDER. He gave a LAUNCH PARTY for the publication of his paper in a PENTHOUSE with MINIMALIST furnishing that he INHERITED from his grandfather who had recently PASSED AWAY. Paul HAD A TIME OF HIS LIFE there and got some promising to DO LUNCH sometime.

Units 42,54,99

Yesterday I bought a copy of the ”National Geographic” and there a description of the Chinese New Year RECEIVED A LOT OF COVERAGE. It is CELEBRATED between January 10 and February 19 by all Chinese around the world. The seasonal FESTIVITIES are FLAMBOYANT and RAUCOUS and all the CEREMONIES very SPECTACULAR.

Units 8,12,22

Helen was from a well-off family who preferred the first schools in league tables and she excelled at sciences. Her parents wanted a lucrative career for her, but she valued job satisfaction more. She was also a self-confessed scruff and dress codes put her off immediately. So she decided to seek a career in archeology.

Units 27, 41, 28

There was a highly interesting article in the latest issue of the JOURNAL about various SYNTHETIC ingredients which are widely used in food industry today. I found out that most food labels are barely CREDIBLE. Take for example WHOLESOME. How could I be so GULLABLE as to ASCRIBE my well-being to eating those cereal bars! Now I will TAKE every label WITH A PINCH OF SALT.

UNITS 29,31,32

Mr and Mrs Tennisson have just had THE HOLIDAY OF A LIFETIME. They had always dreamed to WANDER OFF THE BEATEN TRACK and WERE SEEKING SOMETHING OUT OF THE ORDINARY. So, they had put away a considerable sum of money and WENT ON A CRUISE. They got a DELUXE CABIN on the UPPER DECK and enjoyed IMPECCABLE service. The crew was GOING OUT OF THEIR WAY to please them because they were getting through money like water.

М.С. [64]


Units 14, 15:

It was LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT for me and Danielle, and as the weeks went by I became more and more BESOTTED WITH him. It was like we were KINDRED SPIRITS and we felt a close BOND between each other. The moment I saw him I understood he was A MAN AFTER MY OWN HEART and after some time it turned out that we were true SOULMATES. I developed my FONDNESS for him and soon he moved to my place and everything was perfect. We GOT ON LIKE A HOUSE ON FIRE, being together all the time. Years went by, Danielle has become my LIFELONG COMPANION, but the first intimation of DISCORD appeared when we ran a company and became BUSSINESS PARTNERS. Our relationships suddenly became BUMBY and all the AMIABILITY faded away into nothing.

Unit 17:

My boss is looking at me with LOATHING. His steady gaze is only beginning to show a hint of SCORN. Suddenly I realised that this is a REPULSIVE kind of office and it is the REVOLTING job that I've been doing for so much time. I think I absolutely ABHOR this room with all these BLAND and DOWDY clerks. I don't think I am going to work here any more.

Unit 20:

His grandfather BEQUEATHED a big fortune and his three sons INHERITED all this from him after he had PERISHED. He was known as an energetic person who HAD ALL HIS WITS ABOUT HIM. He was BURIED in the local cemetery with all the solemnities.

А.Б. [51,6]


Units 27, 41, 28:

These MEMOIRS are ASCRIBED to an unknown traveller of the 19th century. His story is a COMPELLING account of great adventures, BREATHTAKING ACHIEVEMENTS and journey of self-discovery that everyone will find completely CREDIBLE. In fact, it has ALL THE INGREDIENTS OF an ENIGMATIC novel - until the very end you never know what is going to happen.

Units 31, 32, 29:

If you are yearning to GET BACK TO NATURE and WANDER OFF THE BEATEN TRACK, Phoenix Islands look a PROMISING CHOICE for you. You are tired of HORDES of people and of being WINED AND DINED in the city every night - then it`s time to try something OUT OF THE ORDINARY. There you`ll find the WEALTH OF wildlife that will help you to UNWIND and GET AWAY FROM IT ALL.

E.Г. [53,9]


Unit 27:

I've never enjoyed reading MEMOIRS as the ones I came across were rather HEAVY GOING and it was difficult to GET INTO them. But the one by E.Fedorov turned out to be a COMPELLING TALE of BREATHTAKING ACHIEVEMENTS, extraordinary adventures and significant discoveries in the Arctic. It was a real PAGE-TURNER for me and I COULDN'T PUT IT DOWN.

Units 28, 41:

As long as I've known John, he has always been very concerned about food and an ADHERENT OF the most RADICAL approach to it. Being a vegan, he behaves in a bit FANATICAL way sometimes when choosing food. He doesn't really care about food being without GM or SYNTHETIC ingredients. The only thing that bothers him is to exclude any type of animal products out of his diet. Lack of some substances damages his not very strong health but all the arguments for not being a vegan are IMPLAUSIBLE for him. This BIGOTRY is rather dangerous for his physical well-being and may end up badly.

Units 31, 32:

When going to Iceland we decided to travel ECONOMY class with BUDGET fares. There were some RESTRICTIONS but it was considerably cheaper than the other variants we were offered. We stayed at a WATERFRONT CHALET with STUNNING and AWE-INSPIRING view from the windows. It was a quiet place with no HORDS of people so we were lucky to ESCAPE THE CROWD and relax enjoying the landscapes around.

О.К. [36,1]


Units 42, 54, 99:

The story about the scandal during the CELEBRATIONS of the CENTENERY of our town HIT THE HEADLINES yesterday. Although the journalist PUT HIS OWN GLOSS ON it, the gist of the story remains clear: a gang of OIKS terrorized BETTER-OFF people during the FESTIVITIES. The story RECEIVED A LOT OF COVERAGE and still remains a subject of fierce debates.

Units 8, 12, 22:

Different people PERCEIVE JOB SATISFACTION as quite a different thing. Some people are LOOKING TO WORK IN A DYNAMIC, FAST-MOVING INDUSTRY, with lots of PERKS and regular salary INCREMENTS. Usually such people are used to buying DESIGNER CLOTHES and being dressed in THE HEIGHT OF FASHION; they are definitely not used to living ON A SHOESTRING.

E.Г. [19,5]


Unit 17

As a child I was once sent to stay with my family’s distant relatives to whom I always FELT AN AVERSION. The town they lived in was very SQUALID and it REVOLTED me. My cousins were OBNOXIOUS and DOWDY, their parents PRETENTIOUS and OFFICIOUS. As a result, my holidays were ruined.

Units 14-15

My friend Christy and I HIT IT OFF immediately the moment we met each other. We really used to be BOSOM PALS for years and GOT ON LIKE A HOUSE ON FIRE. But one day our relationship broke down because of A GENUINE MISUNDERSTANDING. She had invited me to her birthday party but I couldn’t come because my granny had come to visit me. She considered it DISLOYAL and we SPLIT UP.

Units 16, 21

I once asked my new friend what he GOT UP TO at weekends and he answered with an expression of pure RAPTURE on his face that he was A CULTURE VULTURE and used to go to exhibitions, theatres and concerts. He said it was very CALMING and also REWARDING. He was THRILLED TO BITS when I told him I was HOOKED ON opera.

М.С. [26,3]


Units 14, 16:

When Jack met Kristen it was LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT. No one of their friends doubted that they were a really WELL-MATCHED couple. They ONLY HAD EYES FOR each other and turned out to be true SOULMATES. After half a year of dating Jack had to make a business trip to Australia for three months which saddened their BLISS a little but they always remained FAITHFUL and caring. When they finally met again they FELT ON TOP OF THE WORLD and soon their wedding took place which was one of the happiest events in their life and both of them were OVER THE MOON.

О.К. [17]


Units 42, 16:

Carnivals in Brazil ARE CELEBRATED not only in Rio de Janeiro but in towns and villages throughout the country. A FESTIVE mood is everywhere. People usually have several days off during the whole event to get an opportunity to see FLAMBOYANT and SPECTACULAR processions of the representatives of different samba schools and enjoy the FESTIVITIES that go on for days. Many people look forward to the carnival and feel FULL OF THE JOYS OF SPRING when it finally takes place.

О.К. [13,5]


Unit 24:

NETWORKING plays a rather important role in running a business. It is more advantageous to be PRO-ACTIVE in this sphere trying to make the business more profitable through establishing new contacts. This can include EXCHANGING CARDS and DOING LUNCH sometimes which can result in very FRUITFUL negotiations.

Unit 23:

When Tom moved to New York and just got his first job he led A DOG'S LIFE. He scarcely could make both ends meet and spent in the office most of the time. So things were rather dull and there was NOTHING TO WRITE HOME ABOUT. Only after he could move jobs he GOT A NEW LEASE OF LIFE and eventually everything improved greately.

Unit 21:

There are people who not only enjoy amusing, RELAXING and THERAPEUTIC sides of their hobbies but also manage to make them LUCRATIVE and REWARDING. This usually relates to DOERS rather than COUCH POTATOES living a mostly sedentary lifestyle. One needs TO BE really INTO a hobby to transform it into something more.

Unit 20:

Mr. Alessio's grandmother LIVED TO A RIPE OLD AGE and HAD ALL HER WITS ABOUT HER till the end. She had many children and grandchildren who loved her very much and took a good care of her so she had never been in need of SHELTERED ACCOMODATION. She had a very kind and affable personality, and it was a lot of grief for all the relatives when she PASSED AWAY. In her WILL she mentioned that after CREMATION HER ASHES should be SCATTERED at the seashore close to her house which was meaningful for her. She was not rich so she BEQUEATHED few things, but even the smallest of them were kept in the family with care.

О.К. [10,5]


Units 20, 23, 24:

Nowadays many people strive TO LIVE TO A RIPE OLD AGE as they believe that it is a perfect chance to HAVE THE TIME OF YOUR LIFE. It is claimed that very often people in old age GET A NEW LEASE OF LIFE and are willing to SOCIALISE and GET UP TO something new. What they particularly enjoy is having different RECEPTIONS, HOUSEWARMING and LAUNCH PARTIES in their places as it gives them a feeling that they are still young and energetic.

E.Г. [11,5]


Units 16, 21:

She knew that Moly still felt the IMPLACABLE HATRED towards her uncle, so the only thing she could do is to try to DEFUSE THE TENSION by changing the subject. She recalled that Moly was THRILLED TO BITS at the news that she would have a chance to win the most COVETED prize in the championship. In fact, this would be a deserved victory for her as she had BEEN heavily INTO crosscountry skiing since her early childhood.

E.Г. [7,5]


Units 17, 55, 14, 15:

As you probably know, I WAS rather POORLY last week, that is why I spent all my days at the hotel, doing nothing. But yesterday my doctor said that I WAS OVER THE WORST and therefore I decided to go to the nearest restaurant and have dinner. As soon as I entered that restaurant I FELT AN INSTANT AVERSION TO the whole place and the thought of eating here filled me with ABHORRENCE. Obviously, the restaurant was stuffy, PRETENTIOUS, and ridiculously expensive. Finally, I plucked up enough courage to ask one of the BRASHly dressed waitresses to bring me something to eat. Much to my surprise, she turned out to be quite AMIABLE and CONSIDERATE person and I immediately felt that we are true SOULMATES. Since then she has always been my STAUNCHEST ALLY in my dealings with their restaurant and never let me down.

E.Г. [5]


Unit 17

I had a neighbour who LOATHED and SCORNED everyone. All other neighbours had a terrible ANTIPATHY and REVULSION towards him. He had a son who always was OFFICIOUS, GRASPING and POMPOUS but fortunately soon they moved to another city. Unit 55

The patient with TYPHOID was delivered into infectious CLINIC but he also had DIABETES and HEART DISEASE. During one month he was FIGHTING OFF and soon he RECOVERD FROM these diseases. Then suddenly he had HEART ATTACK and he DIED FROM IT.

В.В. [29,8]


Unit 17

As he looked at them walk away, something hard in him REVOLTED and he cried inside himself. His AVERSION had been lasting at least eight months, and possibly more. It will surely be ABHORRENT to him further. In fact, this REPULSION only means lack of attention.

А.Б. [2]




Е.Ш. [25,6]


Group 353: FALL 2013


EVU Advanced:

Sections i - viii.

There are different types of dictionaries: ALPHABETICAL, THESAURUS, MONOLINGUAL OR BILINGUAL. Also there can be DICTIONARIES OF SYMONYMS, OF FALSE FRIENDS where you can find words which are similar-looking with word from other languages. The dictionary gives a lot of information: SPELLING, PRONUNCIATION, MEANING, SENSES, GRAMMAR AND COLLOCATIONS.

Units 1-2

After a busy day John wanted just go to his BEDSIT and watch A SITCOM. Unfortunatly, there was no such programme but only SCI-FI and news about NATO, UFO and increasing of VAT. So he decided to stay OVERNIGHT without a TV.

EVU Upper-Intermediate:

UNITS 36, 39, 40, 45, 46, 47:

After a row with my MATE, I decided to try and MAKE IT UP. I invited her to my VILLA to watch a film but we couldn’t find the REMOTE CONTROL and we started thinking where we could go. There were a lot of variants: to go to listen to the JAZZ music, to see THE PERFORMANCE in the THEARTRE or to the CINEMA and we couldn’t choose the best one and even started TO FALL OUT WITH each other again. Finally, we decided to go to THE BALLET but when we got outside rain became SLEET and then snow, turning to SLUSH in the street. Then BLIZZARDS started and we returned home.

Units 51, 66, 67, 68

I love my cat – it is black with white WHISKERS, CLAWS AND PAW. When I STROKE IT, I can hear it PURRING. But my friend doesn’t like it because she is allergic and when she sees my cat she starts SNEEZING.

Units 75, 76, 79

When I woke up and looked out of the window, I noticed white clouds DRIFTED across the sky. The light of the sun was DAZZLING and the leaves were STIRRING in the light breeze. THAT REMINDED ME that I was late and I started rushing to the train but I was CREEPING and PLODDING at about 10 miles per hour. AS I’VE SAID, finally, I was late for the meeting. THAT’S IT.

Units 82, 86

Alice is TOP OF THE CLASS because she is a TEACHER’S PET but I can agree that she is a real KNOW-ALL that’s why she is a bit of A BIG-HEAD. Surprisingly, her sister is the opposite; she is LAZY-BONES, indeed. What is more she is A PAIN IN THE NECK. Nobody likes her. She is always TALKING BEHIND PEOPLE’S BACKS and it GETS ON EVERYONE’S NERVES.

Units 97-100

In England you can face with some misunderstanding. On the streets of England you can find signs and notices and it sometimes difficult to understand what they mean, for example, “NO BILL-STICKING” means that you mustn’t put up any posters here or “CYCLISTS DISMOUNT HERE” means that cyclists should get off their bikes here. Another point is headlines because it seems to me that they have their own language, compare: AID means help, CLASH – dispute, BID – attempt, AXE – cut and so on. You can find another difficulty speaking with people from other English-speaking countries: America, Australia and India. Americans have GASOLINE for petrol, BAGGAGE for luggage, DRAPES for curtains etc. Australian have BEAUT for beautiful and it means great, BIGGIE for big.

В.В. [30,5]


Group 353: EVU Advanced

Units 1-2:

The directors were inanimous in their decision to fire him because he really OVERSTEPPED the bounds of acceptable behaviour. They agreed that they UNDERESTIMATED his abilities but the fact that he had been involved in some UNDERHAND dealings belittled him greatly in their eyes. It was decreed that he must be EJECTED from his position ASAP, possibly before his return from India.

E.Г. [48,1]


Group 353: EVU Upper-Intermediate

Units 97-100:

Despite all the efforts of their lawyer, a severe PENALTY for TRESPASSING on government propety was imposed on them. Trying to defend his clients, the lawyer claimed that the accused hadn`t seen the SIGN, on which the warning of PROSECUTION was given. As a matter of fact, the sign wasn`t put in the right place because it can only be seen if you are driving along the MOTORWAY, and it obviously can`t be noticed out of the RAILWAY CARRIAGE`S window if you travel by train.

Units 82, 86, 94:

"Of course, everything is all right, the only thing is I`m tired of sitting for so long and I`m LOOKING FORWARD TO going home soon", - that was all she could force herself to say. After a little pause he said: "I`ve never been very good at SMALL TALKS, probably, that is the reason why my classmates and then colleagues always TALKED BEHIND MY BACK. They thought that I`m a bit of AN ODD-BALL because from my point of view being silent is better than TALKING RUBBISH and, as a result, being a real PAIN IN THE NECK for everybody".

E.Г. [46,1]


Units 82, 86, 94

At school he was a REAL KNOW-ALL coming up with ready answers every time the teacher asked them. It’s not surprising then that he became a TEACHER'S PET. That is why he was GETTING ON his classmates’ NERVES. As he entered the college, he became a LAZY-BONES and nobody saw him working. However when it came to exams, he always TALKED SENSE and got good marks. He began LOOKING DOWN HIS NOSE AT everyone and TURNED DOWN a lot of job offers. He ended up as a PAIN IN THE NECK.

М.С. [42,35]


Unit 51

Two years ago we PLANTED an OAK and some apple trees that are beginning to BLOSSOM. We try not to allow anyone to PICK the flowers from trees because they cease blossoming after two weeks. After we pick up all the BRANCHES and TWIGS from these trees, we leave it in one place so that birds can take them for their NESTS.

Unit 76

The chest was SOLID and so BULKY and WEIGHTY that we hardly managed to drag it to the shore. The surface of the chest was SLIPPERY because of the sea-plants. Moreover, we couldn't find out how to open it as it was too DIM.

Units 80, 82, 86

I saw him in the hospital, when his face was AS WHITE AS A SHEET. I immediately rushed to him and started asking interminable questions. I was obviously GETTING ON his NERVES. But in fact he was just a bit SLOW OFF THE MARK after all these events and he SPOKE his MIND and I was listening.

А.Б. [36,25]


Units 51, 66-68:

Throughout the whole time of their trip Michael was absolutely SILENT and this DEAFENING silence really began to get on her nerves. She knew from BITTER experience that all her efforts to cheer him up would be futile now, so she was just sitting next to him, ANXIOUSLY FINGERING the sleeve of her sweater. Once or twice she GLANCED NERVOUSLY at her watch, MURMURING something to herself, but he paid no attention to her and kept PEERING through the wet windscreen at the cars ahead. But when she started SIGHING and COUGHING again and again, he cast a quick GLANCE at her and asked CROSSLY: "Is everything all right with you?". She BLUSHED with embarrassment, BLINKING back unexpected tears. In spite of SHAKING all over, she smiled weakly and looked straight at his SOUR face.

E.Г. [41,1]


Unit 20:

'I AM FAZED about this PHASE of recovery,' said the doctor looking at the patient. The patient had A MOW of pain on his face and tended to MOAN often. He has been staying extremely WEAK for almost a WEEK. In OUR eyes every HOUR was difficult for him as his pains were very strong. We only could PRAY about him not to become A PREY of death.

Units 29, 30, 32, 45:

We spent a lot of MONEY on ACCOMODATION with my brother, so we couldn't afford buying new EQUIPMENT for the CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING contest. We started looking for INFORMATION about any additional temporary WORK. After some RESEARCH we found a good job. Its only disadvantage was that THE COMPANY was situated in THE OUTSKIRTS of the city, but the other aspects were great. The STAFF were friendly and polite, and the salary was fairly good, so in A COUPLE of months we could buy all the necessary equipment.

О.К. [34,7]


Unit 36:

Essen weather forecast on January, 10.
The morning is expected to be rather CHILLY and WINDY with light FROSTS on the roads, so the drivers are advised to be specially careful. In the afternoon the sky is going to be OVERCAST and gloomy. FREEZING weather will continue until the end of the month with few severe BLIZZARDS and huge SNOWDRIFTS as a result.

Unit 40:

Choosing a place to live is not so easy...We had a three-option choice: A DETACHED HOUSE, A SEMI-DETACHED HOUSE and A TERRACED HOUSE. The first one was quite big, apart from anything else that was necessary it had a spacious UTILITY ROOM and a light ATTIC which could be easily CONVERTED into an extra living place. But the house was rather old and needed a lot of repairs. The semi-detached house was smaller but it had A BASEMENT and a nice STUDY that could also be used as a home library. The third option's best advantages were A PANTRY, two SPARE BEDROOMS and a beautifully decorated PORCH. All in all, we bought a medium-size villa to combine all the features we wanted to have.

Unit 49:

In OVER-POPULATED cities poor WASTE DISPOSAL can be a great problem. When in 2008 in Italy the Naples waste management crisis arose, uncollected garbage was staying in the streets and even the main areas of the city were POLLUTED. Much of the litter was just burnt. Burning garbage rather than recycling it damages THE OZONE LAYER and increases THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT.

О.К. [18,5]


Unit 39:

Clair has always had false first impressions of the people she met. When she just started working at Johnson's her COLLEAGUE Jane seemed to her a friendly, kind-hearted person who was also very sociable and helpful. Clair LOOKED UP TO her and ADMIRED her best features thinking what a great person she was. But the more she knew Jane, the more she realised that the WORKMATE'S amicable behaviour very often was just a mask and that, in fact, she COULDN'T STAND and HATED many people in the office.

О.К. [7]


Units 66-68:

Passing along, Helen GLIMPSED into the kitchen and NOTICED Simon COUGHING. It was smoky there and the air was very EVIL-SMELLING. With A SIGH she FROWNED and started helping Simon to eliminate the problem GRUMBLING CROSSLY about what a horrible cook he was.

О.К. [4]


UNIT 32:

Allan was so frightened of a HERD of cows, that he ran to the forest and stumbled on a SWARM of gnats. Trying to avoid them, Allan passed through a RANGE of hills and reached the village. He recognised a ROW of cottages near a CLUMP of trees and broke into one of them.

А.Б. [28,75]


UNITS 36,39,40,46,47:

Nowadays in almost every public place, such as shops, restaurants, airports etc, MUZAK is constantly played. This music usually consists of HIT SINGLES and is meant to have a SOOTHING and RELAXING effect on the customers. However, it can be inferred that the reverse is true as the majority of people say that they just CAN`T STAND it.

E.Г. [33,1]


During the day it was CLOSE and even STIFLING but that couldn’t prevent my FLATMATE and me from being in high spirits as we’d just MADE IT UP after a row (usually we GET ON VERY WELL with each other). We decided to go to the PERFOMANCE by the Opera Society as we’d seen it GOT RAVE REVIEWS. The music was ROUSING and SWEET and we enjoyed the concert very much. On the way back I was HUMMING the tune and my friend was WHISTLING it when a sudden DOWNPOUR sent us running for shelter. After we’d come home and dried our clothes out he PICKED the tune OUT on the piano which stood in our BEDSIT (he has a GOOD EAR). It was a fine day.

М.С. [39,35]


Unit 28:

Dear Editor,

I am writing WITH REFERENCE TO the report in your newspaper of the previous week about closing our local hospital.
I want to express my strong protest for THE FOLLOWING reasons. FIRSTLY, the nearest other hospital is 50 kilometres away, THAT IS TO SAY, some sick people will not be able to get there. SECONDLY, if you close the hospital, people who work there will lose their jobs. WHAT IS MORE the hospital makes an important contribution to the local economy. THIRDLY, this hospital is a special one in the region where cancer is treated, so people with such disaster will not have proper cure.
FINALLY, the hospital is being closed for political reasons, not genuine economic ones. It is obvious that people’s health is much more important than some politics questions.
TO SUM UP, people need this hospital to stay open. I hope you will soon take measures to improve the situation.
Yours sincerely,
V.V.

1. Nowadays there are a lot of problems in large cities, for example, traffic jams, caused by the large number of cars. As a result, commuters get much stressed, streets are cluttered with cars and the traffic is very slow. To avoid this problem, our government should take measures, such as improving public transport (e.g. bus services) or building more roads or by-passes.
2. Mary is a very beautiful girl because she is curly-haired, blue-eyed and rosy-cheeked. She is perfect not in her appearance but in her character too, she is warm-hearted, quick-witted and easy-going. In addition, her style of clothing is very elegant and she wears only hand-made things.
3. Although the outlook for today was good, the rain did not stop till evening. As a result, the road in the centre of the town was flooded and we had to go on the by-pass. The drawbacks of that situation were huge because we got into the traffic jam and were late for the party.
4. If you want to go travelling, first of all, you should prepare your luggage. Next, think about accommodation and book the room in the hotel. Turning to the question of money, make sure you have the currency that is used in the country you are going.

В.В. [20,6]


Dear Editor,

With reference to the report in your newspaper regarding the intention to close Great North Hospital, I would like to make an objection to the closure, for the following reasons that I am briefly enumerating in my letter. Firstly, it must be said that the Hospital is the nearest one, because the other hospital is 50 kilometres away. Secondly, leaving aside economic matters, it is being closed due to a political agenda. Thirdly, as far as 200 people work at the Hospital, they will definitely lose their jobs and there will be a lot of unemployed specialists, that is to say, without the Hospital the local economy will lack an important contribution. Finally, it is worth saying that Great North Hospital is the only one in this region that has a special cancer unit.
To sum up, after the closure of the Hospital there will be economic problems and the people of this region will suffer.

Your faithfully,

A.B.

We have sorted out the problem with finding outlets for our merchandise, but we are still solving the problem of employing cashiers for the check-outs. Some of our clerks are whining about hot-desking, but it is the only one drawback in the office. The output has increased since the last month, therefore it is time we started e-commerce.

А.Б. [14]


Dear editor,

WITH REFERENCE TO the report in your newspaper about your intention to close the local hospital, I would like to express my strong opposition to it. FIRSTLY, I would like to point out that the nearest other hospital is 50 kilometres away, LEAVING ASIDE the fact that our local hospital is the only hospital in the whole region that has a special cancer unit. SECONDLY, it is also important to stress that 200 people currently work at the hospital and it is obvious that due to the closure of the hospital they will lose their jobs and will have to find other jobs to earn their living. FINALLY, TURNING TO the economy of the region, it should be said that at the present time the hospital makes an important contribution to the local economy, THAT IS TO SAY, it is clear that the economic reasons were not the major cause of its closure but most probably the political ones led to it, that is undoubtedly quite wrong.
TO SUM UP, it must be said that the closure of the hospital has already provoked a lot of fair criticism and it is clear that it will have disastrous consequences for people and for the region itself.

Yours sincerely,

Mary Smith

Do you know that you can earn extra money by renting out your premises? All you should do before it is to do some research on possible drawbacks of such step. But leaving aside certain disadvantages, I am sure you will be able to live on the proceeds of your renting.

E.Г. [12,5]


Units 12-13:

I saw my blue-eyed sister crossing the street with that broad-shouldered young man. They ignored pedestrian crossing and went towards roadworks. Not long afterwards, they turned left to the run-down area of our town.

А.Б. [5,5]


The government has made great strides in reducing consequences of radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. Despite their great efforts, the set-up in Chernobyl still cannot be called satisfactory. Even nowadays scientists are far from providing positive feedback on living conditions in it.

E.Г. [6]


As a result of sharp government cutbacks in funding for schools, there was a walk-out at one of the Moscow schools. The outcome of the set-up was easily predictable. There followed a shake-up in personnel and government's crack-down on teachers' demonstrations.
The takeover of a company brings about a rapid staff turnover. As the new company is going to use outsourcing, there will be down-sizing. So, the outlook for the present staff is not at all optimistic.
М.С. [9,5]


I phoned my boss and asked him to postpone a meeting because of some misunderstandings between my collegues about where it is going to be held. He put off this meeting and thus demonstrated his generosity. It impressed me so that I immediately stopped disliking him.

А.Б. [3]


Units 9-11:

It is very unpleasant to catch a cold. First you’ve got a sore throat, then running nose and finally you get a terrible cough. On top of that you have temperature, feel dizzy all the time and lose your appetite. You have to go and see the doctor, take medicines and have total bed rest for several days.
М.С. [4]


He felt that he must do something in order to tackle this long-standing problem. But the thing about business is that you never know whether your seemingly fool-proof plan will be supported or not. So he will have to make an all-out effort to impress the board of directors by his presentation and, hopefully, in the end the problem will be coped with.

E.Г. [4,5]


Units 50, 53:

We can easily use such services as car park, petrol station and bus service in our town. We can also enjoy sightseeing without any problems of traffic jams and pollution because there are not so many cars here. Moreover, owing to the small amount of car emissions, inhabitants do not fee ldepressed and they are less allergic to some things.

А.Б. [3]



The historic part of Sevastopol overlooks the harbour. It is the most picturesque and atmospheric part of the whole city and every tourist would defenitely appreciate its charm. However it should be said that at certain times of the day the embankment tends to be overcrowded because of the great number of tourists and heavy traffic.

E.Г. [3]




Е.Ш. [12]












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