texts by students
CAPITALS: active vocabulary words and collocations students have used
- Underline: elements that have been corrected by the tutor
Underline and Delete: superfluous erroneous elements that have been corrected by the tutor
- Italics: where appropriate, elements which explain the corrected mistakes
- [numbers in brackets]: grades students have accumulated by the time of this post (include grades for word tests)
- [numbers in brackets in bold type]: total number of grades students have accumulated throughout the semester (continuous assessment)
Group 453: Spring 2015
1. Khomiakov, a LAY THEOLOGIAN, argued that all western Christians share the same ASSUMPTIONS.
2. According to Khomiakov's point of view, the true Orthodox tradition in its basic PRESUPPOSITIONS is unique.
3. Khomiakov was the first theologian who looked upon LATINISM and Protestantism from the point of view of the Church.
4. "Hundred days" is known as a period between Napoleon Bonaparte's arrival in Paris from Elba and his ABDICATION in 1815.
6.Each of us is ABSORBED IN WORDLY CONCERNS, as a result there is a great danger to forget about the spiritual life.
7. It is forbbiden for women to ASCEND to MOUNT ATHOS.
8.During the period of ICONOCLASM SAINT JOHN OF DAMASCUS, the protector of Orthodoxy, defended the VENERATION of icons.
9. Many people still believe in THE UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY of THE ROMAN PONTIFF. They are definitely deluded!
10. Among Christians there is a tradition to eat THE UNLEAVENED BREAD on an empty stomach, before the Liturgy.
11. In the sacrament of MARRIAGE a man and a woman become one flesh.
12. JOHN THE BAPTIST is also known by the name of JOHN THE FORERUNNER.
13. Memorial service is served over THE DECEASED.
14. In August 1917, when THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT was in power, an All-Russian Church Council was SUMMONED in Moscow.
15. SLAVOPHILES were especially opposed to the influences of Western Europe in Russia.
16. Peter the Great issued a SPIRITUAL REGULATION that served as bylaws for all religious activities in Russia.
17. THE SYNODICAL PERIOD lasted from 1700 to 1917 in Russia.
18. The 19th century saw a revival of MISSIONARY WORK with the Orthodox sharing the Scriptures and Liturgy in different languages.
19. St. JOHN OF KRONSTADT, a great figure from THE MARRIED CLERGY, was a proponent of FREQUENT COMMUNION.
20. No one opinion in this world can be INFALLIBLE.
21. There should be no CONCESSIONS TO HUMAN WEAKNESS in some radical religions like Islam, for example.
22. One of the most terrible sins is THE SIN AGAINST THE HOLY SPIRIT.
23. Peter the Great didn't want the Church to be able to interfere with SECULAR affairs and he dismantled the Patriarch position and set up a SPIRITUAL COLLEGE or HOLY SYNOD made up of twelve members.
24. Another name for a HERMIT is "ANCHORITE", a person who lives and prays in SECLUSION.
25. Believers dream and hope to have good RELATIONS BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE and even pray for the state.
26. THE TRISAGION, a standard hymn of THE DIVINE LITURGY, is also poplar in THE LATIN CHURCH.
27. The Sacrament of CONFESSION is vitally important for all Christians, because through confession we ARE CLEANSED OF OUR SINS and can RECEIVE COMMUNION.
The SPIRITUAL COLLEGE or HOLY SYNOD was the SYSTEM OF CHURCH GOVERNMENT between 1721 and 1918, when the Patriarchate was restored.
CHIEF PROCURATOR was the official title of the head of the Holy Synod.
Some people think that during the period of the Holy Synod THE CHURCH was IN COMPLETE SUBSERVIENCE TO THE STATE.
PHILOKALIA is a collection of texts written between the 4th and 15th centuries by spiritual masters of the Eastern Orthodox hesychast tradition.
The fact that a lot of elders had DISCIPLES led to the spreading of the MONASTIC REVIVAL in 19th century.
THE NON-POSSESSORS were monks who were in opposition to ecclesiastical land-ownership.
A lot of saints after living in THE COMMUNITY withdrew from it to live in SECLUSION and then they developed THE PRACTICE OF SPIRITUAL DIRECTION.
We have to be SEVERE to ourselves and GENTLE to others.
ASCETICISM is the practice of self-denial, for example, to control of one's passions, for the sake of the Kingdom.
Orthodox Christians must come to the COMMUNION with REVERENT AWE.
The Church EXCOMMUNICATED Lev Tolstoy and he had no time to repent before the death.
Saint BISHOP THEOPHAN THE RECLUSE wrote on the topics of Christian life and the training of youth in the faith.
A PARISH PRIEST should not only help the poor and the sick, organize CHARITABLE WORK but also give SPIRITUAL DIRECTION and pray for his flock.
Nowadays a lot of priests insist on FREQUENT COMMUNION, it means that they expect their flock to COMMUNICATE very often, for example, every Sunday.
In 1981 New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia were PROCLAIMED SAINTS by THE RUSSIAN CHURCH IN EXILE.
After THE ABDICATION of Emperor Nicholas II the country was ruled by THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT.
After 1917 Russia became AN ATHEIST STATE where the aim was to EXTIRPATE ALL RELIGIOUS BELIEF.
In our Church there is a big PARISH LIBRARY where everyone can find SERVICE BOOKS, ECCLESIASTICAL PUBLICATIONS, books of the holy fathers who GIVE RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTIONS to their spiritual children.
After the publication of the DECREE ON THE SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE, the Church lost its rights to HOLD PROPERTY.
The Soviet period was the time of GODLESSNESS and MILITANT ATHEISM when THE WORSHIPPERS suffered IMPOVERISHMENT.
While praying, saints experience REVERENT AWE.
The Orthodox idea of DEIFICATION implicates the union with God.
In the idea of SANCTIFICATION the body which is TRANSFIGURED BY THE GRACE OF GOD is included.
THE HERMITAGE OF OPTINO flourished after the repose of St Seraphim and many startsi MINISTERED there.
Tolstoy was EXCOMMUNICATED by the Holy Synod because he publicly abused the Orthodox Church.
Thanks to startsi, there was a MONASTIC REVIVAL and the spiritual atmosphere among people.
Every PARISH PRIEST should be the spiritual leader and shepherd to his parish.
Many Saints possessed the gift of INSIGHT and SPIRITUAL DIRECTION and even could heal people.
An Orthodox Christian should remember about the FREQUENT COMMUNION as it is the true path to salvation.
Even nowadays Orthodox preachers do not stop preaching among the HEATHEN.
AN AGGRESSIVE AND MILITANT ATHEISM was the basic idea of communism.
The Soviet Union practiced AGGRESSIVE AND MILITANT ATHEISM, and one of their methods was to adopt A POLICY OF CULTURAL STRANGULATION.
Christians, Muslims and Israelites are all WORSHIPPERS OF ONE GOD.
The final goal of AN ATHEIST STATE is to EXTIRPATE ALL RELIGIOUS BELIEF.
SERVICE BOOKS are essential for the priest and the choir and therefore must be among other ECCLESIASTICAL PUBLICATIONS at a PARISH LIBRARY.
CATECHISM CLASSES ARE supposed to be HELD at every parish church.
Among the 'INDIRECT' METHODS OF PERSECUTION were the prohibition to Church to HOLD PROPERTY and to POSSESS other LEGAL RIGHTS.
When a huge number of churches was DESECRATED, CONGREGATIONS had no other choice but to gather at private homes.
1) Sermons should be preached with great ASSIDUITY, as, thanks to it, they become much more convincing.
2) Every church should HOLD CATECHISM CLASSES at least from time to time, so that people who want to be baptized could attend them.
3) Our PARISH LIBRARY contains not only SERVICE BOOKS, but also the works of the Church Fathers and Lives of the saints.
4) In the 20th century many priests and LAITY SUFFERED IMPOVERISHMENT due to the 'INDIRECT' METHODS OF PERSECUTION employed by the government.
5) It might seem unthinkable but very often in the Church history an amazing QUICKENING OF THE SPIRITUAL LIFE could be observed during the hard times, such as during the time of severe persecution.
6) People who have suffered greatly for the sake of God are considered worthy to witness astonishing miracles and ABUNDANT OUTPOURINGS OF GRACE.
7) During the Soviet times a huge number of churches was DESECRATED, as churches were turned into storehouses and cinemas.
8) GIVING any RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION was strictly forbidden during the Soviet period, and for doing so you could be sent to prison or into exile.
1) THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT of 1917 turned out to be unable to make decisive political decisions and compete for authority and eventually collapsed.
2) The ABDICATION of king James II and his flight to France during the period of Glorious Revolution in England was seen as breaking the contract between king and people.
3) Lots of people in the Soviet Union were unwilling to accept the principles of AN AGGRESSIVE AND MILITANT ATHEISM, which was imposed on them by the government.
4) THE MILITANT ATHEISTS totally rejected the existence of any deities and were hostile to religion; therefore, their aim was to EXTIRPATE ALL RELIGIOUS BELIEF in Russia.
5) They believed that the best way to do it was to subject Christian Church to systematic oppression and to employ the so-called POLICY OF CULTURAL STRANGULATION.
6) An active propaganda of GODLESSNESS was an integral part of party propaganda in the Soviet Union.
The SPIRITUAL REGULATION was drawn up in 1720 an it was like a new constitution for Orthodoxy.
When it started functioning, the Patriarchate was cancelled and replaced by THE SPIRITUAL COLLEGE or HOLY SYNOD.
The Emperor of that time had a government official, THE CHIEF PROCURATOR.
THE CROWN RIGHTS OF THE REDEEMER don't take place any more, as the Church becomes a department of State.
Empress Elizabeth suppressed a lot of HOUSES or imposed a strict limitation on the number of monks.
Peter the Great established THE SYSTEM OF CHURCH GOVERNMENT which had been in place until 1917.
PIETISM was a German movement that began among German Lutherans in the 17th century.
FREEMASONRY also occured and became popular at that time but for the Orthodox it was strictly forbidden to become a Freemason.
If you want to get a well-paid job, you should maintain suitable STANDARDS OF SCHOLARSHIP.
Collegues should make a CORPORATE effort to cope with difficult tasks.
Early Normandy in 10th century saw the first MONASTIC REVIVAL and the revival of literature.
The NON-POSSESSORS were those who had liberal political views and are considered as a movement within the Orthodox Church.
It is extremely difficult to live in SECLUSION as compared with life in THE COMMUNITY and very few people can afford it.
Although ASCETICISM of Saint Seraphim of Sarov made him SEVERE to himself and he spent A THOUSAND SUCCESSIVE NIGHTS IN CONTINUAL PRAYER,
however his life was illuminated by joy.
Nowadays people find it difficult to be GENTLE and INDULGENT to one another.
The Byzantine Hesychasts could achieve THE VISION OF THE DIVINE AND UNCREATED LIGHT and so did St Seraphim of Sarov.
1) In January 2015 Elder Paisios of Mount Athos WAS PROCLAIMED A SAINT by the Holy Synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
2) Those who did not worship the one true God were regarded by the Early Christians as outsiders to the Church and were called THE HEATHEN.
3) SLAVOPHILS were members of a 19th-century movement, which strongly opposed Western European influences in Russia, first and foremost they spoke against Western rationalism and individualism.
4) During the period of Soviet regime THE HERMITAGE OF OPTINO was turned into a concentration camp, later, when the Second World War broke out, the Hermitage was made a hospital.
The leaders of the NON-POSESSORS in a 16th-century Russia were Nil of Sora and later Maximus the Greek.
A PARISH PRIEST in Russia usually combines MINISTERING with SPIRITUAL DIRECTION as well as indulging himself in CHARITABLE WORK.
Many elders or startsi were known to have the gift of INSIGHT.
Some Moscow universities are doing MISSIONARY STUDIES and though it cannot be called a REVIVAL OF MISSIONARY WORK, their students go to remote places to preach to THE HEATHEN.
While millions around the world will celebrate St. Patrick's Day on March 17th, the sad fact is that Patrick has never been PROCLAIMED A SAINT by the Catholic Church.
The Russian PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT was formed immediately after the ABDICATION of Tsar Nicholas the Second.
The MONASTIC REVIVAL resulted in a great revival of both vernacular and Latin literature.
1. Many ELDERS WITHDREW from
the society and lived in SECLUSION for many years.
2. There was an announcement about the oncoming excursion to THE HERMITAGE OF OPTINO.
3. In 1901 in February Leo Tolstoy was EXCOMMUNICATED from the Orthodox Church.
4. The PHILOKALIA is a collection of writings, mostly centering on practicing the virtues and spiritual living in a monastery.
5. During the Synodical period, which lasted until 1917, THE CHURCH was IN COMPLETE SUBSERVIENCE TO THE STATE.
6. NON-POSSESSORS belonged to a 16th-century movement in the Russian Orthodox Church in opposition to ecclesiastical land-ownership.
7. A Christian shouldn’t be INDULGENT to his weaknesses. It’s better to be SEVERE to oneself and GENTLE to the others, but without excessive permissiveness.
8. CHARITABLE WORK is not only the prerogative of rich people. Anyone’s little donation is valuable for those who receive the help.
1) PIETISM placed more emphasis on individual piety and moral perfection of oneself than on compliance with the rules and orders of the Church.
2) Nil Sorsky was the leader of a 16th-century movement in Russia, the members of which called NON-POSSESSORS strongly opposed ecclesiastical landownership.
3) In Russia PHILOKALIA became known partly thanks to the book "The Way of a Pilgrim", which recounts a story about a pilgrim who was seeking advice on the Jesus Prayer and who carried the Philokalia over the period of his journey.
4) Many saints made a decision to abandon the world and withdraw to solitary places, where they spent their lives in SECLUSION in CONTINUAL PRAYER, thus devoting themselves to God.
1) In the 19th century noblemen and other laity didn't COMMUNICATE regularly, but only few times a year, that is why FREQUENT COMMUNION was not realized in full.
2) -Have you ever gone to PUBLIC CONFESSION?
- No, I have not, of course! Are you joking? It would be definitely embarrassing to shout sins! I would never do this!
- Never say never again!
3) Seraphim of Sarov WAS PROCLAIMED A SAINT by the Russian Orthodox Church in the summer of 1903.
Group 453: Fall 2014
BURNING AT THE STAKE was a capital punishment used in England in the Middle Ages.
FOOLS IN CHRIST were "foolish" for the sake of Christ. Such was St. Basil the Blessed.
The problem of heretics in the 16th century involved the problem of RELATIONS BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE.
Many Orthodox hermits are DETACHED FROM THE WORLD and it can be achieved only because they ARE VOWED TO COMPLETE POVERTY.
But most of the laity become TANGLED UP IN SECULAR ANXIETIES and ABSORBED IN WORLDLY CONCERNS, therefore, they behave IN A WORLDLY WAY.
The Possessors stressed the importance of THE SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS OF MONASTICISM.
Not only the Orthodox but many people of different confessions do good things like ALMSGIVING or CARING FOR THE SICK AND POOR, SHOWING HOSPITALITY.
1). IN MOSLEM EYES, the Christian religion was not false, that is why Christians were not treated as if on a level with PAGANS.
2). Greeks called Sultan Mohammed II ”The PRECURSOR of ANTICHRIST” and SENNACHERIB.
3). Perhaps, it is the highest glory for a Christian to UNDERGO PERSECUTION for the sake of God.
4). Some time ago Turkey was considered to be a CHAMPION OF POLITICAL ISLAM among MUSLIM COUNTRIES.
5). The conflict between POSSESSORS and NON-POSSESSORS erupted in Russian history at the beginning of the sixteenth century.
6). Possessors supported the idea of Moscow as THE THIRD ROME and believed in a CLOSE ALLIANCE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE.
7). Joseph emphasized the great place of CORPORATE WORSHIP for believers.
8). Saint Maximus the Greek was put into a prison for the corrections that he made in the Russian SERVICE BOOKS.
9). Soon after Ivan the Terrible’s death, Russia weakened and plunged into a period of unrest, known as THE TIME OF TROUBLES.
10). It is a common thing among Orthodox people TO KEEP THE FASTS. In fact, over the centuries, Christians have fasted for many reasons.
11). Some non-Orthodox Christians are often amazed by the AUSTERITY OF THE FASTS of DEVOUT Russians.
12). ANCHORITES have been known since the earliest time of Christianity.
13). Many people who came to Russia in the seventeenth century, for example Archdeacon Paul of Aleppo, were greatly impressed by the religious life of Orthodox believers. There were no CONSSESIONS to HUMAN WEKNESS to be made, there was no exception from all the rigorous observances; even children were not excluded from them.
14). The OLD BELIEVERS saw THE TWO-FINGER SIGN OF THE CROSS, the old texts and customs as embodying the ancient tradition of the Church and that’s why they fought for them.
15). An assembly of THE CLERGY and part of THE LAITY of a diocese is called convocation.
Despite ALLUREMENTS AND PLEASURES OF THIS WORLD Christians must KEEP THEIR FAITH with PERSEVERANCE.
Christians who are in Iran live among the INFIDEL.
In the 20th century Russian Orthodox Christians who OBSERVED THEIR FAITH UNDERWENT PERSECUTION and SUFFERED VIOLENT DEATHS.
According to Catholic Church doctrine, only those who die in peace with God but have not in life reached a sufficient level of holiness can be in PURGATORY.
A LOCAL COUNCIL of the Russian Orthodox Church is an assembly of bishops and other clergy and laity for discussion and resolution of issues and affairs relating to doctrine, religious and moral life, and discipline.
During the procession CLERGY goes with candles and BANNERS.
THE PHILOKALIA is a collection of texts written between the 4th and 15th centuries by spiritual masters of the Eastern Orthodox hesychast tradition.
There is a continuing SPIRITUAL REVIVAL which produces
a SPIRITUAL REAWAKENING of Russia after the breakdown of the Soviet Union.
Saint John of Kronstadt insisted on FREQUENT COMMUNION because in his day most Orthodox COMMUNICATED only
a few times a year.
Russian Orthodox Church is THE SUCCESSOR OF BYZANTIUM because God’s will was that Saint Vladimir received tradition from Constantinople.
Constantinople LAPSED INTO HERESY when they signed the union in Florence.
Nowadays some monasteries have their SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS, for example, they CARE FOR SICK AND POOR people and SHOW HOSPITALITY.
For lay people it’s sometimes difficult to think about prayer and spiritual life because they are too much TANGLED UP IN SECULAR ANXIETIES.
Saint Sergius had some SPIRITUAL DESCENDANTS who like him WERE DETACHED FROM THE WORLD and devoted their lives to serving God.
People, who want to earn a lot of money and have high status in society, become ABSORBED IN WORLDLY CONCERNS so that they can’t concentrate on spiritual things.
ALMSGIVING must be done right from the heart.
Before 1917 there was A CLOSE ALLIANCE BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE in Russia.
Russia has very tragic history, for example, in the seventeenth century there were THE TIMES OF TROUBLES, when the land was divided and enemies from the outside came and wanted to conquer it.
Russian people were DEVOUT; they KEPT FASTS and didn’t make any CONCESSIONS TO HUMAN WEAKNESS but insisted on RIGOROUS OBSERVANCES.
1. Joan of Arc was BURNED AT THE STAKE on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age.
2. ENGLISH DISSENTERS were Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
3. THE OLD BELIEVERS put an exaggerated emphasis on THE EXTERNALS OF WORSHIP.
4. FOOLS IN CHRIST were very much respected in THE MOSCOW TSARDOM.
The TIME OF TROUBLES was the period of Russion history in the seventeenth century marked by confusion and disaster but
the DEVOUT Russians observed strict standards of morality.
But there was a group of married PARISH CLERGY that assumed the leadership and raised moral standards such as insisting that THE FASTS BE OBSERVED.
ANCHORITES amaze us by the THE AUSTERITY OF THE FASTS they observe but there are many CONCESSIONS TO HUMAN WEAKNESS in the religious life of the laity.
In the 17th century, children and women WITH CHILD were not excluded from RIGOROUS OBSERVANCES that were typical of those times.
1) There was such a church in Poland called the UNIATE Church whose members were known as CATHOLICS OF THE EASTERN RITE or else THE UNIATES.
2) FREQUENT COMMUNION is the crucial part of the Orthodox people’s life.
3) INFIDELS in their youth, many people convert to Christianity and KEEP THEIR FAITH in their mature years.
4) Military CHAPLAINS provide spiritual and emotional support for service personnel.
5) People are constantly tempted by the ALLUREMENTS AND PLEASURES OF THIS WORLD but PERSEVERANCE protects from TEMPTATIONS.
6) Even nowadays many people consider some country’s leaders PRECURSORS OF ANTICHRIST.
7) After the marriage of Ivan III and the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor THE DOUBLE-HEADED EAGLE became a State emblem in Russia.
9) The dispute of St Nilus of Sora and St Joseph, Abbot of Volokolamsk led to the formation of the two parties – THE POSSESSORS and THE NON-POSSESSORS.
10) Unfortunately, nowadays
the ALMSGIVING is regarded as a burden by many people.
1) THE TIME OF TROUBLES was one of the hardest periods in the history of Russia.
2) Women when WHITH CHILD always have some indulgences while KEEPING THE FASTS.
3) Throughout the history of Christianity THE SIGN OF THE CROSS underwent changes but the implication of it has always remained immutable.
4) THE FASTS of DEVOUT ANCHORITES are usually very AUSTERE.
THE SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS OF MONASTICISM which THE POSSESSORS emphasized were CARING FOR THE SICK AND POOR, SHOWING HOSPITALITY and teaching people.
ALMSGIVING plays an important role in a person’s spiritual life.
Nowadays people are too much TANGLED UP IN
A SECULAR ANXIETIES and ABSORBED IN WORDLY CONCERNS which damages their spiritual lives.
Some countries still lack highly qualified translators to translate Orthodox SERVICE BOOKS into their languages.
Sometimes people see GOD’S PROVIDENTIAL DISPENSATION in what happens to them.
During the years of the Soviet rule thousands of people UNDERWENT relentless PERSECUTIONS for WITNESSING TO THEIR FAITH.
The notion of PURGATORY is associated particularly with the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church.
During the religious processions icons and BANNERS are held by the participants.
One of the consequences of Mongol OVERLORDSHIP was the considerable decline in the cultural development of the country.
EVANGELISTS are people who do missionary work preaching the Gospel.
Many people visiting the monastery wanted to SECURE THE ELDER’S BLESSING.
When the CHAPLAIN broke his leg he didn’t agree to stay at the hospital but remained in the army.
Nowadays many MUSLEMS convert to Christianity.
There were several persons in history whom people called “THE PRECURSORS OF ANTICHRIST”.
After the taking of Constantinople in 1453 by Muslem Turks Russia became THE SUCCESSOR OF BYZANTIUM in the matters of faith.
The state emblem of Russia – THE DOUBLE-HEADED EAGLE – has Byzantine origin.
Under the rule of THE INFIDEL when THE CRESCENT was exalted everywhere the stable PERCEVERANCE helped ignorant and poor men to KEEP THEIR FAITH.
ALLUREMENTS AND PLEASURES OF THIS WORLD always tempt a man to go astray from his path towards SALVATION. But whatever happens he must always try his best to stay firm and avoid TRANSGRESSIONS.
The JANISSARIES were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops and bodyguards.
GREAT RUSSIA and LITTLE RUSSIA have always been historically and culturally interconnected.
People used to COMMUNICATE only a few times a year until the teaching about FREQUENT COMMUNION of SAINT NICODEMUS OF THE HOLY MOUNTAIN was confirmed by a Council at Constantinople in 1819.
The Orthodox do not WORSHIP icons, but VENERATE them because the icons are a way of joining us to the goodness and holiness of God and His Saints.
We should never forget about THE SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY and treat other people with kindness and understanding trying to always help them.
Many saints WITHDREW INTO THE FORESTS or other PLACES OF RETREAT looking for solitude and displaying DELIBERATE SELF-HUMILIATION.
2) My friend had a natural tendency to LAPSE INTO HERESY and was often considered as ERRING.
3) She was informed that her request for a divorce was almost the same as an ABDICATION.
4) Christians that UNDERWENT PERSECUTIONS truly SUFFERED VIOLENT DEATHS by hanging, drowning or poisoning.
5) A priest should be the leader of the religious and moral life of his FLOCK.
6) Most adverse to the reputation of the Church was the sin of SIMONY, the buying of something of spiritual value for money.
7) The JESUITS and the FRANCISCANS are both Roman Catholic religious orders who UNDERTOOK MISSIONARY WORK among Orthodox in the 16th century.
8) THE SOCIETY OF JESUS is a Christian male religious congregation of the Catholic Church.
9) CHIEF HIERARCH is a hierarch who has high and controlling authority in sacred things, goes about his lands and orders the affairs of Church.
10) The Eastern Orthodox Church never accepted the Roman Catholic doctrine of the SUPREMACY OF THE POPE.
11) As a result of THE UNION OF BREST many Orthodox bishops placed themselves under the Pope of Rome.
13) SAINT NICODEMUS OF THE HOLY MOUNTAIN is a monk of Athos and a Saint of the Greek Orthodox Church.
14) In the 18th century THE NON-JURORS made an attempt to establish a form of FREQUENT COMMUNION and separated from the main body of the Church of England.
Group 353 (Spring 2014)
1. Cyril and Methodius INITIATED MISSIONARY WORK among the Slavs.
2. All the SERVICE BOOKS in Russian Orthodox Church are written in Church Slavonic, which is used as THE LITURGICAL LANGUAGE.
3. We come to realise salvation and SANCTIFICATION as gift from God.
4. People who live in the darkness of GROSS MATERIALISM cannot fully appreciate the holiness and perfection of God who dwells in light UNAPPROACHABLE.
5. DELIBERATE and MALICIOUS theomachy is blameable!
6. Every MAN WAS CREATED IN THE IMAGE OF GOD and a GUARDIAN ANGEL was given to every man after baptism.
7. St Boris and Gleb are known as PASSION BEARERS who died righteously but not as a result of Christian witness in the face of persecution for the faith.
8. Orthodox Christians do not accept the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation and the existence of PURGATORY.
1) The Latin and the Slavonic language hold the chief place among THE LITURGICAL LANGUAGES used throughout the world in the liturgy of the Christian Church.
2) The the bitterest and the most enduring controversies in the early Church were DOCTRINAL CONTROVERSIES - about the nature of the Trinity and about the Person of Jesus Christ.
3) The main difference between martyrs and PASSION BEARERS is that PASSION BEARERS are not explicitly killed for their faith, but they are canonized because they endure innocent and voluntary sufferings emulating the Passion of Christ.
4) Before taking Communion we must pray to God in order to be accounted worthy of PARTAKING THE HOLY AND LIFE-CREATING MYSTERIES and be allowed to partake of the Body and Blood of Christ without condemnation.
1) Patriarch Photius INITIATED great MISSIONARY WORK among the Slavs to the north and the northwest from the frontiers of the Empire and selected Constantine and Methodius to carry out this work.
2) Before the translation work of Cyril and Methodius the Slavs didn't have Slavonic Bible and SERVICE BOOKS and couldn't HOLD SERVICES in their language.
3) Saint Petersburg MOSQUE which was opened in 1913 is the largest mosque in Europe outside Turkey.
4) Historically A MITER symbolised emperial power in the East.
5) THE FLORENTINE UNION was signed by all the Greek bishops who were present at the Council except for Mark of Ephesus.
6) It can be hard for a person to think and make decisions DISPASSIONATELY when their rights are violated.
7) A LAY THEOLOGIAN is a theologian who has not received formal theological training and/or has not been ordained.
8) GOD ENTERS INTO A DIRECT AND IMMEDIATE RELATIONSHIP WITH MANKIND through the divine energies which take the form of Light that is not SENSIBLE.
9) SAINT GREGORY PALAMAS wrote many works of theological, polemical and ASCETIC character.
10) In THE EGYPTIAN DESERT, several kilometers away from the shore of the Red Sea, there is the Monastery of Saint Anthony the Great which was founded in the 4th century in the place where the saint had been living the last forty four years of his life.
1) Roman Catholic belief in PURGATORY is based on the Jewish practice of praying for THE DEPARTED, thus assuring that the dead are assisted between death and their final dwelling.
2) One of the most significant reasons for the Greeks to attend THE FLORENTINE UNION was the fact that by the fifteenth century the Turks had already been in control of most of the territory of the Byzantine Empire - that is why reunion seemed to be a necessity.
3) Every Christian should believe that THE GRACIOUS GOD through His love toward man will ABSOLVE all our TRANSGRESSIONS, whether voluntary or involuntary.
4) When PARTAKING OF COMMUNION we should pray to God so that the communion of the holy Mysteries would be unto HALLOWING of our soul and body, and THE ACQUISITION of the life and kingdom to come.
1) Many Christian people ask themselves a question, What does it exactly mean that the whole MAN WAS CREATED IN THE IMAGE OF GOD?
2) MOUNT THABOR located not far to the east of Nazareth is where the Transfiguration took place.
3) In DEIFICATION man reaches the highest aim, for the sake of which he was created.
4) Theological misunderstendings in Church history were also caused by MISTRANSLATION which at times was DELIBERATE and MALICIOUS.
After committing WANTON and systematic SACRILEGE in Constantinople, the Crusaders felt no repentance.
God is both KNOWABLE and UNKNOWABLE at once.
A specific scheme for GUARDIAN Angels in the Christian theology was outlined in the 12th century and it stated that every soul was assigned a GUARDIAN Angel the moment it was put into a body.
MOUNT THABOR can be clearly distinguished from other mountains of PALESTINE for its picturesque site, the remarkable vegetation and the splendour of the view from its top.
In the time of persecution to gain admission into the Church CATECHUMENS should have been guarded against the arguments of the pagan philosophers and also given strength against the torments of the persecutors.
PLATONISM is the view, that is obviously related to Plato in some way, according to which there exist abstract, entirely non-physical, and non-mental objects, that are furthermore unchanging and inert in their nature.
THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE takes place on the Holy Saturday.
Systematic SACRILEGE was committed under Soviet rule in Russia.
In the fourteenth century Russia saw a great RELIGIOUS REVIVAL.
People who commit suicide are denied CHRISTIAN BURIAL.
The Orthodox emphasis on APOPHATIC THEOLOGY is a reminder that human knowing is limited in the discussion of ultimate things.
According to the Bible, the APOSTASY of the Israelities led to destruction of the northern Kingdom Israel, as well as to the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem.
THE CEREMONY OF THE HOLY FIRE is believed to be one of the greatest Christian miracles for no other miracle is known to occur so regularly and for such an extensive period of time.
Leo Tolstoy was DECLARED EXCOMMUNICATE because he himself didn't accept Orthodoxy.
The Local COUNCIL SUMMONED in 1917-1918 was momentous as it restored the Patriarchate of the Russian Church.
Prominent among ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes between East and West were the Pope's CLAIM TO UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION, the "filioque", whether leavened or UNLEAVENED bread should be used in the Eucharist, and the place of Constantinople in relation to the Pentarchy.
In 431, Cyril, the patriarch of Alexandria, appealed to Pope Celestine I, as well as to other patriarchs, CHARGING Nestorius WITH HERESY, which was dealt with at the Council of Ephesus.
It is a well-known fact that during the Middle Ages many innocent people were CHARGED WITH HERESY and executed for it.
When you are exasperated with someone, it is quite difficult to show enough respect and DEFERENCE for them.
Jews commemorate the Exodus from Egypt by eating "AZYMES" or UNLEAVENED BREAD as it is instructed by Moses in the Torah.
The hymn TRISAGION, in which God is described as holy in three different qualities, was one of the exclamations of the fathers at the Council of Chalcedon in 451.
1. The severest penalty for the faithful is the EXCOMMUNICATION.
2. There are some differences in Eastern and Western Churches' WORSHIP AND DISCIPLINE.
3. There is a discrepancy in the rules of fasting between Eastern and Western Churches as well as in the use of LEAVENED AND UNLEAVENED BREAD in the Eucharist.
4. Our Creator DEIGNED to dwell among people and suffered for our sins.
5. Every year the PILGRIMAGE is made by many Orthodox people to MOUNT ATHOS and to PALESTINE.
8. When heretical opinions prospered among the faithful, COUNCILS were SUMMONED to takle these problems.
1. LEGATES from the other countries should be treated with great DEFERENCE.
2. Illegitimate emperors are not considered real successors to the throne and are called USURPERS.
3. INFALLIBILITY of the Pope is a dogma of the Catholic church that can be easily misunderstood by those who are outside the Church.
4. The Orthodox do not accept the FILIOQUE and consider it to be THEOLOGICALLY UNTRUE.
5. When a priest is removed in part or in full from his ministerial activities, this means he is SUSPENDED.
6. DEPOSING FROM ALL PRIESTLY DIGNITY is a much more severe punishment for a priest than suspension.
Group 353 (Fall 2013)
1. Some people go on a PILGRIMAGE to THE ASCETIC HOUSES to meet with elders who are guided by THE DIRECT INSPIRATION OF THE SPIRIT.
2. THE GREAT LENT begins with THE ORDER OF THE FORSIVENESS and people make PROSTRATIONS AND BOWS until HOLY PASCHA.
3. THE FULLNESS OF THE ORTHODOX TRADITION is a PRECIOUS HERITAGE which is left to LATTER-DAY CHRISTIANS.
4. Many SCHOLARS emphasize different reasons for THE ESTRANGEMENT OF EASTERN AND WESTERN CHRISTENDOM, but of primary importance were MATTERS OF DOCTRINE (THE PAPAL CLAIMS and the FILIOQUE).
5. During THE DIVINE LITURGY OF ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM the deacon says THE GREAT LITANY for THE GOOD ESTATE OF THE HOLY CHURCHES OF GOD and THE HONOURABLE PRIESTHOOD.
6. In THE DARK AGES there was a SHARP DIVISION BETWEEN CLERGY AND LAITY, it means that THE LAITY didn’t understand many theological issues.
7. In prayers Christians ask GRACIOUS God to heal their INFIRMITIES.
8. Some people think that MISTRANSLATION in the correspondence between Eastern and Western Christendom was DELIBERATE AND MALICIOUS.
9. In the Western Church THE ROMAN PONTIFF has THE UNIVERSAL SUPREMACY and INFALLIBILITY.
10. NICETAS, Archbishop of Nicomedia, wrote that if the pope had ruled all Churches, it would have been a slavery of these Churches to the Roman one.
11. The Western and Eastern Churches separated because the filioque is THEOLOGICALLY UNTRUE, but there were also some differences in CHURCH WORSHIP AND DISCIPLINE, for example, PRIESTLY CELIBACY and married clergy, using UNLEAVENED OR LEAVENED BREAD, differences in fasting.
12. Members of the Latin Church shouldn’t BE GIVEN COMMUNION in the Orthodox Church.
13. We should pay DEFERENCE to our parents.
14. If a priest kills someone, he is DEPOSED FROM ALL PRIESTLY DIGNITY.
INFALLIBILITY attributed to THE ROMAN PONTIFF in the Catholic Church is explained by the fact that he is the successor to apostle Peter.
Catholic Church states that PRIESTLY CELIBACY is not just a legal norm, that is obviously a human affair, but the likeness of Jesus Christ.
CRUCIFIXION is an ancient method of punishment that provided a slow, painful, humiliating death, and it was particularly used from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD.
As we know from the Book of Chronicles, in the time of Solomon there were about 153 000 PROSELYTES, that literally can be understood as "strangers" or "newcomers" to the land of Israel.
Every day we should prostrate ourself before God and pray unto Him, so that He, LONGSUFFERING and PLENTEOUS IN MERCY, would cleanse us from all our INIQUITIES and heal our INFIRMITIES.
It is absolutely impossible to be a MINISTER of God if you don`t have COMPASSION for the poor, sick, oppressed and other people in need, as the Lord is GRACIOUS and MERCIFUL, so all His ministers should strive to be righteous and pious.
The revolutionary experience of 1905 pushed Russia under a Semi-constitution, where the emperor ceased to be seen as AN AUTOCRAT.
The term ‘DARK AGES’ emphasizes the cultural and economic deterioration that supposedly occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
CHARLEMAGNE, king of the Franks, was crowned Holy Roman emperor at Rome in 800. He assembled a lot of SCHOLARS at his court in order to promote education in his empire.
I consider the Scriptures to be our ultimate authority in MATTERS OF DOCTRINE and life.
The West upheld the FILIOQUE clause; the East did not.
Although it might sound strange, but one of the most difficult tasks for us as Christians is to COMMIT OURSELVES unto God, for this commitment should be full and lifelong. We should have no doubt that the Lord will deliver us from all our TRIBULATIONS and needs as He loves us in spite of our obvious sinfulness.
1. We must preserve our PRECIOUS HERITAGE and pass it from one generation to another.
2. Apostle Peter admonishes Christians to show BROTHERLY LOVE in PIETY.
Parents of the Venerable and GOD-BEARING FATHER Anthony the Great were very pious Christians so that father Anthony started attending church services from early childhood, where he could listen to the Holy Scripture, which, undoubtedly, was very SPIRITUALLY PROFITABLE for him.
One of the main tasks of Orthodox people is to deliver our PRECIOUS HERITAGE to our children, not just explaining something to them, but giving our own example of GOOD WORKS.
During the Liturgy the deacon CENSES THE ALTAR and the rest of the church, says litanies, reads the Gospels and the Epistles but does not usually PREACH SERMONS. He cannot CELEBRATE THE EUCHAREST and perfom the other sacraments on his own but he RECEIVES COMMUNION “AS PRIESTS DO”.
1. With some Orthodox people there is a tradition when they enter into somebody’s house they say: “PEACE BE TO THIS HOUSE”.
2. When we buy a new house it is necessary for us to ask a priest to bless the house.
3. After their WITHDRAWAL FROM SOCIETY monks LEAD THE SOLITARY LIFE and pray in their CELLS for all the people in the world.
4. In every RELIGIOUS HOUSE the brethren live UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF AN ELDER who has SPIRITUAL DISCERNMENT from God.
The great PIONEER of the COMMUNITY LIFE of monks was Saint Pachomius who was of Egyptian origin.
As we can infer from the Book of Exodus, THE PRIESTHOOD had been marked as a special class in the Israelitic community after the Sinaitical legislation and in this priesthood priests, high-priests and Levites were clearly distinguished.
Byzantine emperors beginning with the first Christian emperor Constantine the Great were regarded as VICEGERENTS OF GOD in THE CHRISTIAN POLITY OF BYZANTIUM.
1) Monks decide TO WITHDRAW FROM SOCIETY and live a life full of AUSTERITIES.
2) Macarius of Egypt, A HERMIT, led THE ERIMITIC LIFE with his disciples in the Scetic Desert.
3) In Russia PILGRIMAGES to the Holy Land started from the early years of Christianisation.
4) BY THE DIRECT INSPIRATION OF THE SPIRIT THE ELDER can see God's will in relation to a person.
1. When a priest SPRINKLES in a house, he scatters holy water on the walls and doors in rooms, and in such a way he BLESSES the house.
2. We usually line up to kiss the Cross after the liturgy, and then CUP OUR RIGHT HANDS OVER THE LEFT to RECEIVE THE PRIEST'S BLESSING.
In St Bede`s "Ecclesiastical History of the English People" PILGRIMAGES are regarded as a part of normal life as they were allowed for by laws civil and ecclesiastical, and pilgrims were everywhere granted free access both in times of peace and war.
The monastery of Great Lavra was founded in 963 on Mount ATHOS by St Athanasius and it is still the largest and the most prominent of the 20 monasteries that are situated on the peninsula.
St Anthony of Kiev was made a monk on Athos but due to the spiritual discernment of the Father-Superior
was sent back to Russia. Not having found monastic houses with so strict a rule as it were on Mount Athos,
he settled in a cave where he led the solitary life of prayer and fasting. The life of austerity
he led attracted many people who turned to him for advice and some of them joined him and became his successors.
But St Anthony preferred the withdrawal and solitude to the community life and soon left the community and dug another cave.
1. FUNERAL SERVICE etiquette differs among various communities, religions and customs. For example, the service may be held at a church, a temple, a residence or somewhere else appropriate to COMMEMORATE the life of THE DECEASED.
2. A car will be needed to transport THE COFFIN to the cemetery and at least four people to carry it.
3. In winter we will be entering the season of LENT.
4. Aaron was the first HIGH PRIEST of the Israelites.
5. The Church has always exempted the sick, small children, the very old, and pregnant and nursing mothers from strict FASTING.
6. The week before the GREAT FAST is called «Cheesefare Week».
7. There are also four FAST-FREE weeks in the Orthodox tradition: NATIVITY to the EVE of THEOPHANY, the week following the Sunday of the Publican and the Pharisee, the week after PASCHA and the week after PENTECOST.
8. Russian Orthodox often keep branches of PUSSY WILLOW with them for abour a year and until the next PALM SUNDAY.
1) A stole is a part of a priest's or a bishop's vestments, which is a long wide ribbon sewn together so that it is put on over the head and hangs down the front. It is worn above the alb and the cassock.
2) An omophorion is put on above a sakkos and symbolises the lost sheep that is found and carried on the Good Shepherd's shoulders.
3) The expression 'a rock of offence', which means an obstacle on the way to achieving one's aim, first occurs in the Epistle to the Romans. There this rock is seen as a symbolic rock established on Zion, against which all the atheists [?] and the ones who were breaking the laws stumbled.
4) The followers of the Monothelite heresy claimed that Christ has only one will since He is a single person.
5) The Iconoclasts considered holy icons to be idols and saw the reverence of them as a latent idolatry.
6) The Empress Irene suspended the persecution against the Iconodules and in 787 summoned the seventh Ecumenical Council which proclaimed that icons should be honored and kept in churches.
7) At the memorial service prayers for the deceased are said, so that their sins would be forgiven and they would inherit blessed life everlasting.
8) Eight great feasts in honor of Jesus Christ, and four great feasts honoring the Theotokos comprise The Twelve Great Feasts.
1. Iconoclasts did not want to venerate icons because they thought that it was a latent idolatry.
2. Saints Helen and Constantine found the precious and life-giving Cross.
3. A memorial service (Panikhida or Mnemosynon) is held once a week in our Church.
4. The Triumph of Orthodoxy is a special feast which is commemorated on the first Sunday in Lent.
5. Every day is a saints’ day which is celebrated by the Orthodox Church and every Sunday is a small feast of the Resurrection.
6. Pentecost is a very important feast when we celebrate the revelation of the Trinitarian God.
1. Charitable work is often done by big organizations and it's a good
way to spend time doing something generous today, in our
2. Since members of the party were intemperate in their
statements, the meeting provoked an acrimonious controversy.
1. At the present time many people all over the world are involved in
charitable work collaborating with different charity organizations.
2. Orthodox Christians celebrate the twelve great feasts
commemorating the major events in the lives of the Lord and His Holy
1. As children make obeisance to their parents, all the
Orthodox venerate icons that depict either Saints or Our Lord,
or the Mother of God.
2. It is customary for adults to forget about their childhood and
they sometimes do not understand their own children.
1. Most frequently a memorial service is held after the
Divine Liturgy, however, it may also be celebrated as a
separate service by itself.
2. In most Asian cultures white clothes symbolize death, that is why
white robes are traditionally worn by the relatives of the
deceased during a funeral service.
1. The faithful in Russia deeply reverence the festival
of the Protection of the Virgin.
2. The procesion is lead by the clergy and the faithful
with the latern, gonfalons and icons in shrines.
1. They found an old man prostrating himself before icons and
decided that he was an idolater.
2. Anathemas are pronounced on all who fall into
heresy, e.g., on those who reject the Holy Icons.
1. The church reforms held in Russia in the 17th century were
the terrible rock of offence.
2. Fortunately, the old believers have recently been brought back
into communion with the rest of the Orthodox.
3. Saint Nicholas the Miracle-Worker was born in Asia
4. Interestingly, in an Orthodox temple you can burn a candle in
memory of the deceased only on the single memorial
table whereas there are a lot of candle desks where you can lit a
candle and pray for the living.
1. Tipically the iconostasis has three openings: the Holy
doors that are in the centre of it and the North and the South
doors to each end.
2. When she came into the church and saw a large icon of the Mother
of God in the narthex, her first impulse was to
prostrate herself before it.
1) A priest's duty is to look after his parish and celebrate the
Liturgy and other sacraments.
2) Unlike the priest, the bishop is ordained by at least two
3) Mohammedan expansion started in the 7th century and
greately increased in its speed in quite a short period of time.
1. The main theme of the day known in Orthodox Church as "the
Triumph of Orthodoxy" is the victory of the True Faith over the
2. Holy patriarch Tikhon of Moscow acted as the protector
of Orthodoxy since he openly protested against brutal attacks by
the Bolsheviks on the Church during the early years of the Soviet
1. The Pentarchy consists of five great sees which claimed
2. When you are becoming increasingly despondent and you
are assailed by temptations, just remember Our Lord Who
had vanquished the tempter in the wilderness.
1. The colour of priest’s vestments depends on what
day it is, for example, if it is a great feast like Christmas, priest has
white stole and chasuble.
2. In Orthodox Church only the bishop have special vestments like
sakkos, omophorion, and panagia.
1. The Monothelite heresy was condemned by a number of
Western synods as one that diminished the fullness of
2. The rise of Islam began in the seventh century and
ultimately made it the second-largest religion in the world.
253 Spring 2013
1. The Divine Liturgy is the most significant service in
Orthodoxy where the Communion takes place.
2. Proskomidia is served on the table of oblation, and
Communion is given from the chalice with
3. While the Cherubic hymn is sung, noone
is allowed to leave the church, make noises and go about.
4. The Communion is also called the Holy Eucharist which
commemorates the Last Supper.
5. During Chrismation the priest uses the special oil
called the chrism which is used to anoint different
parts of body.
6. Another significant sacrament is Confession during which
penitents repent of their sins.
1. The Sacraments play the main role in a Christian's life
because it is the central point of the parish life as well
as of the common prayer.
2. The Altar is the holy place where women are not allowed to
3. The icon screens are very different in each church
but the common thing is that they divide the nave
from the sanctuary.
4. You can find icons on the icon screen, hanging on the church walls
and on the walls of Christians' homes.
5. It is not necessarily one place in religious homes where icons are
put, they can be found even in a car, often in the shape of
6. Before you kiss an icon you should make the sign of the
cross which means blessing yourself.
7. You can also bow and touch the ground which reminds that
humans are made from dust.
8. When people enter a church they can smell a sweet
fragrance which is released while incense is burning
in a censer.
9. Monophysite Churches are considered to be
heretical by the Orthodox Churches because
monophysites believe God has only one nature.
10. Christian missionaries have suffered persecution
since the first century and have been martyred for
11. The first Ecumenical Council known in the history of
Orthodoxy took place in Nicaea in 325.
12. There were also some councils before this one, but they were
local councils which were not of universal significance.
1) There is a parallel between Christ The Good Shepherd and
the bishop who looks after his flock.
2) Ordination to the Priesthood is a
sacrament in which through archpastoral ordination the
Holy Spirit descends on the chosen one and enables
him to perform the sacraments.
3) Cuffs are a part of vestments of the deacon.
4) The primary purpose of Anointing with oil is
reconciliation with God.
1. The Apostle Paul preached his sermons with a burning
2. Humanity and divinity are the two natures
of Christ which are combined in one hypostasis.
3. Monophysitism still exists in Armenia, Syria, Coptic Egypt
4. More than a million people in Paris protested against the law
allowing same-sex marriages.
5. The belief that the anointing with oil is performed only over
the person who is going to die is erroneous.
6. The betrothal or engagement long before the
marriage is a more usual practice in the West rather than in Russia.
1. The doctrine of Papal authority claims that the papacy has
complete authority delegated from Jesus Christ to rule over the entire
2.James who in the Gospels is called "the brother of the Lord" was the
first bishop of Jerusalem according to the tradition of the
1. The stole or epitrachilion goes around the neck
and shoulders and was originally made of wool, symbolizing the sheep
– the members of the flock of Christ.
2. Deacons also wear a stole called orarion.
3. Betrothal was arranged and
marriage soon followed.
4. For ten years, beginning in 2003, I was a
parishioner at St.Peter and Paul’s Cathedral.
6. In my opinion, true confession can only
coexist with true repentance.
8. Putting on their cuffs, the clergy read lines
from the psalms reminding them that their hands belong to
9. The Nativity of Theotokos is celebrated on the 8th of
10. Chrism is usually made of olive oil and special balsam,
kept on the altar and is used to anoint different parts
of the body.
11. According to the Nicene Creed, the Son of
God is consubstantial with the Father.
12. John Calvin, the French theologian, was the leader
of the Protestant reformation.
14. Canon in the Roman Catholic Church is the
prayer in the Mass in which the Host is consecrated.
15. The Translation of the relics of St. John
Chrysostom is celebrated on the 9th of February.
16. The episcopal staff has a cross on the top,
above the double crook, which is sometimes in the shape of snakes’
heads, symbolizing the snakes lifted up
by Moses in the wilderness.
17. The actions of Dioscorus of Alexandria during the
continuation of the Christological controversies resulted in his
deposition at the Fourth Ecumenical Council in
Chalcedon in 451 which led to a later schism in
the Church of Alexandria.
18. The inquisition of The Roman Catholic Church was founded
to discover and suppress heresy.
19. The letters from Apostles to Christians in the New
Testament are called epistles.
20. The Virgin Mary is also called Panagia, which
means the "All-Holy," because of her closeness to God in her
22. The state of innate sinfulness for all mankind was
caused by Adam's sin of disobedience.
23. There was a great decrease in persecutions of all
Christians after Constantine’s conversion.
24. St. Valentine’s Day is the day on which "valentines" are
exchanged.Originally this tradition connected with the pagan
festival of Lupercalia.
25. Prophets spoke by divine inspiration and
through them God expressed His will.
26. His melodiously delivered sermons were distinctly
1) A Christian must partake in the mysteries in which the
material world is transfigured by the Holy Spirit.
2) "The Last Supper", a mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci,
represents the scene of the Last Supper of Jesus with
his disciples in the Upper Room before he was arrested.
3) The breaking of the Lamb is the essential part of the
Eucharist as it follows from the very narration of the Gospels
about the Last Supper.
4) After her son was baptised Elena wanted to keep his
baptismal robe, but later on it was lost.
5) Apart from theological disputes the Council of
Nicea dealt also with the visible organization of the
6) Saint John Chrysostom, a fluent and eloquent
preacher, was one of the three Hierarchs who played a
great role in shaping Christian theology.
7) The Tome of Saint Leo the Great, Pope of Rome,
proclaims the belief that Christ is truly God and truly
8) Russian iconographer Gregory Zhuravlev who had neither
arms nor legs could paint extremely beautiful icons.
9) In our life we should not complain about anything but
should take up our cross and follow Christ with
gratitude for everything we have.
10) Ordination to the various degrees of the priesthood is one
of the seven sacraments.
11) During the first centuries when Christianity was
persecuted Christian congregations gathered in
12) The chalice was made out of gold with splendid jemstones
1) Confession is a sacrament in which the
penitent, having repented of his or her sins in the face of
the priest, receives through him saying prayers of
release from their sins from Christ Himself.
2) When the priest entered the church the parishioners came
up to him to ask for a blessing.
3) The Orthodox wedding ceremony consists of two parts: the
Betrothal and the Crowning (or the
4) Originally in Apostolic times the word 'bishop' as it is used
in the Epistles of Paul denoted a senior preceptor of a
1.When a penitent sinner comes to
repentance, God and angels are happy.
2. After the prayers of absolution the man is released from
3. The Cappadocian Fathers and Saint Athanasius of
Alexandria expounded the full meaning of the
4. The sermons of Saint John Chrysostom are very
popular even today and some priests use these sermons when they
1. There were five major centers or Apostolic sees in the
primitive Christian Church.
2. It is well-known that the doctrine of the Incarnation has
been a subject of controversy at various times in the history of the
Church, and each heresy in turn affirmed that their views on it
are the only just views.
3. The divinity of Christ is established by the Old and New
Testament, as well as by the tradition of the Church.
1.The central message of the Christian faith is the
salvation of man: destroying the wall of sinfulness which
separates man from God.
2. Christ the Saviour is fully man and fully God,
otherwise He couldn’t have saved humanity from the bondage of
sin and death.
1. Immediately after baptism all Orthodox Christians
receive the sacrament of chrismation that is so called because
of the holy oil, or chrism, with which everyone is anointed
during the sacrament.
2. Monophysitism is one of the most significant of
early heresies as the Monophysites denied all reality of the human
nature of Christ, in other words, they didn`t regard Christ as fully
1.The shape of the Liturgy reminds us of the life of
Christ, for example, the little entrance is a symbol of Christ’s
coming out for preaching and the great entrance
symbolizes Christ’s way to crucifixion.
2. Constantine did a lot for the establishment of an
imperial Church, for example, he summoned the first General
Council of the Christian Church in Nicaea.
3. During baptism the priest immerses a child into the
font with holy water.
4. When my sister prepared to became a godmother, she had
to buy all things that were needed for the future newly baptized
child: the baptismal robe and the
1. I was baptized as a baby by immersion into the
2. During the little entrance a priest comes out through the
north doors and goes into the altar through the holy
3. Prosphoras are given out to parishioners after they
have kissed a priest’s hand cross at the end of the
4. A person can attain salvation through the so-called
“deification” which means achieving union with
5. During the great entrance a priest transfers the
communion gifts of bread and wine from the table of
oblation to the holy table
through the holy doors while the cherubic hymn is sung.
6. The Antiphons are sung before the little entrance and
usually consist of the 102nd and 145th psalms.
1. The decisive contribution to the Trinitarian doctrine was
made by the group of theologians known in the Orthodox
church as the Cappadocian Fathers.
2. Soteriology is the study of various religious doctrines of
salvation and how different religious traditions believe it is
1) Redemption is vitally important for the salvation of
man and his achieving union with God.
2) Through the Incarnation, Christ, becoming fully
human as well as being fully divine, made it possible
for humanity to be delivered from the bondage of sin and
death and attain full salvation.
3) In the early Church the Little Entrance was the beginning of
the Liturgy, and it was the first entrance of the clergy
into the sanctuary.
4) In 325 the first General or Ecumenical Council of the Christian
Church was summoned at Nicaea to elaborate the content of the
Orthodox faith which Constantine wished to be the basis of his
5) In 634 Saint Aidan was consecrated bishop and
sent to Northumbria to undertake missionary work.
6) Trinity Sunday, also called the Sunday of
Pentecost in Eastern Christianity, is dedicated to
the descent of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles on the fifth day
after the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.
7) Having burnt Rome and accused Christians of it, Nero
initiated violent persecution against them which resulted in
martyrdom for the faith.
8) Having embraced the Christian faith, Constantine first
issued the "Edict" of Milan proclaiming the official
toleration of the Christian faith.
1. Renaissance humanism preached respect for the
greatness of the human being as an individual.
2. This hymn is full of symbolism.
3. The Empress was crowned and after that the
Emperor and the Empress entered the
cathedral to take Holy Communion.
4. The Holy Monastery of the Mount Sinai or St.Catherine’s
Monastery is located at the place where God appeared to Moses in
the Burning Bush.
1. Redemption means "to deliver by paying a price" and is
accomplished through Christ`s giving His life as a price of ransom.
2. The full significance and purpose of human existence is realised
through the Incarnation as in the Incarnation the human
nature was united with the Divinity itself.
1. In the book of Exodus we read about the
consecration of priests - Aaron and his sons who had been
previously elected; the act of consecration here consists of purifying,
investing and anointing them.
2. During the epiclesis the priest invokes the Holy Spirit upon
the Eucharistic bread and wine and they are changed into
the precious Body and Blood of Christ.
1.The communicants receive the precious Body and
Blood under the guise of bread and wine in the
same way as Christ’s disciples received them
at the Supper of the Lord in the Upper Room.
2.When the priest gives Communion to the members of
the congregation, they abide in God and He
1. The Divine Grace is bestowed on those who
partake in the mysteries.
2. The aim of confession is to achieve
3. Grand Duchess Elisaveta Feodorovna who led the ascetic
life in the cloister she had founded
underwent martyrdom of blood by
being thrown into a shaft in 1918.
After the death of her husband she decided to abandon
everything she had for God's sake and to found in
Moscow a cloister of labour,mercy and prayer.
1. For the healing of the body and soul
the flock must partake in such
mysteries as Confession and
2. In remembrance of the Supper of the Lord
the priest takes the Lamb from the first loaf
for the Body of Christ and then puts
particles into the wine.
1. The Tale of Bygone Years tells us about the missionary
activities of St. Andrew in early Rus, but many historians
doubt this fact.
2. There are two aspects in the Mystery: visible and invisible,
that is visible religious rite and invisible aspect - the
action of the divine grace.
3. Monasticism is a matrimony of a Christian soul and
1. In the history of the Church there has never been any
unanimity in the understanding of the nature of the
Supper of the Lord.
2. The content of the Law of Moses is spread among the
books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers
and then reiterated in Deuteronomy.
1. The Orthodox Martyr
Tryphon suffered persecution because he
preached Christ when it was forbidden and, as a result, he
had to be killed by order of
the Emperor Decius and underwent his
martyrdom with great fortitude.
2. St. Xenia of Saint Petersburg , a greatly
venerated Orthodox saint, abandoned everything for God's
sake after her husband's death and lead inner,
spiritual life and now her relics are venerated by many
3. Partaking in the mysteries is crucial for all Orthodox
people who want to devote their lives to God and to follow
4. Commemoration is very important for the
immortal souls of the dead, that is why we should pray for
our departed relatives and all
1. When the deacon censes in the Church during the
service, it shows our prayers and offering to God.
2. The Orthodox Catholic Church has been the only
one true Church of Christ on earth from the
3. In the middle of the solea there is the
ambo and it is used by deacons who recite litanies from
4. At the Great Entrance priests come out of the
sanctuary to the solea with such special things as
the Chalice, the discos
with the star and sometimes with the spear and
the spoon and the cross.
1. The sanctuary is the raised eastern part of the
temple where the Holy Table is situated and
which is divided from the rest of the church
by the iconostasis.
2. The antimins is an obligatory item of the Holy Table without
which it is impossible to celebrate the Liturgy.
1. Although Rus was baptized by Grand Prince St.Vladimir in
988, many elements of heathenism exist even
nowadays. For example, burning of the effigy of Winter during
2. When you hear the word "chapel",I suppose,
Sistine chapel occurs to you, but even a small room
in a hospital or prison may be a chapel in which people
can pray and worship God.
1. The table of oblation usually stands in the left
part of the altar and above it various icons
may be found.
2. The first documented persecutions of the Christians in the
Roman Empire begin with Nero, the last Roman Emperor in the
1. The true Eucharist is a holy Mystery where
bread and wine become the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. It is also
2. Early Christians were persecuted and martyred for their
faith, and eventually Christianity became a State religion of the Roman
3. There are three forms of Vespers in Orthodoxy, and
Vespers is the first service of the liturgical day.
4. At Vespers the priest or the deacon makes the
Entrance with the censer and the pleasant fragrance
is coming through the church.
5. A Litany is not only a prayer but also it is a petition, which is
used in the Eastern Orthodoxy and in Catholicism as
6. The table of oblation is used for preparing bread and wine
for the Divine Liturgy, but this process is not seen by the
7. We venerate relics of Orthdox Saints and God sometimes
performs miracles through those holy relics.
8. Our religion is hierarchical and sacramental and we
believe in the immortality of the soul.
1. Apostolic succession is claimed by the Roman Catholic
Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian and the
2. If the country has the officially established State
Church, it doesn`t necessarily mean that there is no freedom of
religion in it.
1. The Book of Psalms is one of the books of
the Old Testament which contains thanksgiving to God and is
used in all liturgical services of the Orthodox
2. Incense is used not only in the Orthodox Church
but it has been used in India and China since ancient times
because it is known that its fragrance calms
people down and then they are in a mood for prayer and meditation.
1. Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, the Apostles of the
Slavs, not only undertook missionary work among the
Slavs but also they created Slavonic alphabet and
and now the day of their honour is celebrated as the day of Slavonic
2. People who bear the title Patriarch rule over
self-governing or autocephalous Churches.
1. Citizens complained about the disturbance caused by the
work on the roads.
2. Marianna is regarded as silent and calm girl but she is
talkative with friends, indeed.
1. Some people think that in order not to
perish they just need to be good persons but it's not possible
without good thoughts and deeds.
2. Saint Nicholas, Archbishop of Japan undertook
missionary work in Japan and his efforts led to the
conversion of many people into Orthodox faith.
1. Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius are the creators of the
Slavonic alphabet; they were canonized and are venerated
both in the Eastern and in the Western
2. I strongly believe that not all people can undertake missionary
work because in order to do it successfully you should have a
strong sense of vocation for it.
1. There is much larger nominal than active
membership among Christians in Russia.
2. There are 15 autocephalous or independent and 6
autonomous Orthodox Churches in the world but at the same
time the Orthodox Church is a single and indivisible
3. Doctrines were formulated in order to reveal the
truth about important aspects of faith.
4. We Orthodox believe that we all are the members of the one true
Catholic Church as we are united by communion in the
1) Restoration of icons is a complicated and laborious process
demanding from the restorer a good knowledge of
iconography, study of art, techniques and practical
2) A triptych is an icon having three parts that fold together
with a saint's image depicted on each of the parts or
on the central one only.
3) When kissing icons of Christ, of the Mother of
God and of saints one should not kiss their faces.
4) Biblical interpretation of eternity had been formed by the
Church in the context of cosmology mainly within the framework of
criticism of Origenism.
1. Reverence is the fear of God, the inner modesty, spiritual
sensitivity; especially when we are in the Church we must be
2. Russian iconographer Andrej Rublev is the most famous
and revered master of the Moscow school of icon painting and
monumental painting of the 15th century.
1. First theological colleges in north-east Russia began
to appear at the beginning of the 18th century.
2. The miracle-working Vladimirskaya icon of the Mother of
God has been venerated for generations and now people
from all over the world continue to pray in front of it with great
reverence and hope.
1. One of the most famous and venerated
Orthodox icons is the icon of Theotokos of Kazan,
where Theotokos is depicted with Jesus Christ. A lot of people
treat it with
2. Tryptich icons are very convenient because of their
small size and many people take these icons with them as a
medium of invisible protection.
3. Christian Fathers advised to make the
sign of the cross in order to protect yourself, therefore
Orthodox people and saints have been following this
4. When somebody is ordained priest he has
pastoral charge of the parish and people. This is a great
1) Nowadays, people go to Church only
to light candles and kiss icons but not to take part in
2) When there is no service the holy doors are closed
except the Easter week.
1. There are seven sacraments in the Orthodox Church in
which Divine Grace is bestowed upon the people:
Communion, Priesthood, Marriage and
Anointing of the sick.
2. Pascha is the great feast of the resurrection of
Christ, which has been celebrated since the time of
3. In 1880 archimandrite Nikolay was consecrated
bishop of Tokyo after his 20-year mission, and the
diocese of Tokyo was founded.
4. By that time there were more than four thousand
Christians in Japan, service books had been
translated into Japanese and services were being held in
1) According to several world creeds Jesus Christ is not God
but only a prophet.
2) Unfortunately, there is a
great number of confusing and lying books in shops
nowadays, for example, "How can you learn to talk to your
angel", and many people really believe in such tempting
1) Saint Cuthbert was consecrated bishop in 684 after being a
for twenty nine years.
2) The woman at the candle desk told me that it is not right
to go out of the church when the holy doors are open.
The main Sacraments of the Orthodox Church, that have
the form of prayers, hymns, rites, blessings, and
making the sign of the cross,
are the following: Communion, Baptism, Chrismation, Confession,
Marriage, Anointing with oil, and Ordination to the
They are all performed by the priesthood and these are
the main means for the congregation of any church
that help them to reach salvation.
1. His Holiness Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia
Kirill congratulated all Christians with Easter - one of the most
important feasts of Russian Orthodox Church and read the
quotation from the First Epistle of Saint Paul to
the Corinthians which tells us about the
Resurrection of Jesus.
2. Marriage is a very important event in Russian
Orthodox tradition and needs some necessary preparations : the
bride and groom have to be both baptized
and need to go to confession in advance, their parents give
them icons in order to bless them, but it’s forbidden to
1. Orthodox congregation is a group of people united by
common prayer and the sacraments.
2. The focal point of the church is the altar – the holy place
where only the members of the clergy and sacristans can be.
1. His Holiness Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia
celebrated Liturgy on Theophany.
2. There were a lot of children receiving Communion
on the feast The Meeting of the Lord.
1. The Annunciation marked the beginning of salvation of the
human kind, in the person of the Blessed Virgin Mary Christians found
the merciful Patroness and Intercessor for them before the
Son of God.
2. The Church of Alexandria, founded by the
Holy Apostle and Evangelist Mark, is the third important
Patriarchate after the Church of
Constantinople and the Roman Catholic Church.